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Last/Ats-W: How to Prepare for the Liberal Arts and Sciences Test Assessment of Teaching Skills-Written, with an how to an essay about Lancing College Introduction to writing t (Barron#039;s NYSTCE) Book by Postman, Robert D. not at all like the real LAST and full of egregious errors. A Customer on Nov 03, 1999. I read every section of this book pertaining to the LAST exam and took all the practice quizzes and tests. Not only about College did I find the book frustrating (because of numerous errors in the practices quizzes/tests and some truly absurd statements in writing Hebron Academy the review material) but once I took the actual exam I felt like I had wasted a whole lot of time using the book. The actual test is far more intense than any of the sample questions in Postman's book would lead you to believe. I daresay the LAST is a test that you really can't study for -- you just have to have payed attention throughout all of your schooling and had better have a really good command of the English language in all its subtleties. The LAST is, more than anything else, a test of your ability to an essay about poetry College read carefully and why is thinking Deakin University draw insightful, logical conclusions about a huge array of topics. All those high school math topics that I agonized over while studying this book didn't help me one iota when I took the test. The brief test preparation guide that I ordered directly from the an essay, NYS Education Department was what really prepared me for the type of questions I would see on the LAST. (As for the kind of errors I found. see for instance page 244: a piano is a percussion instrument! like a symbol is! I sincerely hope that, for the sake of their own credibility, Barron's will send this book back through the editorial process before publishing any further editions.) Pased with a Nearly Perfect Score.

A Customer on Aug 10, 2001. I used this book to successfully pass the LAST with a nearly perfect score. Essay Les Roches Hotel Management College? The multiple choice part of the LAST is primarily a test of reading comprehension in subject areas like social studies and science, with some art, graphing and how to an essay about poetry Lancing a few other things thrown in. It is not test of your knowledge. The practice tests in the book were very much like the actual test I took. This book gives excellent study tips and how to write a good conclusion essay School steps for writing the essay.

The subject review chapters emphasize that they should be used to learn how to read and answer questions in these subject areas. I think this is the key to this test. I recommend this book if you are preparing for poetry, the LAST. By Deliutz on writing my teacher College Sep 10, 2002. I used this book to prepare for LAST and ATS-W, and I passed with very good scores. It took me about write an essay about College, a month to prepare for both at the same time. I liked especially the reviews and essay writing Pickering College essay writing instructions - you have there everything you need to know, clearly stated, without unnecessary embellishments. How To Write An Essay Poetry Lancing College? Very easy to digest and memorize. The book also contains two practice LAST tests and two practice ATS-W tests (elementary and secondary, respectively).

All tests have explained answers. The actual LAST test I took was very much like the practice tests in this book. The actual ATS-W test, however, differed from the practice test; it was more situation-oriented, and also harder. I knew immediately after I finished the LAST that I would pass comfortably. Ashford? However, after the ATS-W I found myself for the first time in the unenviable position of having no idea how I did: I wouldn't have been surprised by how to write Lancing a score of 100, or 300.

In order to prepare for the tests, I also used a second book called The best coaching study guide for the NYSTCE, ISBN 0-87891-404-8. The reviews in it were unnecessarily verbose and buy argumentative essay College of Management complicated, I think. That is why I didn't use them. It DOES have an how to poetry Lancing College advantage, though: the essay International College of Management, practice ATS-W tests are very much like the real thing. The ATS-W answer explanations are stated in a truly logical manner and are superior to those in the Barron's. The study guides from the NY State Education Department are of NO value except for the 5 sample questions you can find in there, and the essay examples and essay scoring explanations. They offer no more than a tiny taste of the real thing. In conclusion, Barron's is well worth buying if you want to study for these tests. An Essay Poetry Lancing? This Book Nails the LAST ATS-W Teacher Tests. A Customer on Nov 27, 1998.

I got this book just before the October test and essay Westminster School it was a life saver. It is the best book to prepare for the LAST ATS-W. The practice tests are very realistic and you get just the right amount and type of review. The steps for Lancing College, writing passing essays, and steps for answering the multiple choice questions are great. This book just nails these tests and food essay Hotel Management the back of the book shows you how look for a job in New York State and lists EVERY school district in the state with the number of how to write poetry Lancing College, schools enrollment and essay Les Roches International Management phone numbers. Great Review for the LAST and the ATSW.

A Customer on Nov 01, 1999. I took the LAST and the ATSW this past Saturday. This book has just the right amount of how to write, review and my teacher fantastic tips for how to an essay College, taking these tests. The practice tests in writing my teacher Pickering College the book were very similar to the real tests. Barrons must have a new printing or a new edition of the book because I did not find the errors mentioned by other reviewers. How To An Essay About Poetry? I recommend this as the best book for these tests. Preparing for the LAST-Teacher Examinations by Postman. Important Deakin University? By Dr.

Joseph S. Maresca on how to an essay about poetry College Apr 29, 2005. Management College? Overall, this work is understandable. The exam has a number of lengthy paragraphs followed by write an essay about poetry Lancing a single question. Such a format requires that you read the question first and then read the paragraph utilizing a highlighter. The visual questions aren't much different from a standard intelligence test on spatial forms. The math and science are very straight-forward. The grammar can get confusing with the presentation of very awkward sentence structures requiring correction.

Questions on art and culture can get tricky with very discriminating differences between architectural forms. How To Write A Strong Essay Ashford? Some of the fine arts questions require that you be able to distinguish between classic forms; such as, Romanesque, Baroque, Byzantine, Greek etc. This test will measure very general knowledge in how to write an essay about the arts and sciences. Jin Jiang College? The format gets very awkward in spots. It will be necessary to do a fair number of problems to develop experience with the material. How To Write Lancing? The Postman work is buy argumentative International (ICMS) well organized. How To Write An Essay About Lancing? The problems are challenging. A criticism of the work is that the problem sets are somewhat limited in number although the level of difficulty is essay appropriate. This book should be utilized in write an essay Lancing College conjunction with others on the subject. I would utilize other review texts for weak areas in order to develop a representative set of problems in unfamiliar subject areas. Testing on amorphous spatial forms and problems contrasting classic architectural differences typify new or unfamiliar material for the candidate reviewing the write, material for the first time.

The volume will benefit test candidates provided that they make a real attempt at the problems with a view toward studying very discriminating differences between the model answer and slight variations from it. How To About Poetry? This volume is not a reader. It contains numerous problems which depict the material to be tested. Essay Writing Jin Jiang? Therefore; candidates must utilize the book as though it represented a series of test problems to be encountered on an essay Lancing College the live examination. Stick with the NYS Preparation Guides.

By Jennifer on May 09, 2001. The Barron's LAST and ATS-W book was not at all helpful in preparing for the exams. The questions on the exams were much more comprehension-based than content. The review books I ordered when signing up for the exams were much more useful in preparing me for the exams. Stick with those! Many errors detract from the usefulness of this book. A Customer on Jul 22, 1999. I purchased this book in preparation for food writing International College, the NYS Teacher Certification Exams. I was hoping for how to an essay about poetry College, it to buy argumentative International College (ICMS) be as good as the other reviewers said it was.

The main reason I was disappointed in this book is due to the number or errors I found. A friend of mine, who was also taking the tests at the same time, found the same errors so I know it's not just me. How To An Essay About Lancing College? Some of the errors are actual mistakes in computation while others are errors in logic. Thinking Important Deakin? In some cases the answer given is how to poetry correct but the explanation is wrong or vice versa. These errors made me doubt the type of preparation I was receiving for these tests. Hopefully Barrons' will correct these errors and issue a new addition soon. A Customer on Jul 23, 1999. This book is well worth the money spent - but beware of mistakes in the answer keys! One blatant error is on an art related question. There are five possible answers (a-e) but only four options (a-d). (e) is clearly the right answer, the important Deakin University (Navitas), written explanation even says so. Write About Poetry? I recommend purchasing this or any other study guide to prepare for the exams but don't expect an exact replication of the buy argumentative International College of Management, test.

This study guide, aside from the mistakes, gives helpful general guidelines and informative practice tests. How To Write An Essay Lancing College? The actual tests, however, require you to use the information gained from these practice exams in more abstract ways. A very good helpful book. By Ellen on Sep 29, 2000. I used this book to successfully prtepare for thesew tests.

I gave that book away and I came back here to get new copy to work with a friend. This book deserves praise. The copies I have was error free. The two chapters in the Introductory section gave me all the strategies I needed to critical thinking Deakin University (Navitas) pass the tests. The Reading chapter shows a specific approach for answering reading questions and these tests are reading tests. How To About Poetry Lancing? The English and Writing chapter shows how to write the essays. The Mathematics chapter in this new copy recommends a short cut review. The ATSW chapter gives a very good review for conclusion essay Westminster, that test.

There are four realistic practice tests. I found the write Lancing College, chapter on getting a job very helpful with contact info for every public school in the state. The only real weakness in essay writing Les Roches International College my first copy of the book was the practice LASTs did not have the longer complex readings found on the actual test. The tests in this new copy include those longer readings. I like it that the publisher keeps up with the tests and updated an already excellent book.

A Customer on May 26, 2003. I got this book because the about poetry College, Education advisor said students who used this book did better on the tests than students who bought the Kaplan book and essay and conclusions Hebron because the. How To About Lancing College? salesperson said this book outsold the Kaplan book about 5 to 1. Still it ended up that I got both books. I can see why this book sells better and why people do better. This book prepared me for conclusion essay School, the LAST and an essay College the Kaplan book did not. The ATSW tests in essay introductions and conclusions Academy this book are as helpful as the tests in how to write an essay College the Kaplan book.

But the ATSW tests are not anywhere near as important as classroom experience and common sense. There is a very helpful review in the Barron's that shows you how to prepare from just a little to a lot. Essay My Teacher? But the Kaplan book has no review but and it is how to College filled Internet links that do not work. My advice is that the Barrons is the only book you need. It is best for the LAST and just as good for ATSW.

This book with real classroom experience should get you through these tests. By Miss Felicity on Mar 29, 2005. A good education, a solid review of this book and a dose of common sense should help you easily pass both tests on the first try. Heed the advice about having an early night before the test date. Bring a bunch of #2 pencils, and dress very comfy in layers. These things make a big difference. Essay College Of Management (ICMS)? I saved about an hour for the essay, which I needed, and scored 300 on it. Use the first few hours going through the multiple choice questions. No need to rush. Write Poetry? I hope it goes well for you!

I leave you with this quote: Chance favors the prepared mind. Writing My Teacher Pickering? Louis Pasteur. I WAS VERY HAPPY TO HAVE THIS BOOK. A Customer on about poetry College Oct 29, 2003. I was very happy to have this book. The book says the test is writing essay and conclusions mainly reading comprehension and that is right.

The book did a good job preparing me to answer those types of questions and the tests in the book were a lot like the test I took. The book also has very clear steps for writing an essay that helped me prepare for that part of the test. The test taking strategies were very good and write an essay College very helpful. The book did not put an emphasis on knowing content. Why Is Critical In Education University? What the book did empasize was to learn how to read and how to write College answer questions about different subjects and NOT to learn the subjects. It says it right there in how to write School the book.

A lot of the passages on the test were in different subject areas and write about Lancing that part of the book helped too. I almost completely sure I passed and I would not have done as well without this book. I think it will probably help you too if you follow the instructions in the book. LAST OK, but ATS-W far off base. A Customer on writing Pickering May 13, 2003. I just took the LAST exam and used this book as a review. Write About Poetry College? The LAST review was overly thorough but I guess better to Hotel College be over prepared. The LAST is just reading comprehension. There is no need to retain information on social studies, math, or specific sciences.

One problem is incorrect answers are not explained so if you get a practice answer wrong, tough. The BIG PROBLEM in this book is the ATS-W which I have yet to take, but I have heard from people who own the book that Barron's was so far off base it was like they never saw an about poetry College ATS-W. It was strongly suggested to how to write essay Westminster School me that I buy the Kaplan book which is much more specific, and especially helpful for the ATS-W. I wish I had know this before I bought the Barron's book because now I have to how to write an essay about College go purchase another book which I will do because I want to be prepared for this exam.

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Is the Sudan conflict best understood in about poetry Lancing, terms of essay and conclusions Academy race, religion, or regionalism? The extensive literature on the Sudan places great emphasis on the regional North-South divide, the racial divide between Arabs and how to write about College Africans, and and conclusions the many religious divisions created as a consequence of the confrontation between Islam, Christianity and ‘traditional religions’. This essay will take these three broad divisions as starting points to understand and situate the write about Sudan conflict within an anthropological context of identity formation in buy argumentative International (ICMS), times of longstanding violence and confrontation. It will be proposed that both the enormous diversity within Sudan in how to write an essay, combination with the lack of a specifically and substantial “Sudanese” identity accounts for the prevalence of conflict. Write Essay Ashford School. This absence of a widely accepted and omnipresent state identity also offers explains how identity is formed in relation to hegemony: no matter what arguments are put forward to the contrary, the how to poetry Sudanese state, or lack thereof, constitutes a hegemonic regime and such hegemony plays an enormous role in identity formation, even in times of conflict and civil war when parts of the population actively defend their identities. The Sudanese civil war (or wars, depending on the particular stance adopted) is widely regarded as one of the most complex instances of intra-state violence to date. Indeed, Yokwe goes so far as to assert that ‘[t]he Sudan case is rather unique and more intricate than the rest of the African countries in similar situations’[1] whilst others throw around the heavily-loaded term “genocide”[2], with the International Criminal Court officially charging Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir with three counts of how to a good conclusion essay School genocide in Darfur on 12 th July of this year.[3] Nevertheless, while scholars remain divided in their exact opinions, sufficient consensus exists among them to how to an essay about poetry, suggest that the vast and numerous differences within its population are among the root causes of the conflict in the Sudan.[4] As one non-governmental organisation has concluded after extensive research and fieldwork, ‘divided by why is critical important in education Deakin (Navitas) geography, culture, race, ethnicity and religion, Sudan is the world’s foremost example of a seemingly intractable and endless civil war.’[5] Of these divisions, the exhaustive literature on the Sudan places particular emphasis on the regional North-South divide, the racial divide between Arabs and Africans, and the many religious divisions created as a consequence of the confrontation between Islam, Christianity and what Falola[6] and Prah[7] term ‘traditional religions’.

It is these divisions that lay at the crux of the conflict. Lancing. Certainly within these three categories there is an abundance of intricacies and essay writing complex inter-relations to be explored, yet to how to write poetry Lancing College, ensure a focussed and pervasive analysis this essay will take these three broad divisions as isolated starting points in order to understand and the Sudan conflict; the aim is to examine the impact such divisions has on essay School, the role on identity formation and how the identities formed in such a fractured community ultimately lead to violence and conflict. How To Write About Poetry. This will, in conclusion essay School, turn, allow for how to an essay discussion and how to a good School assessment of the role played by hegemony and subordination in identity formation so that a holistic picture of the Sudan conflict begins to emerge. For the sake of simplicity it would be tempting to conclude that simply highlighting the above internal divisions provides a sufficient understanding for the instigation of violence in the Sudan, especially when contrasted to how to an essay about poetry, the view held by many South Koreans that ‘[i]n many ways, […] homogeneity is one of Korea’s greatest strengths. Shared values create harmony […] It is the cornerstone that has helped Korea survive adversity.’[8] In light of a lack of social, cultural, religious, and food writing Les Roches International Management racial homogeneity, then, it should come as no surprise that the Sudan is embroiled in civil war and thus the beginnings of the conflict can be forgotten to focus on more important matters such as ending the how to write poetry College conflict. However, to buy argumentative essay College of Management (ICMS), merely outline the divisions without properly understanding them is ultimately useless and so it is the purpose of this essay to delve into some of the internal divisions of the Sudan so that we may truly understand the conflict; only then will people be able to about, contemplate bringing the war to a suitable and complete end.

Furthermore, as alluded to buy argumentative International College of Management, above, the write poetry Lancing prevalence of diversity alone fails to account entirely for the unique situation that has existed in the Sudan for so long; we need only look to a good School, such countries as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada in which the rather broadly-termed “multiculturalism” and more aptly-named “ethnic diversity” contribute to a degree of societal stability not seen in the Sudan, or Germany where regional diversity is ‘deeply ingrained’ as is ‘the line between the Northern Protestant and Southern Catholic traditions’[9]. Here some commentators might contend that in order to attain cohesion and how to write an essay Lancing stability a highly diverse country such as the essay Jin Jiang Hotel College Sudan requires a degree of economic development on a par with Western nations, or even sufficient living space for the different societal groups to form their own satellite communities within geographically large states (since over half the an essay about Lancing population of Sudan lives in just 15 percent of the write a good conclusion Westminster School land due to water shortages[10]). Such an argument, however, overlooks the existence of small, non-Western states such as the Philippines and Mauritius in how to write an essay about Lancing, which multiculturalism is celebrated and institutionalised. Write Conclusion Essay. There is how to an essay Lancing College clearly to more to the Sudan conflict than a diverse, economically-deprived population forced into relatively close living conditions. What, then, has led scholars such as Gadir Ali to conclude that ‘[t]he civil war in the Sudan was inevitable’[11] and Prah to ask ‘[w]hy has the Sudan conflict so far eluded substantial peace?’[12] Here it will be proposed that it is both the enormous diversity within the Sudan in combination with the lack of how to write a specifically and substantial “Sudanese” identity which accounts for the intense prevalence of conflict; the absence of a single strand of state identity which runs through every individual and how to about College collective in the Sudan means that these different individuals and groups are able to view themselves as remote ‘little islands of sociality’[13] in a vast ocean brimming with alien cultures and “others”. Of course, this metaphor is extremely exaggerated to clarify the point and in the Sudan several groups, particularly in the South, actually share a number of commonalities and relationships of varying closeness. However, the fact remains that the many differences and idiosyncrasies existing between the Sudan’s diverse population have been exacerbated to why is important in education University, the point of intra-state conflict because there is no single conception of state identity to establish even the slightest semblance of unity and likeness among Sudan’s population; the different religious, racial and regional groups within the Sudan fear and fight one another because there is no plane of existence on which everyone recognises everyone else as a member of the same state and an equal. It might even be contested that the Sudan is hardly a state at all and is, in write poetry College, fact, a series of muddled groups thrown together in an attempt to mould the Afro-Arab region into the Western, state-centric conception of statehood. Not only does this absence of a widely accepted and omnipresent state identity explain the unyielding nature of civil war in write a good School, the Sudan, but it also offers an account of how both individual and group identities are formed in relation to hegemony. Nagengast asserts that: ‘The ideal state is one in which the illusion of a single nation-state is created and maintained and in which resistance is poetry College managed so that profound social upheaval, separatist activity, revolution, and how to write a good essay Westminster coups d’etat are unthinkable for most people most of the how to an essay about poetry time.’[14]

Following this conception of the state, then, it becomes apparent that the Sudan is far from realisation of becoming ‘the ideal state’ given the predominance of anti-state movements and militias within its borders and the distinct nonexistence of a unitary illusion of the Sudanese people. Why Is Critical Thinking Deakin (Navitas). Indeed, often when discussing Sudanese affairs and the conflict waged there, an overwhelming number of commentators write about “the Sudan”, the region, rather than “Sudan” the state. Although one should be wary of his personal motives in saying so since he is an essay about Lancing College advocating the secession of southern Sudan from the North, one prominent South Sudanese politician has gone so far as to suggest that: ‘There is nothing in common between the how to write essay School various sections of the community; no body of shared beliefs, no identity of interests, no local signs of unity and above all, the Sudan has failed to compose a single community.’[15] Rolandsen rather more objectively claims that there ‘is little binding the country together but the shared history of colonial rule.’[16] However, even though one might argue that the Sudan does not function as a state and does not enjoy the allegiance of the vast majority of people resident within its territorial borders, that is not to say that the continuing presence of some semblance of a central authority (what one might call “the Sudanese state”) has not played a role in how to an essay about, forming the identities of its would-be people; as Gerd Baumann notes, neither the attempts to establish a Sudanese state nor the identities of the individuals and groups who live in the Sudan are formed in a vacuum with a complete lack of awareness of, or relations with, the other – ‘there must always be room for why is Deakin University “alterity” – for some sort of relation to the Other – in order to keep the specificity of a group’s own identity alive.’[17] In other words, the central Sudanese authority justifies its identity and existence in reference to the people within its borders, just as the many different groups within the Sudanese border shape and define their identities in reference to the central authority. Therefore, it is axiomatic that the central Sudanese authority, no matter how unpopular or unrepresentative, should influence identity formation. Taking initiative from the ideas expressed in write an essay about poetry College, the works of both Filip De Boeck and Sherry Ortner, particular emphasis will be played to two complementary trends: firstly, how, no matter what arguments are put forward to the contrary, the why is critical thinking important Deakin University Sudanese state, or lack thereof, constitutes a hegemonic regime and, secondly, how such hegemony plays an enormous role in how to write about poetry College, identity formation even in times of conflict and civil war when parts of the population are actively and hostilely resisting any such imposition upon buy argumentative essay College of Management, their identities by the offending hegemony. ‘The dominant feature of write poetry Lancing College our nation is an Islamic one and its overpowering expression is Arab, and writing Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College this nation will have entity identified and how to an essay about Lancing College its prestige and essay my teacher Pickering pride preserved under an Islamic revival.’[18] In view of such vehement declarations by members of the Sudan’s political elite, it is hardly difficult to understand why journalists have noted that ‘[i]t’s hard to discuss Sudan’s civil war without accounting for the role that Islam played in the conflict.’[19] It seems that the Muslims are determined to write about poetry Lancing College, rule the region an entirely Islamic one. Indeed, it is difficult to why is in education University, locate an academic work on the Sudanese conflict which does not lend credence to how to write an essay about Lancing College, the argument that a religious schism is, partially or wholly, responsible for the intra-state violence.[20] However, along what lines that schism is drawn is often contested; some point to a “clash of civilizations” between Islam in the North and Christianity in the South, whereas others broaden their analysis to include ‘traditional’ or indigenous religions (sometimes incorrectly grouped together as ‘pagan’ or ‘animist’[21]) situated in southern Sudan as well. Nevertheless, wherever the buy argumentative College (ICMS) line is drawn, the division among the different religions present within the Sudan is an apparently irreconcilable one and how to an essay poetry Lancing College one which demonstrates the intense threat posed to the Sudan’s minority identities.

In fact, both the past and present situations in the Sudan serve as terrible examples of the extremes to essay International College, which religious segregation and tension can escalate within a state. Geschiere writes that religion ‘plays a front-stage role’ in the ‘quest for belonging’[22] and it can be concluded that this is write about poetry College because religion allows an how to a good conclusion essay, individual to locate themselves within a collection of beliefs, rituals, customs, dialogues and even hierarchy and this placing of one’s self within an established order begins to mould and shape one’s identity. Moreover, locating one’s self within a religion enables individuals to poetry College, identify themselves with likeminded others and this association with those with whom an individual shares beliefs, in turn roots one’s identity in a partially-homogenous group and helps affirm an individual’s sense of the self. Food Les Roches Jin Jiang International Management College. It is a mutually-reinforcing process out of which strong, collective identities emerge. In the Sudan in particular, religion has proved particularly significant in how to an essay about poetry Lancing College, identity formation, as ‘Abd Al-Rahim notes: ‘Until at why is important (Navitas) least the beginning of write an essay about poetry Lancing this century, the “Sudanese” identified themselves as members of different tribes and sub-tribes, adherents to various Tariqas or religious fraternities, belong to this or that religion of the country, and (especially the Northern Sudanese, when thinking of food writing International Hotel College wider affiliation) as Muslin and/or Arab people. But they never thought of themselves as “Sudanese”, unless they happened to belong to how to write an essay about poetry Lancing College, what were regarded as the less sophisticated, non-Islamized and food Jin Jiang International non-Arabized section of the population.’[23] Therefore, as noted in the introduction, with the absence of a profound and overarching “Sudanese” identity crystallising the identities of the Sudan’s population around religion, a clearer picture begins to emerge of how threats to the religious status quo , and the existence of a significant number of others who are just as attached to how to write about poetry, their different religious beliefs as an individual is to thinking in education Deakin (Navitas), their own, can lead to friction, division, and even outright opposition; as history has taught us, knowledge of other sections of the population who worship in how to about Lancing, a manner very different from yourself and knowledge of those who claim the existence of an almighty entity or entities different to the one with whom you identify can breed caution, suspicion, fear and intolerance.

This is especially true of the Sudan where the two predominant religions, Islam and Christianity, have been involved in zealous crusades to convert non-believers and infidels in the past; within both religions there exists, to a debatable extent, what Lynch calls ‘the exclusivist position’ which ‘argues in favor [ sic ] of the superiority of one’s own system of belief as well as the right to propagate it as widely as possible’[24]. The effects of having two exclusivist religions vying for influence and supremacy in an area have been closely examined by Falola, who concludes that: ‘In countries where Islam and Christianity compete, as in the case of the Sudan and Nigeria, the problems of how to conclusion essay Westminster stability and identity have been compounded by rivalries for religious ascendancy, resulting in how to an essay poetry College, the desire for religious control or even the turning of the state into a theocracy and imposing a religious ideology […] In cases where indigenous religions are closely bound up with communal lives, the opposition by Islam and Christianity has also meant an attack on local custom and culture.’[25] What Falola makes clear, then, is that as Muslims and Christians battle for the reins of power in the Sudan, they tyrannise and attack one another and the intensity of this constant battle makes Muslims and Christians more determined to write Ashford, not back down and how to an essay poetry so more attached to their respective religious identities. Here it is extremely important to highlight that the religious competition in the Sudan is College far from evenly mathced; not only are indigenous religions caught in how to write an essay about College, the clash between Islam and buy argumentative International of Management Christianity, but they are notably less aggressive in their in seeking to convert others.[26] Furthermore, it is estimated that around 70 per cent of the population is Muslim, with most living in the northern two-thirds of the Sudan, with Christians and those who practice traditional religions accounting for the remaining 30 per cent.[27] With Islam possessing the aforementioned ‘exclusivist’ characteristics, as well as constituting an enormous majority in how to write an essay about poetry, the Sudan, it is little wonder that non-Muslims feel under threat. They are right to do so. ‘Dr. Hassan Turabi […], leader of the present National Islamic Front (NIF), argued that the south had no culture and so this vacuum would necessarily be filled by write a good conclusion Westminster Arab culture under an Islamic revival’[28] and how to write an essay poetry Lancing it was this coercive, so-called Islamic revival that led to the introduction of essay writing College a great quantity of quasi-colonial, repressive policies being imposed in the South under General Abbud’s programme of how to an essay Lancing College Islamification between 1958 and 1964.[29] These policies included: flooding schools with Arab history, story and religious books; forcing teachers and pupils to how to essay Ashford School, wear the jaballia whilst in school; compelling government workers to become Muslim; building mosques in southern, predominantly non-Muslim towns and write about poetry College villages; making Friday the new day of rest, thus forcing the Christian minority to attend work on Sundays, their own day of worship. Essay Writing My Teacher College. In addition to this, the an essay College imposition of Sharia Law across the South created a clear hierarchy, with Muslims at thinking important (Navitas) the top, followed by Christians, with the remaining “infidels” at the very bottom. This unique situation has shaped identity in write College, a number of ways, ways which help to understand the Sudan conflict in both complementary and conflicting ways: complementary in that all religious identities have been strengthened in one way or another and contradictory because this was not the desired outcome.

Firstly, adopting a primordialist stance, focusing on what primordialists call the inherent and natural tendency of humans to identify themselves with a group whose members share obvious similarities[30], Hasenclever and writing essay introductions Rittberger point to write an essay Lancing, a possibility of two ultimate outcomes for Hotel Management identity formation in about poetry, multireligious societies such as Sudan: ‘In the end, either these societies will fall apart or one community will gain dominance and suppress the others.’[31] For the Sudan this means either returning to the pre-colonial, peaceful co-existence described by ‘Abd Al-Rahim above (brought about by what would undoubtedly be a colossal collapse of the Islamic government after a lengthy and cataclysmic war between the critical in education Muslims in the North and the non-Muslims on the South) or the Islamic government would gain unquestionable control over the region and establish an absolute theocracy. About Poetry Lancing. However, no matter how convincing these possible outcomes appear in essay writing Les Roches International Management College, theory, in practice the identity crisis brought about by religious divisions within the Sudan has had contradictory effects. How To Write An Essay About Poetry Lancing College. For instance, Lam Akol, a former high-ranking official in the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) which opposes the Sudanese government and fights for an independent South Sudan, has pointed out that: ‘The rationale for revolution, as presented in buy argumentative essay College (ICMS), the [July 1983 SPLA/Sudan People’s Liberation Movement] Manifesto, focused on the specific grievances of the South, but the language of underdevelopment, nationality and how to write an essay Lancing College religion were deliberately broadened in an attempt to appeal to other regions and essay my teacher sectors of Sudanese society who would have been hostile to a Southern independence movement, but who had their own grievance against Nimairi and the central government.’[32] It appears, therefore, that religious identity was something of an afterthought or a scapegoat when amassing members of the write about College Sudan’s population to rise up against the state; at the forefront of the how to essay Ashford School minds of those leading the revolution were the ‘specific grievances of the South’ and it was these which had proved potent enough to draw together a group of individuals who felt that their interests and way of life as Southerners, and how to an essay Lancing College not specifically Christians or practisers of indigenous religions, were sufficiently threatened. Consequently, then, it seems that religious identity is something of a secondary concern in the Sudan conflict whilst the broader regional identity has been propelled to the fore of the civil war. People are more compelled to essay Pickering, fight for regional autonomy rather than religious freedom. That is an essay Lancing College not to say that the dominance of Islam in the Sudan has not played a considerable part in shifting the religious identities of the Sudanese population since it has, in fact, had a dual effect.

First of all, whilst the Sudanese government’s attempts at imposing Islam on those in the largely non-Muslim South have not been the driving factor behind the formation of the write a strong Ashford School major resistance factions in the region, they have led to those practising indigenous religions to coalesce around the how to write an essay about larger and more internationally supported Christianity. Lam Akol again notes that: ‘the current drive to Islamize the South has produced more Christian converts in the last decade than the entire colonial missionary enterprise did during the first half of the twentieth century.’[33] We can infer from this that the members of the how to write essay School smaller indigenous tribes of the southern Sudan have felt their position increasingly endangered by the central government’s process of Islamification and write about so, either sensing safety in buy argumentative essay, numbers or simply following what has become an increasing trend, these indigenous religions have slowly flocked to Christianity. To what extent this conversion from indigenous religions to Christianity reflects a true and lasting alteration of religious identity in the Sudan is impossible to assess; it may well be that these practisers of indigenous religions have publicly embraced Christianity to benefit from the how to write College protection it brings as a well-funded, well-publicised world religion and so attracting both financing and attention to their cause as resistors against an oppressive government regime, whilst privately they continue to worship in the traditional way. After all, as J.C. How To Write A Good Essay. Scott writes in how to write College, his work ‘Domination, Acting, and essay College of Management Fantasy’: ‘the greater the disparity in how to write an essay poetry Lancing College, power between dominant and subordinate and buy argumentative essay International of Management (ICMS) the more arbitrarily it is exercised, the more the public transcript of subordinates will take on a stereotyped, ritualistic cast.’[34] In other words, the more forcefully and insistently the Sudanese government presses for those in the South to convert to Islam, the more we can expect those southerners to about College, react in a somewhat stereotypical way: not, in essay Les Roches International College, this case, by pretending to be Muslim as we might expect since this is apparently acquiescing to governmental pressure too much, but by about poetry College donning a Christian mask to make it known to the government that they resist the process of Islamification as a strong and how to Ashford School united group. Write Poetry Lancing. The term ‘mask’ is used here of course because in the comfort and critical thinking in education Deakin privacy of their own homes these converts may continue to practise their previous religion, an idea Akol appears to support when he concedes that despite the high number of Christian converts in how to poetry Lancing, the South, ‘the indigenous religions of the introductions and conclusions Hebron Academy southern Sudan continue to how to about, inform ideas about ethical behaviour, the moral community and political action.’[35] In the College (ICMS) North of the Sudan where Islam is much more prevalent, the government’s policy of religious oppression in the South has had the opposite effect and write an essay about poetry College has seen a rise of religious zealotry as certain sections of the population turn to Islamic fanaticism: ‘To deal with shortcomings in morale and appease disgruntled parents in essay Hebron, the north who are weary of write poetry having their sons come home wounded or dead, Khartoum has raised a parallel army: the writing Popular Defense Force (PDF).

This militia is composed of young Muslim volunteers persuaded that they are fighting a jihad against southern infidels. The mujahideen in the PDF see war as a spiritual duty and death as a means of martyrdom and instant admission to heaven.’[36] For those individuals who subscribe to the ‘exclusivist’ view of Islam and religion in general, the continuing existence of ‘rival’ religions in the South can simply not be tolerated and write an essay about Lancing College so for these individuals the government’s attempts at Islamification is how to essay a vehicle for translating these sentiments and feelings into action. Their religious identity has been honed, sharpened and how to about poetry Lancing brought to the fore of the conflict between North and buy argumentative essay International South and how to write an essay about so, from a Northern perspective, it is possible to claim that the critical thinking in education Deakin University Sudan civil war is best understood in write about poetry, terms of religion and religious conquest; unlike the SPLA which has merely used religious allegiance to entice additional southerners to join the regional North-South battle, for a significant number in the North the conflict has become all about protecting and projecting their religious identity with the regional element becoming less significant. In light of all of these different ways in which the Sudan conflict has shaped religious identity and food Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management vice versa, one constant remains: that religious identity in the Sudan, for members of all religions, is how to about poetry Lancing College a constant struggle against hegemony. This is true even in the case of those belonging to thinking Deakin (Navitas), Islam because, for how to write an essay poetry Lancing College some Muslims, it is a relentless battle to assert oneself as the dominant religion. Mutua, on the other hand, is insistent that ‘[r]ace – not religion – is the fundamental fault line in Sudan’[37] and there is how to a good conclusion Westminster ample evidence to support her view. Write An Essay Poetry. Indeed, the primordialist interpretation of the Sudan conflict is not exclusive to analysing the role played by religious affiliation, but can also be applied to explain how racial identity is drawn into the civil war. Lind, for example, invokes ancient and writing College immutable hostilities in College, the Sudan, claiming that conflict arises from people fighting for ‘their primary loyalty’ to tribe and race, as they have done since ‘history’s dawn’.[38] The attraction of essay Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management such an interpretation is how to write an essay about poetry College that one’s racial identity is often obvious to the outside world as physical appearance differs substantially from one race to why is critical important Deakin University, the next; Badal explains in his article on separatism that in how to write Lancing, the case of the Sudan the essay introductions and conclusions Hebron Academy racial divide lies between ‘the peoples of the southern Sudan [who] are African and write poetry Lancing College negroid’ and the peoples of the how to write Ashford School northern Sudan who are ‘not Arabs proper, but peoples of both Arab and African descent assimilated into Islamic and Arabic culture.’[39] Yokwe has traced this racial divide throughout the Sudan’s history and summarised it thusly: ‘Ever since the historical contact between North and South, slavery and write an essay College slave trade have been practised on buy argumentative International College (ICMS), racial lines, always the write College Arab North raiding the African South and not vice versa. Such a practice has heightened the Ashford racial tension.

Racism in the Sudan is also manifested in how to write about poetry College, social interaction particularly in the institutions of food writing Jin Jiang Hotel Management College marriage and work. In the Sudan the how to an essay about poetry Lancing College Arabs marry the writing my teacher Pickering Southern girls regardless of race and religion. But the Arabs will not allow their daughters to be married to the Southerners regardless of race and religion. In fact, in the 1960s there were cases where Arab parents slaughtered their daughters and dumped them in about, the river because they were found pregnant by Southern young men.’[40] What we see here is vastly similar to food essay writing Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel College, the religious schism between Islam and Christianity – one group seeking to conquer or exploit the other. How To An Essay About Poetry Lancing College. Except in this case, rather than Muslims battling for supremacy over Christians, Arabs are struggling to exert their dominance over Africans. Buy Argumentative International College. Just as Christians (and practisers of indigenous religions) feel their religious identity is under threat, then, so do Africans in the Sudan feel that their racial identity is about College threatened. This ultimately means that racial identity in Westminster, the Sudan has been shaped in much the an essay poetry same way as religious identity has: in write essay Ashford, the North the Arabs have strengthened their Arabic identity through a sense of superiority over the Africans in the South, and in the South the Africans have developed their strong bonds of racial identity through sheer determination not to be conquered and not to be exploited by the Arabs. Once again we see that identity formation in the Sudan civil war is two sides of the same coin, or even a double-edged sword; strong racial identity has led to cause for conflict and conflict has led to a strengthening of racial identity.

In the context of the how to an essay College Sudan civil war, since one side contends that they are somehow so fundamentally different to the other that they should not be ruled under the same central authority, it seems appropriate to analyse the ethnic dimension as well as the race, especially because ethnicity is another way in which the Sudan is highly divided. Essay Introductions. In fact, the highest number of divisions exists along lines of ethnicity in write about poetry College, the Sudan, as one trio of in education Deakin University (Navitas) dedicated scholars have discovered: ‘Excluding foreigners, an ethnic polarization index of 0.625 is calculated for the country. If a polarization index in excess of write poetry Lancing 0.5 is considered high, then clearly the Sudan is an ethnically polarized country.’[41] There is such a high degree of ethnic polarization in the Sudan because of the existence of writing Hebron a great number of ethnic tribes. In his work, Lam Akol explains the importance of tribal affiliations and their continued relevance throughout the course of how to write Lancing Sudan’s history: ‘The word “tribe” has been discarded in much anthropology, except where it translates a local word, and is resented in much of Africa as a pejorative term. Its retention [here] is justified because of its specific political meaning in the ethnography of the Sudan, and because most Sudanese, both Southern and Northern, recognise the existence of tribes and willingly assert their membership of them. The Arabic word for tribe, gablia , is commonly used throughout the Sudan.’[42] The many different tribes and the many different forms of relations and interactions between them will not be explored in great depth here, firstly because the focus of this essay is specifically the role played by tribal identity in the Sudan conflict, and why is in education Deakin University (Navitas) secondly because there are many anthropologists who have done a far better job in write about poetry College, observing and understanding the Sudan’s tribes than I could ever hope to achieve. What is essay writing Jin Jiang International Hotel College important to note here, however, is that: ‘Tribal societies lack the kinds of centralized authority characteristic of states. Their regulative institutions, their mechanisms of social control, are therefore inherently weak and operate only over a limited range of social relationships. Peace and security can be assured at how to an essay all only within relatively small social groups, typically groups of kin.

The relationships between these little islands of sociality are fragile and always potentially hostile.’[43] The smallness and closeness of write conclusion Westminster School tribes naturally means that interactions between their members are frequent and intense, with each and every tribal member fully aware of the group dynamics at play. This high level of write an essay about poetry Lancing social interaction among their members means that tribes play an a strong essay, enormous role in how to an essay about poetry Lancing, forming and consolidating an individual’s identity in essay College of Management (ICMS), the Sudan. An individual’s tribe is an intimate network of support, protection, provision and labour and it is through the various roles available within a tribe that an individual can shape their identity; a woman might be a mother, a wife, a sister, the cook, the cleaner, the gardener and a whole host of other roles whereas a man could be a hunter, a warrior, a father, a husband, and a leader. The exact distribution of how to poetry Lancing College these roles will of course differ from tribe to food Les Roches Management, tribe and write Lancing College varying degrees of overlap may exist, but the fact remains that people’s roles within their tribe will greatly affect their experience of day-to-day life and their identity will form around that central pillar of essay my teacher being. Aside from the international relations within tribes, the external relations between tribes play a large role in shaping the how to write about poetry Lancing identities of Sudan’s population and there are almost as many forms of inter-tribe relations as there are tribes; some tribes, the Pari for instance, have been notably isolationist throughout their history[44], whilst others enjoy peaceful relations with a number of other tribes and rely on these for their livelihoods and trade. Still others, such as the essay and conclusions Nuer and the Dinka, relate to one another through raiding, kidnap and states of war, but it is important to note that ‘the feuding [does] not dominate relations.’[45] Negotiated access for Baggara cattle to Dinka and Nuer watering spots was more common than raids before the war.’[46] Through tribal identity, then, the Sudan’s population is interconnected and how to write about poetry shares a fundamental level of buy argumentative International (ICMS) understanding which is certainly not attained through religious of national identity. It would be easy to mistake this as a reason why the people of the Sudan might be reluctant to enter into a civil war when they have enjoyed a relatively peaceful and well-established dynamic based upon the acceptance of the above relations through tribal interactions, but this overlooks the enmity, explored below, that exists between the Arab tribes of the North and an essay about the African tribes of the South; although the status quo has been historically stable between tribes within the Northern regions and food essay writing Les Roches Jin Jiang between those in the South, examples of amicable and write an essay poetry College nonviolent relations between northern and southern tribes are few and far between.

If anything, tribal affiliation has been a relatively inconspicuous factor in initiating the Sudanese conflict, except for exacerbating existing North-South tensions, and instead is more helpful in understanding why the conflict has endured for my teacher Pickering College so long because, as one commentator suggests, ‘[t]he protracted civil war has altered the nature of traditional conflicts in write about poetry Lancing, Southern Sudan […] Conflicts have become more complex’ and ‘new conflicts have emerged’[47]. So, for instance, the traditionally reclusive Pari who were once wary of the Dinka-dominated SPLA/M saw large numbers of writing Pickering their men join the SPLA’s ranks when the militia stopped in their villages[48] whilst Nuer-Dinka relations became so explosive between 1991 and 1994 that it caused a split within the Southern separatist movement, with the Dinka remaining in the SPLA/M and the Nuer forming their own South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A)[49] – the spit was so cataclysmic, in fact, that the SSIM/A fought with the northern government against their southern brethren, something which would have been unthinkable if not for College the waging of essay and conclusions civil war in the region. In addition to this, tribal relations have become increasingly more violent as a result of the Sudanese civil war, with one Sudanese local saying that ‘previously we only heard about cattle raids but not killing of women and how to an essay about poetry Lancing children like has happened of late.’[50] Filip De Boeck asks: ‘How does (ethnic) self-representation operate as a psychological and cultural strategy for coping with the chaotic and despotic socio-politics and economics in a peripheral “frontier” situation?’[51] The answer in how to write, the case of the how to write an essay poetry Sudan can, it seems, be located within Geschiere’s The Perils of Belonging in which he notes that ‘identities can shift from write a good essay Westminster, inclusive to an essay about poetry Lancing, exclusive tendencies’[52]; within the context of civil war, the ethnic and particularly the tribal identities of the essay writing my teacher Sudan’s populations have intensified to write poetry, the extent that they have become increasingly intolerant of outsiders and ‘others’. How To Conclusion Essay. Actual violence and animosity has replaced almost ritualistic practices of raiding cattle pillaging wives between competing tribes and traditionally isolationist tribes have been drawn into conflict through increasing interaction with outsiders and independence movements. However, at the root of this intensification of identity is the exacerbation of the regional conflict in the Sudan – the ethnic hostility and fluctuations in tribal relations are manifestations of a much more fundamental identity conflict in the region. Whilst not explicitly stating so, Buzan and write College Weaver’s concise and simple summary of the Sudan conflict effectively demonstrates that both the racial and religious tensions are framed almost perfectly by a regional confrontation; the Sudan civil war, they note, pitches ‘a mostly Arab, Islamic north against a mostly black, non-Islamic south’[53]. How To Ashford School. Whilst their short analysis of the conflict is somewhat over-simplistic, it does succeed in getting to the heart of the write about Lancing College matter and it will be argued here that they are right in suggesting that a regionalist account offers the essay my teacher Pickering best, most holistic means of understanding the Sudanese civil war because not only does it incorporate the issues of religion and race already discussed above, but it also brings new elements for analysis. As commentators have noted, the history of write poetry Sudan ‘is full of tales of invasions, enslavement and exploitation of the South by the North’[54] and issues of Northern and Southern nationality and national identity ‘occupy a central position in food writing Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College, the conflict’[55] and how to an essay poetry Lancing College so it is write a good Westminster School this historical and all-pervasive aspects of the regionalist factor which accounts for its enormous significance in understanding the Lancing College Sudanese conflict. The historical basis of the essay severe regional tensions in the Sudan is an unfortunate postcolonial legacy left over from the momentous occasion when power was finally stripped from the how to an essay about poetry Lancing College Sudan’s colonial masters and granted to International College of Management (ICMS), the newly autonomous region. How To About College. Already before this process had even begun, there existed an intense suspicion of government and central authority throughout all of essay writing my teacher Pickering College Africa, as Falola has discussed in-depth in her book on an essay Lancing, African culture: ‘The dominant political value revolved around exploitation: the primary motive of the colonial power was to writing my teacher Pickering College, cheat and exploit Africans; and the primary duty of Africans was to resist.

Government was perceived as the enemy of the people, a view that remains current today.’[56] In this context of suspicion, oppression and subordination, then, it was negotiated that the colonial structures erected and maintained by write an essay poetry Lancing Britain would be transferred intact to the northern Sudanese nationalists,[57] therefore the buy argumentative perception of government as ‘the enemy of the people’ was eliminated in the North since they inherited the hegemonic legacy whereas those living in the South remained subjugated and powerless. Moreover, since the colonial regime had sought to ‘preserve’ the poetry ‘innate’ qualities of native cultures, it had sharpened and of Management (ICMS) essentialised interethnic racial divisions[58] which had only served to how to write Lancing College, exacerbate regional tensions and writing introductions and conclusions Hebron Academy further segregate the North from the South and an essay College so by the time the North held the reins of power the South felt completely and utterly under threat. As a result, it is little surprise that: ‘Southern leaders have since argued that de-colonisation was flawed in the sense that Southerners had no influence on the process in general, nor on how to write a strong essay Ashford, the future of the Southern Sudan. The fundamental question of whether the South belonged in the Sudanese state at all was not addressed.’[59] The issue of southern independence has been a contentious one up until the present day and the fact that a referendum was held on January 9 th 2011 to determine whether or not the Sudan will indeed split into two separate entities only lends credence to the extremely significant role regional identity has played in the conflict – the referendum is surely testament to the sheer force of will of those in the South to assert their regional identity. Of course, that regional identity is a culmination of religious, racial, and other affiliations, but, as will become clear, the regional identity in the Sudan has become the most cultivated and the most fiercely protected.

The determination of the Sudan’s southern population in defending their regional identity has been shaped, in part, by an essay about the oppressive actions of the government in the North who, intent on maintaining the separation of North and South, developed the buy argumentative (ICMS) “Southern Policy” which mandated regional and racial segregation, whereby ‘the South was to be developed along “African”, rather than “Arab” lines’[60] and was to be intentionally underdeveloped when compared to the North. This policy of subjugation only served to unite the southerners further as they formed mutual bonds through their experiences of oppression and adversity; Gerd Baumann calls this phenomenon ‘alterity’ and has observed that ‘[w]hen one party argues that it encompasses the other, the other party will often respond by postulating a grammar of how to write segmentation.’[61] This goes a long way in explaining why the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Army became such a powerful organisation as it pushed for Southern independence and essay of Management (ICMS) attracted people from even the remotest parts of the South. John Garang de Mabior, leader of the SPLA/M, claims that the appeal of the organisation was so strong because the oppression had become so terrible that ‘the marginal cost of rebellion in the South became very small, zero or negative; that is, in the South it pays to rebel.’[62] For all its strengths, however, formation of regional identity in the Sudan has been severely hindered over the years, with pockets of disagreement and write an essay poetry Lancing College in-fighting proving extremely counterproductive to the southern separatists’ cause in particular. It has already been noted that the SPLM/A suffered internal divisions which led to writing essay Hebron, a splinter group, the SSIM/A, allying with the Khartoum government and ‘[a]ttempts were made by [the SPLA/M] to join forces with Anyanya 2 groups, but these often ended with their fighting each other.’[63] Badal even goes so far as to suggest that in the South ‘it can be assumed that there exists a condition more suitable for conflict than for a claim for about poetry Lancing a separate existence.’[64] Even in the comparatively homogenous North there exists an ‘ethnic struggle for power in Khartoum.’[65] Furthermore, whilst it can be seen to encompass them both rather perfectly, regional identity in the Sudan can also be seen to be in competition with religious and how to write Westminster School racial identity: ‘the “observation” that kinship is made of flesh and blood contains the verdict that the physical facts of biological relatedness count as shared identity, which then entails the presumption that certain kinds of rights and an essay duties will be assumed between “kin” as a matter of course.’[66] The duties and obligations an individual may feel to his kin who, more often than not are integrated in that individual’s tribe, are further compounded by the observations made by Evans-Pritchard and Rivers who ‘noticed how systems of a good essay School religion and social organization reflected and supported those kinship systems of beliefs and practices.’[67] Religion and race, therefore, can be seen as mutually reinforcing an individual’s identity, and thus become of more importance to an essay poetry Lancing College, that individual, in ways in which regional identity cannot. Nevertheless, as the saying goes, actions speak far louder than words and the outcome of the referendum that was held on 9 th January 2011, which is expected to come in a matter of weeks, is expected to prove that the number of people in the South who voted for unity with the North is an extremely tiny minority[68] – even Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir has hinted that he suspects he will eventually have to concede that he can no longer rule the people of southern Sudan.[69] ‘[D]omination, aggression, and violence are intrinsic parts of social life. This is often expressed in terms of race, class, and gender but can also be based on religious beliefs, political affiliation, national origin, age, and physical or mental disabilities.’[70] There are few examples of domination, aggression, and violence in recent history to the extent that has been, and continues to be experienced in the Sudan.

For this very reason, the Sudan serves as a perfect case study for assessing the how to write conclusion Westminster School role played by an essay about such domination, aggression, and violence on how to write a good conclusion Westminster, identity formation and it has already been proposed that such oppression has had a profound effect on shaping religious, racial and write an essay Lancing regional identity in particular. Here it is possible to link this conception of identity formation through domination, aggression, and violence to the notion of hegemony, which, as one scholar has argued, ‘has played an especially strong part in writing essay introductions Hebron, helping us to understand how power works to form the social person, shaping the way in which people variously experience the about Lancing College world they live in.’[71] In linking hegemony, power, and identity formation within the context of the Sudan conflict, some conclusions begin to emerge. First and foremost, it becomes explicitly clear that at the heart of hegemony is the ability to actively affect the identities of those over whom it has influence, and the reverse side of this is writing Hebron Academy that the individuals living under the hegemon are receptive, either knowingly or entirely ignorantly, of its influence. In other words, the hegemon seeks to change its subjects and its subjects are continually being changed. How To About Poetry College. It is how to write a strong a two-way process: there is the top-down aspect in which the hegemonic regime exerts its influence on the population and write an essay Lancing College there is the grassroots aspect by which the population absorb the hegemonic influence into their existing identities and roles and make it their own. Which brings us to the second point, which is that because identity formation through hegemonic influence is food writing Les Roches Management College a two-way process it is all the more unpredictable because there are so many possible outcomes: the how to write an essay about poetry College influence of the hegemon can be overwhelming and cause the desired outcome, as has been the case with mujahideen in the North of the Sudan; the influence could be entirely rejected and how to write essay instead have the opposite effect, which can be seen in the way the North’s policy of Islamification has created a large number of Christian converts in the South; or hegemony and the resistance to it could reach a relatively comfortable degree of equilibrium. According to Malwal, the prevailing trend in the Sudan is that the more the attempt by the northern governments to promote the dominant religion and language in about, a “vain and costly effort to establish a nation state of cultural and religious homogeneity in the place of one of diversity” has only aggravated the grievances of the southern Sudanese’[72] and only served to write a strong essay Ashford School, increase their determination to oppose the North. Ortner suggests that ‘[r]esistors are doing more than simply opposing domination, more than simply producing a virtually mechanical re­ -action […] They have their own politics.’[73] However, he fails to appreciate that this is write an essay about College precisely why hegemony has such an enormously transformative and Les Roches Jin Jiang College pervasive effect on how to write Lancing College, identity formation because hegemonic influence has the power to change these internalised politics of both resistors and supporters alike.

In his work culture, Hall expands upon this and explains that: ‘Ruling ideas may dominate other conceptions of the social world by setting the limit to what will appear as rational, reasonable, credible, indeed sayable or thinkable, within the given vocabularies of food essay writing Les Roches Hotel College motive and action available to how to write poetry, us.’[74] An example of essay Ashford School hegemonic influence shaping everyday motive and action in the Sudan can be seen in the renowned works of Sharon Hutchinson who spent several periods of her life living with the Nuer tribe of the South; instead of conversations revolving around ‘cows and oxen, heifers and steers, rams and sheep, he-goats and she-goats, calves and lambs and how to write an essay poetry College kids’ as they had during her first visit to buy argumentative College of Management (ICMS), the Nuer cattle camps in 1978-1979, less than two decades later Hutchinson found that the Nuer’s conversations were now preoccupied by ‘national political issues, cabinet shake-ups, regional troop movements, and the Jonglei Canal scheme.’[75] In other words, the an essay poetry College sheer occurrence and pervasiveness of interaction with the hegemonic regime in the interim years had completely altered the interests, the hopes, and the fears of the Nuer; simply the essay College of Management knowledge of the Khartoum government’s oppressive policies and the Sudanese conflict was enough to about College, adjust to everyday dynamic. This point clearly serves to address De Boeck’s question when he asks: ‘Are social co-operation and control limited to essay my teacher Pickering College, small pockets of how to write an essay poetry Lancing society in the absence of food essay writing Les Roches Jin Jiang International Management College generalised, overarching civic and how to write an essay about poetry College political culture, or are there still wider dynamics at essay Pickering play?’[76] There is no doubt that there is a distinct absence of an ‘overarching civic and political culture’ in the Sudan. Indeed, Eisei Kurimoto notes how, in the case of the Pari from southern Sudan, this sense of isolation and removal from the state is reinforced in their everyday speech and language: ‘ Gaala is a Pari word which connotes all foreigners of lighter skin, both Arab and Europeans, as well as residents of towns. Government is also called gaala […] The implication in the use of this term is that for how to poetry the Pari successive rulers of the food writing Jin Jiang Hotel Management College Sudan are just foreigners and their governments are also alien. An Essay About Poetry Lancing College. To the Pari people all outsiders are enemies to a certain degree.’[77] In calling it ‘gaala’, the Pari assert that the feel no allegiance to the government in Khartoum and have no sense that there is an overarching authority determining their motives and actions; of thinking important Deakin (Navitas) course the government exists to poetry Lancing, the Pari in the most rudimentary sense, but it is a simple and distant existence without any immediate implications for the tribe. The Pari think of the alien Sudanese government much as they might when discussing a foreign country or a distant star. This is not a recent trend and those living in the South of the Sudan have a long tradition of disregard for whatever government might come along, with Rolandsen noting that ‘[i]n the period up to 1918 without any close administration, it probably did not make much difference to most Southerners whether it was the Turks, the Mahdists or the how to essay Ashford British who claimed sovereignty in write an essay poetry Lancing, their territory.’[78]

However, as alluded to above hegemony is about more than asserting sovereignty over an area of land: it is about ‘the mastering of history’[79] and, as Antonio Gramsci proposed in his prominent works on social and cultural hegemony, it is about how a social class or group exerts cultural leadership or dominance over other classes in maintaining the socio-political status quo whilst influencing these subordinate classes to accept and adopt the values of the hegemon.[80] It is this unrivalled power to change those in buy argumentative International College, the lower echelons of society which explains why ‘[t]he African elite, irrespective of their location and sources of idea, regard culture as the number one tool in creating a difference between African and non-African, consolidating national and ethnic identities.’[81] Therefore, to how to write an essay poetry College, answer the question posed by of Management De Boeck earlier, there are certainly wider dynamics of control at play even in the absence of an overarching, formalised and write an essay Lancing College legitimate central authority; the influence exerted by the hegemon in a population or society penetrates and infiltrates the how to write a strong essay Ashford School culture and daily lives of those beneath in numerous and varied ways so that those being influenced may not be immediately aware of the existence of these external forces at work. Thus, in the case of the how to write an essay Sudan, whilst sectors of the write essay population may be almost oblivious to, or completely disregard, the Sudanese government, the government in question has unquestionably shaped and altered their identities, beliefs and dialogues through the write poetry College continuing presence of conflict and strife. Deakin. Either directly or indirectly, the religious, racial and regional identities of those living in the Sudan have been broken down and how to about poetry rebuilt by important in education University (Navitas) the hegemonic regime in write an essay poetry Lancing College, place. As one final point it is important to emphasise that the transformative power of hegemony should not be overestimated; as an elusive and sometimes intangible concept, it is easy to sometimes see hegemonic influence and a subsequent change in society where neither exists. Indeed, Brown raises the writing essay introductions point that ‘[r]esistance is a perfect vehicle for the expression of moral fervor precisely because it is how to write about College so vague, so easily left to the eye of the beholder’[82] and it is sometimes tempting for scholars and writing introductions Hebron students to view an event or the belief of a group and make links between oppression and write an essay Lancing College resistance when, in actuality, the event of buy argumentative International College (ICMS) belief was created through other means. How To An Essay About. There is a prime example of such an writing introductions and conclusions Hebron, event in the account of Kurimoto’s stay with the Pari: ‘A Pari explained his people believed the coming of the SPLA would result in a situation of “no government”, as had been the case during the first civil war, and they destroyed all the how to about poetry things belonging to writing essay and conclusions Hebron, the government. One could say it was an expression of their wish to remain autonomous without government. However, the fact that 200 bags of sorghum stored by the co-operative association were seized and distributed by the mojomiji [the middle-aged tribal rulers] of the poetry College six villages might mean the looting was controlled by the mojomiji and may not have been an uncontrolled mob action.’ Here Kurimoto questions the motives of the rulers of the Pari tribe in buy argumentative essay International College of Management, bringing about the destruction of the government buildings. Write An Essay About Poetry Lancing. Certainly they could have been expressing their desire to be free of the unwanted Sudanese government in the North, but equally the mojomiji could have been using the write a strong threat of civil war to how to write an essay Lancing, assert their dominance and buy argumentative essay College of Management (ICMS) maintain their own form of hegemony and stability in light of a more pressing external threat; on arriving in the Pari villages, the SPLA had proved popular enough to draw away many men to the battlefields and it is just as plausible that the mojomiji wanted to keep their influence over these men themselves rather than see them led astray by the southern separatist movement.[83]

Enzensberger, speaking as a patronising, imperial stepfather might talk about an unwanted, unreasonable child, makes his stance known when he exclaims that in Africa ‘[v]iolence has freed itself from write about poetry, ideology’ and the contemporary civil wars which occur within its borders are a form of essay writing my teacher College ‘political retrovirus […] about write an essay about poetry College, nothing at all’.[84] Even if one should entirely reject the arguments offered throughout the buy argumentative essay College of Management (ICMS) course of write about poetry College this essay, it is fervently hoped that, if it has achieved nothing else, this essay has convincingly rejected notions such as Enzensberger’s from discourse concerning the conflict in Sudan; the Sudanese civil war and associated violence is firmly rooted in a battle for one’s identity and place in both group dynamics and wider society. As Hanlon rightly states, identity is ‘an internal root of war’[85] and so to suggest that self-realisation, the expression of one’s self and situating that self in relation to the ever-fluctuating hegemonic regime is ‘nothing’ is sheer ignorance and, quite frankly, an untenable position. Writing My Teacher. Because a significant number of notable sectors of its population live under an incompatible, alien central authority, the conflict in the Sudan is ultimately a confrontation between groups in search of a common overarching identity under which they can unite. ‘Abd Al-Rahim, M., ‘Arabism, Africanism, and about Lancing College Self-Identification in the Sudan’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.) The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.29-46. Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniversire, 2003). Badal, R.K., ‘The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan’, African Affairs (October 1976), Vol. 75, No. Critical Thinking Deakin. 301: 463-474. Banton, M., ‘Ethnic Conflict’, Sociology (August 2000), Vol. 34, No.

3: 481-498. Baumann, G., ‘Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach’ in Baumann, G. and Gingrich, A. (eds.) Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006) pp. 18-52. Brown, M.F., ‘On Resisting Resistance’, American Anthropologist , (December 1996) Vol. 98, No. How To An Essay About Poetry Lancing College. 4: 729-749. Buzan, B. and Weaver, O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of essay International International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Cramer, C., Violence in Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006). D’Andrade, R.G., ‘Cultural Meaning Systems’ in Schweder, R.A. and LeVine, R.A. (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), p.92.

De Boeck, F., ‘Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and poetry Lancing Global Perspectives from Zaire’ in Werbner, R. and Ranger, T. (eds.), Postcolonial Identities in Africa (London: Zed Books Ltd, 1996), pp.75-106. Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2003). Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’ in Collier, P. and food writing Jin Jiang International Sambanis, N. (eds.), Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, Vol. 1 – Africa (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005), pp.193-220. Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe (Chicago: University of how to write about Lancing Chicago Press, 2009). Hall, S., ‘The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism Among the Theorists’ in writing Pickering, C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds.) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Urbana: Univ. How To About Poetry College. III. Press, 1988), pp.35-57.

Hanlon, J., ‘Ethnicity and Identity’ in Yanacopulos, H. and Hanlon, J. (eds.), Civil War, Civil Peace (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), pp.95-112. Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in writing introductions and conclusions Academy, Melanesia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), p.4. Hasenclever, A. and Rittberger, V., ‘Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict’ in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.107-147. Holsti, K.J., The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in how to write about Lancing, International Theory (Boston: Alan and Unwin, 1987). Hutchinson, S.E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State (London: University of California Press, 1996). Idris, A., ‘The Racialised and Islamicised Sudanese State and essay my teacher the Question of Southern Sudan’ in Jalata, A. (ed.), State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa (London: Routledge, 2004), pp.30-44. International Crisis Group, God, Oil and an essay about poetry Lancing Country: Changing the Logic of War in essay Pickering College, Sudan (Brussels: IGC Press, 2002), p.3. Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Oxford: James Currey, 2004) Johnson, D.H., ‘Darfur: Peace, Genocide and how to about Crimes against Humanity’ in Kaarsholm, P. (ed.), Violence, Political Culture and Development in Africa (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), pp.92-104. Karns, M.P. and Mingst, K.A., International Organizations: The Politics and Hebron Processes of Global Governance , 2 nd edn. (London: Lynne Rienner, 2010).

Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’ in Fukui, K. and how to write College Markakis, J. (eds.), Ethnicity Conflict in the Horn of Africa (London: James Currey, 1994), pp.95-111. Lynch, C. ‘Dogma, Praxis, and Religious Perspectives on how to write a good conclusion School, Multiculturalism’ in about poetry Lancing College, Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.55-78. Mamdani, M., ‘Making Sense of Political Violence in Post-Colonial Africa’, Socialist Register (2003): 132-151. Martin, R., ‘Sudan’s Perfect War’, Foreign Affairs ( Mar/Apr 2002), Vol. 81, No. How To Write A Strong School. 2: 111. Meyer, C., DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of Britain’s Ambassador to the US at how to write about poetry Lancing College the Time of 9/11 and the Run-up to the Iraq War (London: Phoenix, 2005).

Mutua, M., ‘Racism at the Root of Sudan’s Darfur Crisis’, The Christian Science Monitor , 14 July 2004: 10. Nagengast, C., ‘Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State’, Annual Review of Anthropology (1994) Vol. 23:109-136, p.109. Ortner, S.B., ‘Resistance and the Problem of Ethnographical Refusal’, Comparative Studies in Society and History , Vol. 37, No.1: 173-193.

Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , paper prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy , September 2001, Durban, South Africa. Accessible via the internet at write Ashford [http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/prah-01e.pdf]. Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005). Russell, P. and McCall, S., ‘Can Secession Be Justified?’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of how to write about Lancing National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.93-122. Salih, K.O., ‘British Policy and the Accentuation of introductions and conclusions Academy Inter-Ethnic Divisions: the Case of the Nuba Mountains Region of Sudan, 1920-1940’, African Affairs (July 1990), No.89: 417-436. Scott, J.C., ‘Domination, Acting, and Fantasy’ in Nordstrom, C. and Martin, J. (eds.), The Paths to an essay, Domination, Resistance, and Terror (Berkley: University of California Press, 1992), pp.55-84. Smith, G., ‘Hegemony’ in essay School, Nugent, D. And Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp.216-230. Straus, S., ‘Darfur and the Genocide Debate’, Foreign Affairs (Jan-Feb 2005), Vol.

84, No.1: 123-133. Van Willigen, J., Applied Anthropology: An Introduction , 3 rd edn. (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 2002). Wai, D.M., ‘Introduction’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.1-6. Wassara, S.S., Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Southern Sudan (Berlin: Berghof Foundation for write an essay poetry College Peace Support, 2007). Whiteford, L.M. and Bennett, L.A., ‘Applied Anthropology and critical thinking important (Navitas) Health and Medicine’ in Kedia, S. and van Willigen, J. (eds.), Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), pp.119-149. Yokwe, E.M., ‘Arabicisation and how to write an essay about Language Policy in the Sudan’, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences , Vol. 14, No. 2: 149-170. Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, Africa Media Review (1997), Vol. How To Conclusion School. 11, No.

3: 80-103. ‘Multiculturalism in Korea’, JooAng Daily , August 26 th , 2010. Agency for Independent Media, ‘In Southern Sudan Conflicts, Women and Children are Targeted’, 13 th February 2010, accessed on 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.aimonline.org/]. Foreign Policy, ‘The World’s Newest Global Capital?’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/06/the_worlds_newest_capital]. Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’, November 24 2003, accessed 17 th December, 2010 via [http://www.hrw.org/en/node/12243/section/1]. International Criminal Court press release (12/07/2010), accessed 3 rd January, 2011 via [http://www.icc-cpi.int/menus/icc/press%20and%20media/press%20releases/pr557]. The Economist, ‘Independence Beckons’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.economist.com/node/17851399]. [1] Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in poetry College, the Sudan: A Case Study of thinking in education (Navitas) Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, Africa Media Review (1997), Vol. Write About College. 11, No. 3: 80-103, p.82.

[2] See for example Karns, M.P. and Mingst, K.A., International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance , 2 nd edn. My Teacher Pickering. (London: Lynne Rienner, 2010), p.212 and Straus, S., ‘Darfur and the Genocide Debate’, Foreign Affairs (Jan-Feb 2005), Vol. 84, No.1: 123-133. [3]International Criminal Court press release (12/07/2010), accessed on how to write an essay Lancing, 3 rd January 2011 via. [4] Examples of such a consensus exist in Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniversire, 2003), Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Oxford: James Currey, 2004), Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005), Wai, D.M. Why Is Critical Thinking Deakin University (Navitas). (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973). [5] International Crisis Group, God, Oil and how to an essay about poetry Country: Changing the Logic of War in Sudan (Brussels: IGC Press, 2002), p.3.

[6] Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures (Rochester: University of write a strong School Rochester Press, 2003). [7] Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , paper prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy , September 2001, Durban, South Africa. Can be accessed via the internet at [http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/prah-01e.pdf]. [8] ‘Multiculturalism in Korea’, JooAng Daily , August 26 th , 2010. [9] Meyer, C., DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of Britain’s Ambassador to the US at the Time of 9/11 and how to write Lancing College the Run-up to the Iraq War (London: Phoenix, 2005), p.28. [10] Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’, November 24 2003, accessed 17 th December, 2010 via.

[11] Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’ in Collier, P. and Sambanis, N. (eds.), Understanding Civil War: Evidence and writing Pickering College Analysis, Vol. 1 – Africa (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005), p.219. [12] Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , p.5. [13] Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), p.4. [14] Nagengast, C., ‘Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State’, Annual Review of Anthropology (1994) Vol.

23:109-136, p.109. [15] Aggrey Jaden, President of the Sudan African National Union, in a speech given at write an essay the inauguration of the Union in essay (ICMS), Kampala in 1964, quoted in Russell, P. and McCall, S., ‘Can Secession Be Justified?’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , p.107. [16] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in write an essay poetry College, the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.22. [17] As evaluated by why is important in education Deakin University (Navitas) Geschiere, P., The Perils of how to write poetry Lancing College Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), p.166. [18] Excerpt of a speech given by Sayed Saddig El-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party, at the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Philosophical Societies of Sudan (1965), cited in Yokwe, E.M., ‘Arabicisation and Language Policy in my teacher, the Sudan’, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences , Vol.

14, No. 2: 149-170, p.155. [19] Martin, R., ‘Sudan’s Perfect War’, Foreign Affairs ( Mar/Apr 2002), Vol. 81, No. 2: 111. [20] Although for an interesting article which attempts to remove the an essay about Lancing College Sudanese conflict from its religious context see Mutua, M., ‘Racism at the Root of Sudan’s Darfur Crisis’, The Christian Science Monitor , 14 July 2004: 10. [21] Lam Akol writes that ‘“Animism” is an archaic term with little descriptive value’ used to a strong Ashford, avoid the pejorative terms associated with paganism. He goes on to state that ‘as “animism” is now generally understood […] there are properly no “animists” in the southern Sudan’. For more see Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: the Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniverse, 2003), p.xv-xvi.

[22] Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe , p.1. [23] ‘Abd Al-Rahim, M., ‘Arabism, Africanism, and Self-Identification in the Sudan’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.) The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , pp.33-34. [24] Lynch, C. ‘Dogma, Praxis, and Religious Perspectives on Multiculturalism’ in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. Write An Essay College. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p.62. [25] Falola, Y., The Power of African Cultures , pp.57-58. [27] Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’, pp.43-44. [28] Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, p.94. [29] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005), pp.24-5. [30] Banton, M., ‘Ethnic Conflict’, Sociology (August 2000), Vol.

34, No. 3: 481-498, at p.482. [31] Hasenclever, A. and Rittberger, V., ‘Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict’ in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.110. [32] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniverse, 2003), p.63. [34] Scott, J.C., ‘Domination, Acting, and essay College Fantasy’ in Nordstrom, C. and Martin, J. (eds.), The Paths to Domination, Resistance, and Terror (Berkley: University of California Press, 1992), p.56.

[35] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.xv-xvi. [36] Martin, R., ‘Sudan’s Perfect War’. [37] Mutua, M., ‘Racism at the Root of Sudan’s Darfur Crisis’, p.10. [38] Quoted in Johnson, D.H., ‘Darfur: Peace, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity’ in Kaarsholm, P. An Essay About Poetry Lancing College. (ed.), Violence, Political Culture and essay introductions and conclusions Academy Development in an essay Lancing, Africa (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), p.92. [39] Badal, R.K., ‘The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan’, African Affairs (October 1976), Vol. 75, No. Writing Introductions Academy. 301: 463-474, p.464.

[40] Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in how to write Lancing, the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, pp.85-6. [41] Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’ p.216. [42] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.xv. [43] Harrison, S., The Mask of how to write a strong essay War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia , p.4. [44] Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’ in Fukui, K. and Markakis, J. (eds.), Ethnicity Conflict in the Horn of Africa (London: James Currey, 1994), pp.95-111.

[45] Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’. [46] Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and how to write about poetry College Human Rights’. [47] Wassara, S.S., Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in buy argumentative essay College of Management (ICMS), Southern Sudan (Berlin: Berghof Foundation for Peace Support, 2007), p.5. [48] Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern, p.100. [49] Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars . [50] Hon Maker Chol Adol, the member of the how to write an essay College South Sudanese Legislative Assembly from Makauch Payam, quoted in Agency for a strong Ashford School Independent Media, ‘In Southern Sudan Conflicts, Women and Children are Targeted’, 13 th February 2010, accessed on 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.aimonline.org/]. [51] De Boeck, F., ‘Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from Zaire’ in Werbner, R. and Ranger, T. (eds.), Postcolonial Identities in Africa (London: Zed Books Ltd, 1996), p.75. [52] Geschiere, P., The Perils of how to an essay poetry Lancing College Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in why is critical in education Deakin (Navitas), Africa and Europe , p.32. [53] Buzan, B. and Weaver, O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p.241. [54] Wai, D.M., ‘Introduction’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , p.1. [55] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.339. [56] Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures , p.102.

[57] Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars , p.22. [58] Salih, K.O., ‘British Policy and the Accentuation of Inter-Ethnic Divisions: the Case of the Nuba Mountains Region of write about poetry College Sudan, 1920-1940’, African Affairs (July 1990), No.89: 417-436. [59] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.24. [60] Idris, A., ‘The Racialised and how to write a strong essay School Islamicised Sudanese State and the Question of Southern Sudan’ in how to write an essay Lancing College, Jalata, A. (ed.), State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa (London: Routledge, 2004), pp.30-44. [61] Baumann, G., ‘Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach’ in essay my teacher Pickering, Baumann, G. and Gingrich, A. (eds.) Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006), p. 31. [62] In a statement made to the Sudanese people on the ‘Founding of the Sudan’s People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan’s People Liberation Movement (SPLM)’, quoted in how to write about poetry Lancing College, Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’, p.193. [63] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.27.

[64] Badal, R.K., ‘The Rise and Fall of writing Les Roches Separatism in Southern Sudan’, p.465. [65] Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, p.82. [66] D’Andrade, R.G., ‘Cultural Meaning Systems’ in Schweder, R.A. and LeVine, R.A. (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on how to write about Lancing, Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), p.92. [67] Whiteford, L.M. and Bennett, L.A., ‘Applied Anthropology and Health and Medicine’ in why is thinking important in education University, Kedia, S. and van Willigen, J. (eds.), Applied Anthropology: Domains of an essay Application (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), p.122. [68] Foreign Policy, ‘The World’s Newest Global Capital?’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/06/the_worlds_newest_capital]. [69] The Economist, ‘Independence Beckons’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.economist.com/node/17851399]. [70] Van Willigen, J., Applied Anthropology: An Introduction , 3 rd edn. (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 2002), p.92. [71] Smith, G., ‘Hegemony’ in Nugent, D. and Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to how to write a good essay Westminster School, the Anthropology of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p.216. [72] Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’, p.211.

[73] Ortner, S.B., ‘Resistance and how to Lancing the Problem of Ethnographical Refusal’, Comparative Studies in Society and writing essay and conclusions Hebron Academy History , Vol. 37, No.1: 173-193, pp.176-177. [74] Hall, S., ‘The Toad in how to an essay College, the Garden: Thatcherism Among the essay my teacher College Theorists’ in Lancing, C. Nelson and L. Critical Thinking In Education University (Navitas). Grossberg (eds.) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Urbana: Univ. III. Press, 1988), p.44. [75] Hutchinson, S.E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State (London: University of California Press, 1996), pp.32-33. [76] De Boeck, F., ‘Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from Zaire’, p.76.

[77] Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’, pp.95-111. [78] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the how to write College 1990s , p.23. [79] Smith, G., ‘Hegemony’ in Nugent, D. and Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of write Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p.217. [80] Holsti, K.J., The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory (Boston: Alan and Unwin, 1987). [81] Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures , p.3. [82] Brown, M.F., ‘On Resisting Resistance’, American Anthropologist , (December 1996) Vol. How To An Essay Poetry. 98, No. 4: 729-749, p730. [83] Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’, p.100. [84] Quoted in Cramer, C., Violence in Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006), p.77.

[85] Hanlon, J., ‘Ethnicity and Identity’ in Yanacopulos, H. and Hanlon, J. (eds.), Civil War, Civil Peace (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), p.110. Written at : Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Written for : Professor Filip De Boeck. All content on writing essay and conclusions, the website is published under the how to about poetry following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.

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Lease Provision Penalties: Hard vs Soft. Book Review: Landman#8217;s Legal Handbook. Randy is a land consultant with experience in essay International College (ICMS), field and in-house land work, land administration, and software consulting with systems used in the land management business. College! He is an a good essay, active member of the AAPL, HAPL, and NHAPL and is a regular attendee of industry functions. Randy's latest projects have included land data systems integrations, with a focus on Quorum Land System.

Click Here to about Leave a Comment Below. Great post Randy! How would you recommend people arrange their resume? I currently have mine setup in the following sequence: objective (taking this out#8230;thanks for buy argumentative essay International College of Management, the advice), contact info, education, experience, and skills. I have also been giving thought to making a very non traditional resume that separates the accomplishments from the specific companies.

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I think that is useful if you have a lot of an essay poetry Lancing College positions that are essentially the same (field landman, 5 times in a row). Critical Important In Education Deakin University! Although it is an essay about poetry Lancing, useful to how to write essay show some type of professional progression even through those #8216;similar#8217; positions. Those things may work for one resume and not for another, depending on the contents. How To An Essay College! As for order, that is write a good essay, also highly dependent. A PLM/Energy Commerce/JD might highlight their education up top, whereas you might not want to if it#8217;s not particularly impressive.

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You need to how to write a strong essay School grab the how to about poetry, hiring agents interest/attention instantly since most of the applying today is done via email.

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