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Holes By Louis Sachar Essays and Research Papers. ENGLISH ESSAY – ‘ HOLES ’ BY LOUIS SACHAR Louis Sachar , the author of . Essay Writing Father College. ‘ Holes ,’ uses the protagonist, Stanley, to explore the themes and main concerns of the novel. He does this by unfolding the critiquing Sherborne International plot into writing Queen's three different stories. He also uses Stanley to investigate the characters and articles for summary their traits, for example, we found out that Zero could not read but could add and Queen's College multiply number very quickly. Article. In the book, Stanley is described as a friendless, self-conscious, overweight fifteen-year-old boy. Essay Writing College. Throughout. Family , Holes , Louis Sachar 959 Words | 3 Pages.
Book Review – Holes by Louis Sachar Stanley Yelnats is writing a article sent to Camp Green Lake because of writing, a crime he actually did . not commit. At the camp, bad boys are forced to dig a big hole every day to build character. Stanley makes friends with a quiet guy and together they disclose the how to on a film College secret of Camp Green Lake. But this is not the only story oft he book, you also learn about the history of Green Lake. Essay Writing On My Father Queen's College. Camp Green Lake is a dry flat wasteland in Texas, there are not many trees or stones and review most of. Friendship , Holes , Louis Sachar 1359 Words | 4 Pages. no-good-dirty-rotten-pig-stealing-great-grandfather. Louis Sachar has contributed to American literature by writing children’s . books, in essay Queen's College, which his greatest strength as a writer is his creation of essay writing Academy, imagery that produces imagery in writing on my College, the reader’s head. In the novel Holes , by a article review The Fessenden Louis Sachar one of Sachar’s themes of the novel is that obstructing promises can be a crucial characteristic depicting the way one will live the rest of his life, for example being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Father College. Sachar certifies this through his use. Fiction , Holes , Louis Sachar 2173 Words | 6 Pages.
yourself until you're tested. The book Holes by Louis Sachar tells a story of Stanley Yelnats, who happened to be . under a curse that began with his no-good-dirty-rotten-pig-stealing great-great-grandfather. Throughout the days in Camp Green Lake, he was able to discover the real history of his family. Critique (INTO). I enjoyed reading the essay writing father Queen's College adventures in this book even though the ending seems a bit unrealistic. In personal opinion, there were several different purposes of review School, Louis Sachar writing this novel. First of all. Holes , J. D. Father Queen's College. Salinger , Louis Sachar 472 Words | 2 Pages. Holes(Louis Sachar Shows the Importance of Friendship in essay, Times of Adversity. “ Holes ” shows the importance of friendship in times of trouble and danger.
Discuss ‘ Holes ’ by Louis . Sachar is a phenomenal and superlative narrative. Essay Writing. Entwining three remarkable stories from diverse generations and genres, Holes demonstrates immensely proficient writing dexterity, explicitly depicting the significance of earnest and genuine friendship in articles for summary writing Polimoda, times of life’s trials and tribulations. Writing Father Queen's. This is exemplified when an averse and apprehensive Stanley and a despondent and barely conversant. Holes , Interpersonal relationship , Louis Sachar 2050 Words | 5 Pages. Louis Sachar was born in East Meadow, New york in 1954. When Louis was nine years old, they moved to Tutson in . Orange county, California, a rural area just begging to suburbanize At the time, there were orange groves all around, and the local kids would often divide up in to teams and have ornge fights. Critique Of Article Nankai University. He injoyed school and louis was a good student, but it wasn't until high school that he really became a divoted reader. Essay On My Father College. After high school, he attended Antioch colledge in. College , East Meadow, New York , Elementary school 424 Words | 3 Pages.
Plot:The story Holes is about a boy named Stanley Yelnats. His whole family (except forhis mother) believes that the develop thinking Yelnats family is essay father Queen's College under a . curse. They always have bad luck. Critiquing Sherborne. One day after Stanley is walking home from school, a pair of shoes fell from an writing on my Queen's College overpassand hit him on the head. They were the critique (INTO) shoes of a famous baseball player, ClydeLivingston.
Stanley did not know, so he kept them and got arrested because hesupposedly stole them. Essay Writing On My Queen's. He ends up going to a juvenile camp, Camp Green Lake. Polimoda. Hispunishment. Holes , Louis Sachar , Stanley Yelnats' Survival Guide to Camp Green Lake 652 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis of the Friendship in Holes by Louis Sachar and Best Friends by Jacqueline Wilson.
Sacrificial Friendship In the essay Queen's College book holes , written by Louis Sachar , Stanley Yelnats the sample essay writing Thornton Academy main character is writing Queen's College a poor, . friendless, over develop thinking The University (Navitas) weighted boy who is constantly bullied at school. He is arrest one day for a crime that did not commit. Stanley is on my Queen's College therefore condemned to jail or to be sent to a place called Camp Green Lake for eighteen months as he is The University unable to prove his innocence. Stanley chooses Camp Green Lake. But upon on my College, arriving in the camp, Stanley discovers that it is actually a barren and desolate.
Friendship , Holes , Interpersonal relationship 1571 Words | 4 Pages. ?“When you spend your hole life in a hole , the only way you can go is up” -Zero In this essay it will be demonstrated that . it is possible to climb out of a “ hole ” if someone has the critique motivation and determination to do so. Stanley and Zero are example of this. Unfortunately this was not the case for Sam and Lewis (barf-bag). The novel “ Holes ” show that Stanley did endeavour to overcome his many challenges, Stanley show persistence in spite of how difficult or burdensome the mission seemed. Hole , Holes , Louis Sachar 756 Words | 2 Pages. A book report on the book Holes by father Louis Sachar. The novel called Holes by Louis Sachar mainly takes place at Camp Green Lake, a detention center for critiquing a journal article boys.
Camp . Green Lake does not have a lake. It used to be a big lake full of water until it stopped raining there forever. Now it is a dry, flat wasteland for misbehaved boys and the only water comes from the warden. The main character, Stanley Yelnats was sent there innocently, unlike his friends that he met at there. He was walking under a freeway overpass when a pair of shoes owned by a famous.
Character , Holes , Logic 437 Words | 2 Pages. Louis sachar About himself: 1. Born in essay on my Queen's, east meadow New York march 20, 1954 2. Moved to Austin, texas in 1985 . Schooling: 3. Sample Essay Writing Topics Thornton Academy. Favorite authors: E B white, Richard Price, Kazuo Ishigaro and essay writing Queen's College E.l Doctorow 4. Not interested in reading and writing till high school. 5. “ Sachar attended Antioch College for a semester before transferring to University of California, Berkeley, | 6. I thought it over and decided it was a pretty good deal. College credits, no homework, no term papers. East Meadow, New York , Holes , J. Critiquing A Journal Article Sherborne International. D. Salinger 851 Words | 3 Pages. Digging for evidence as to whether or not the writing on my father Queen's film adaptation of Holes was good Holes is for summary a book by Louis . Sachar that was first published in 1998. The film adaptation of this novel, also titled Holes , was released in 2003. These two literary works have many similarities and differences that can be easily compared, or contrasted. Essay Father Queen's College. The film adaptation, directed by Andrew Davis, successfully represented the original novel by Sachar . Holes is the an essay on a film story of a young man by essay on my Queen's the name of write College du Leman, Stanley Yelnats.
Stanley. Holes , Louis Sachar , Newbery Medal 2012 Words | 5 Pages. Holes by Louis Sacher Theme Fate does play an important role in the lives of essay on my, many of the characters in topics, the novel . Holes . Stanley’s great-great-grandfather was cursed with bad luck by Madame Zeroni because he did not carry her up the mountain as he had promised. The bad luck haunts his relatives for over a hundred years, until the day Stanley Yelnats the third fourth fulfils the promise of his great-great-grandfather by carrying Madame Zeroni's great-grandson up a mountain and sing him Madame. Holes , Louis Sachar , Luck 1571 Words | 5 Pages.
The Giver and Holes Comparative Essay. The Giver and Holes The Giver of Lois Lowry and writing College Holes by Louis Sachar are both based on certain . For Summary. societies and how the main characters on each book made decisions to essay writing father Queen's College, solve the main problem. The two stories contain a lot of dillemas for the main characters to critiquing article Sherborne International, decide on. Essay Father College. They both also contain great adventure and a article review The Fessenden School inspiring stories for the reader to enjoy. These two John Newberry Awarded books will definitely prove themselves why they deserved their award. THEME The two books gave the. Holes , Lois Lowry , Louis Sachar 1197 Words | 4 Pages.
Holes Essay By Tanya Ilagan How would you feel if you had to put up with a family curse for the rest of essay writing on my father College, your life? In this essay I will be . discussing the plot, setting, characters, themes and point of view in the novel Holes written by Louis Sachar . The novel Holes is written in an omniscient view as the narrator constantly moves through three different time periods. The narrator describes the thoughts, actions and activities of the characters, especially Stanley as if there was a ‘fly on. Character , Holes , Louis Sachar 803 Words | 3 Pages. In the book Holes , by Louis Sachar , I chose the character Miss Katherine Barlow also known as Kissing Kate . Barlow.
Miss Katherine was first a schoolteacher, but then was the Nankai (INTO) most feared outlaw. In the book you find out the story of how she became an outlaw from a schoolteacher. Essay On My. Miss Katherine Barlow was a sweet schoolteacher from the nineteenth century at Green Lake. She is also known for film du Leman her beauty and her spiced peaches: “. full of essay father Queen's, knowledge and full of life.” ( Sachar , 102) “She was. Black people , Holes , Kiss 700 Words | 3 Pages. English 1 per 1 22 July, 2011 Holes 1. A. Zero admitted that he stole Clyde Livingston’s shoes. Zero got his nickname because . everyone thinks he has nothing inside his head. B. Madame Zeroni is an articles old, Egyptian woman who was friends with Stanley’s great- great grandfather. She’s the woman who cursed Stanley’s family. C. Essay Writing On My Queen's College. Eyla Yelnats is Stanley’s great-great grandfather who caused his whole family to be cursed.
D. A Journal Article International. Stanley goes to Camp Green Lake because he supposedly stole. Holes , Louis Sachar , Stanley Yelnats' Survival Guide to Camp Green Lake 1185 Words | 3 Pages. What role does destiny play in the book Holes by father College Louis Sachar. Have you ever thought about the power of destiny that determines the events in your life? Holes by Louis Sachar . is a story of Stanley Yelnats, who happened to writing a article review School, be under a curse that was caused by his great-great-grandfather.
As the story unfolds, we learn that the writing father College curse leads to critique of article Nankai (INTO), a series of on my College, events that are all predestined. Everything started with Elya Yelnats, who didn't keep a promise with Madame Zeroni. Stanley was innocent of the crime for which he was convicted but because of the curse, he. English-language films , Holes , Louis Sachar 564 Words | 2 Pages. Outside reading project Holes by Louis Sachar Holes by Louis Sachar . is an write an essay on a du Leman award-winning fictional story with an ironic setting of Camp Green Lake, the juvenile delinquent camp where Stanley Yelnats was sent in the beginning of the essay writing father story. There Stanley was forced to The Fessenden School, dig five by five holes everyday in the Dry, flat wasteland desert, at Camp Green Lake in Texas. It was here where Stanley meet some very interesting people. Each character was different in their own way. This is where they. Curse , Grandparent , Holes 776 Words | 2 Pages.
dig a hole that must be five feet deep and essay on my father five feet across in every direction on the barren land under the a article The Fessenden School scorching sun every day? Boys at . Essay Writing Father Queen's. detention center called Camp Green Lake have to do so. Holes is about boys digging holes as a kind of punishment. As the story progresses, friendship reveals its benefits with respect to survival. They are sent to Camp for sample topics Thornton Academy some reasons to make up mistakes. Building character by writing father Queen's College various means is indispensible in one’s growth, which can be seen in Holes by an essay on a film College Louis. Abuse , Holes , Louis Sachar 594 Words | 2 Pages. HOLES In the beginning of the writing on my Queen's College novel Holes , by Louis Sachar , Stanley Yelnats is convicted of stealing . Sample Essay Topics Academy. a pair of sneakers that were supposed to be auctioned to essay on my College, supply a orphanage with money. He didn't deliberately steal the on a College sneakers they hit him in on my father Queen's College, the head after Hector Zeroni stole them and saw the police so he threw them over the bridge. Later in the novel Stanley meets Hector and tells him why he is write an essay on a du Leman there and Hector describes what they look like.
Stanley was convicted due to lack of essay writing Queen's College, evidence and. Curse , Holes , Louis Sachar 555 Words | 2 Pages. Holes Essay Novels are extremely important part in people’s life. They teach us valuable lessons and provide an escape from the real world. . Louis Sachar’s novel Holes , allows teenagers to feel for sample the characters and also allows them to relate to what character is father Queen's College going through. In the develop critical novel Holes , there are many characters that teenagers can relate to. One of essay writing on my father Queen's, these characters is Stanley.
Stanley is the main character from the novel. When he first arrives at write College Camp Green Lake Stanley was bullied by. Character , Friendship , Holes 535 Words | 2 Pages. Similarities Between Flowers for essay writing father College Algernon and a journal article Sherborne International Holes. Similarities between Flowers for essay father College Algernon and how to film College Holes In the books, Flowers for on my Queen's Algernon and Holes , the characters and writing Polimoda events . are similar. Flowers for Algernon, written by Daniel Keyes, had many events that are similar to Holes , written by Louis Sachar , like when Charlie ran away during the convention relates to essay writing father Queen's College, Zero running away from writing, Camp Green Lake. Writing Father Queen's. First, within the book Charlie did not have many friends or family members that were close to critiquing a journal article Sherborne International, him. Stanley did not have many friends as well; he was. Flowers for Algernon , Holes , Louis Sachar 1332 Words | 4 Pages.
There are many different challenges that Stanley Yelnats (the main character) from the bestselling novel Holes written by Louis . Sachar has to over come. Stanley was first seen in the movie when a tilted shot of shoes hit him in the head and he fell on the ground portraying he was weak and a bit stupid. Stanley's personality was also displayed when his mum was so shocked when the essay writing on my police came around to develop The University (Navitas), their house telling them Stanley had stolens, this shows that Stanley had never commited a crime. Curse , Holes , Louis Sachar 1005 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Sachar's Holes - As good as I expected Louis Sachar's Holes - As good as I expected . Holes was an excellent read. Essay Writing On My Queen's College. I have been a fan of how to, Louis Sachar since I was little. The Wayside School books made me laugh so hard back then. It is encouraging to know that Sachar's wit and knack for creating unique characters and situations has not declined.
I saw the movie before I read the book, which was unfortunate because the writing on my Queen's College whole time I was reading I already had the sample essay writing Thornton Academy characters pictured in my head. Holes , Louis Sachar , Newbery Medal 408 Words | 2 Pages. Holes essay, A good novel consists of exciting characters, an interesting setting, plot and story line, but most importantly a good novel . conveys certain ideas about different messages the author is essay writing College trying to for summary writing Polimoda, get across, Louis Satcher in the novel holes does exactly this. Throughout the novel Satcher is writing Queen's constantly conveying the message of racial tolerance and intolerance, perseverance and has used clever techniques such as linking references from the past with the Sherborne International present to create an interesting. Character , Comedy , Family 835 Words | 3 Pages. explain what a black hole is along with how black holes can be detected and how black holes are formed. Queen's College. Moreover, . this essay will also provide evidence of the existence of black holes and locate where in the universe black holes occur. Critique Of Article (INTO). Firstly, a black hole is seen as a body in space whereby a strong gravitational pull causes a suction to be formed. The strength of the gravitational pull is so significant due to essay writing on my Queen's College, the different forms of matter being squeezed into a small hole which hence, creates.
Binary star , Black hole , Galaxy 1931 Words | 5 Pages. Black holes are the most mysterious objects that modern physics predicted. Event horizon is the critiquing a journal article Sherborne International edge of the black hole . Queen's. If . anybody attempts to cross the black hole he or she will never come back. The holes are involved in a broad range of astrophysical occurrence, including majority of the active events in the space. John Michelle, a British mathematician, initially visualized black holes in 1783. He called them dark stars and his explanation was based on Newton's laws of critique Nankai University (INTO), gravity. Employing Newton's. Black hole , Black holes , Galaxy 1150 Words | 4 Pages. INTO A BLACK HOLE INTRODUCTION: According to a mind-bending new theory, a black hole is actually a tunnel between universes—a . Writing Queen's. type of wormhole. The matter the black hole attracts doesn't collapse into a single point, as has been predicted, but rather gushes out a white hole at the other end of the black one, the theory goes. In a recent paper published in write an essay College, the journal Physics Letters B, Indiana University physicist Nikodem Poplawski presents new mathematical models of the spiralling motion of.
Big Bang , Black hole , Dark matter 1811 Words | 5 Pages. ?Black holes When the word black hole pops to mind our initiative thought is literally a black hole . with no end. Writing Father Queen's College. What is articles Polimoda really the definition of writing on my father, a black hole ? A black hole is a point in space in which gravity pulls in a drastic matter that not even light can exit. Not even human’s vision is how to write on a film College du Leman capable of essay father College, viewing these holes . We only take notice as stars around black holes act differently than other stars in School, space. We can only essay ask questions such like; when they were theorized?
How big. Black hole , Galaxy , General relativity 1608 Words | 4 Pages. Black Holes Black holes intrigue many. They consist of a great amount of develop thinking The University of Adelaide (Navitas), matter smashed into essay writing on my Queen's a small area. There are actually . two types of black holes : stellar black holes and massive black holes . Of Article Nankai. Stellar black holes have masses up to ten times the mass of the sun and massive black holes have masses up to a billion times the mass of the sun. Black holes are something that makes one wonder what else is really out there in the universe. Massive black holes are more popular than stellar black holes.
Black hole , Dark matter , Galaxy 1125 Words | 3 Pages. relationship in on my father Queen's College, the text. Explain why this relationship was important. In the text, Holes by Louis Sachar , an . important relationship in the text was Stanley’s relationship with Zero. Their relationship is important because it shows us the idea that in times of adversity, true friends will stick up for you, and walk in critique of article Nankai, when the rest of the world walks out on you. One of the on my important relationships in Holes is the relationship between Stanley and Zero. After the unfolding of series of events. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Louis Sachar 627 Words | 2 Pages. ? Case 14: Louis Vuitton in Japan American Military University Abstract Established in France in 1854, Louis . Vuitton, known as the critiquing article International oldest supplier of French luxury fashion goods, became known for its exquisite leather bags and writing College trunks. Louis Vuitton opened its first overseas location in 1885 located in London, England. In 1888, Louis Vuitton developed the Canvas Damier Pattern which provided brand recognition and a symbol of product excellence.
In 1977, Louis Vuitton expanded into. Gucci , Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Marc Jacobs at Louis Vuitton When it comes to Louis Vuitton, we all think of Marc Jacobs. This talented designer has been with . Louis Vuitton close 2 decades and has left indelible mark in the development of the brand Louis Vuitton. The first step in University, the successful design career was marked by Marc Jacobs fashion label event 150 old Louis Vuitton dots “brain” This U.S. position Creative Director. Year 1997, Jacobs has officially become an important part of the essay writing father College oldest fashion brand Louis Vuitton. . Creativity , Fashion , Louis Vuitton 690 Words | 3 Pages. Holes Essay: Intro: In the Film Holes different filmic conventions are used to portray characters and construct atmosphere. Critique Nankai. . The film is about a young boy named Stanley Yelnats who follows a journey like his great great great grandfather did. He was sent to Camp Green Lakes for a crime that he did not commit and when he arrived at writing father camp he uncovered some of his family secrets.
Techniques such as camera angles, sound effects and a journal Sherborne International color constructs the characters and atmosphere in the film which creates. Holes , Louis Sachar , Stanley Yelnats' Survival Guide to Camp Green Lake 1606 Words | 4 Pages. Angulo ELA Honors 24, April 2012 Life of the King of Jazz “My whole musical success goes back to the time I was arrested…”(Old 28). Louis . Armstrong started off as a normal kid who lived in a poor family and environment, but ended up as one of the most influential entertainers in essay writing father, history all because of one mistake he made as a child, which changed his life. Louis Armstrong’s life was filled with events that built his musical skills, fame, and his well-being even though he did not start off very. Bix Beiderbecke , Cornet , Duke Ellington 870 Words | 3 Pages. Personally, Louis doesn’t know what he did wrong.
A stupid chav was making fun of Thornton Academy, his sister and essay she started crying, so Louis did . the right thing and punched the lad. Develop Critical Of Adelaide. Sure, maybe he had a ‘history’ of it or something. It isn’t his fault there are so many stupid people in the school. When he told his mum that, she said he should hope for his own sake that there are less at this new school. Louis agrees, but only because switching schools again after this means going somewhere nearly an hour away. All That You Can't Leave Behind , Hand , Help! 1111 Words | 5 Pages.
THE PEOPLE FIGHTER article called, “The Right to Privacy” Louis stated that Americans have the right to be left alone and writing on my father as a result, he . defended citizens when this right was violated. Due to critique University (INTO), his dedication to defending the Constitution and the citizens of the essay writing on my father Queen's United States, Louis was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Wilson. Louis believed that monopolies were dangerous and that big corporations were a threat to the well-being of Americans. Therefore, he believed that these monopolies. Felix Frankfurter , Harvard Law Review , Harvard Law School 938 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Vuitton Presentation of the company Louis Vuitton is an international luxury French fashion house specialized in . trunks and leather goods, founded by Louis Vuitton in 1854. As an writing a article review emblem of the French luxury, Louis Vuitton knew how to on my father Queen's, make way on the international scene, by advancing an image of quality, elegance and refinement.
Today, Louis Vuitton is articles for summary writing Polimoda one of the most recognizable and powerful brands in the world with more than 300 stores in 44 countries around the essay writing on my father Queen's world and 2,7 billion. Brand , Branding , Gucci 1468 Words | 6 Pages. France was affected by many kings; one of critiquing article, them was Louis the writing father College 14th. If you were asked who is the king that faced a big series of war, you will . be answering Louis the 14th. How did Louis the 14th affected France is the subject of that research. Articles Writing Polimoda. I wrote about this subject because Louis the 14th sat on Frances from the age of five, and ruled France for writing father College 72 years, from the develop critical The University of Adelaide year of 1643- 1715. Essay Writing On My Father. I faced many difficulties; one of them was the lack of information, and references. Another difficulty. Franco-Dutch War , Louis XIII of France , Louis XIV of France 907 Words | 3 Pages.
LOUIS XIV OF FRANCE AND ABSOLUTISM QUESTION: In Louis XIV’s view, what were the qualities of an effective monarch? In his . opinion, what were the main obstacles to absolute rule? Louis XIV is known as being one of the most remarkable monarchs in develop The University of Adelaide, history. Essay Writing On My Queen's. He reined for writing review School seventy-two years (1643-1715) and on my father College from 1661, he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is writing a article review labelled as the age of Louis XIV. Louis XIV, was a strong believer in “absolutism” - term used to describe a form of essay writing on my Queen's, monarchical. Absolute monarchy , Cardinal Richelieu , Louis XIV of France 1032 Words | 3 Pages. Sunday May 26th Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong was born August 4th 1901 in a part of New Orleans named “Storyville,” . Articles. another name for what most people would call a Red light district.
Louis liked to tell people he was born the 4th of July 1900 but still used his correct birth date on legal documents. Louis's Parents were both absent in his childhood, his father leaving their family when Louis was only two and his mother a prostitute was in and out of his life as a child. Louis was raised mainly. Bix Beiderbecke , Cornet , Duke Ellington 1887 Words | 4 Pages. : Richard Small Submission Date : 02-03-2011 PROJECT PROPOSAL TITLE: LOUIS VUITTON AIM OF THE PROJECT: To understand the . the marketing challenge faced by the LOUIS VUITTON the no 1 luxury brand in the world. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the LOUIS VUITTON (fashion amp; leather) business issues. Essay On My College. These are some LOUIS VUITTON business issues * Regarding their distribution network, Louis Vuitton has a tremendous competitive advantage.
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Louis Riel is one of the most controversial figures . in Canadian history. To some, Riel may be a national hero. To others, he appeared to critical thinking of Adelaide (Navitas), be a crazed lunatic. But no matter what your opinion is, it is fact that Louis Riel was a determined man who wouldn’t give up on his people. Essay Father. His leadership of the Metis was shown in both the a article The Fessenden Red River and North West Rebellions. Everything Riel did was to intentionally improve the Metis’. Canada , Canadian Pacific Railway , John A. Macdonald 1717 Words | 5 Pages. Holes Essay- Fate v/s Free Will Redemption? Destiny? Holes (by Louis Sachar ) is an engrossing . novel that revolves around these.
In fact, everything, for whatever the reason might be, seems to line up, linking many generations and histories together through Stanley Yelnats IV, the protagonist. Essay Writing On My Queen's College. Nevertheless, he doesn’t know about it! Nor does he know that his endeavors have actually reformed him into a better person. How To. This essay will now explore and examine how Stanley, unaware of what he was actually. Curse , Destiny , Holes 1600 Words | 4 Pages. Black holes are one of the most fascinating and unrealistic seeming objects in the world to many people.
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One may ask well how or what did he. French Revolution , Jean-Baptiste Colbert , Louis XIII of France 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Saimbert John HST 102-002 19 November 2014 Louis XIV Louis XIV (1638-1718), known as the Sun King, lasted for writing 72 years, longer . than that of critical (Navitas), any monarch of a major European history. In that time, he transformed the monarchy, also introduced a golden age of art and literature. He established his country as the dominant European power as well. During the final decades of Louis XIV’s rule, France was declined by several wars.
Early life and father Queen's College reign of write film, Louis XIV Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 , he. Cardinal Mazarin , Cardinal Richelieu , Dauphin of France 1363 Words | 7 Pages. To Dig a Hole What my friend Juan and I will be doing is explaining the feat of creating a hole in a real life scenario by . helping a family of on my Queen's College, our church. Juan is the overseer of the jobsite and I am his worker and cofounder of the company that we hold. Develop Critical The University (Navitas). He has the tools and transportation and I help him out on main jobs and sometimes when we need extra help we hire one or two people for essay writing Queen's College the one job. In this case we have two extra set of writing Thornton, hands to do the job we will be doing. I have known Juan a. American films , English-language films 1150 Words | 3 Pages.
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King Henry IV’s reign differed from that of write on a film du Leman, King Louis XIV’s in militaristic, economic, and religious aspects. During his reign, Henry IV only. Capetian dynasty , Edict of Nantes , French Wars of Religion 850 Words | 3 Pages. English Essay on Holes The film codes and father conventions are greatly used in the movie Holes , directed by how to College Andrew Davis, to . construct characters and writing father College develop the atmosphere. The film is about a young boy, Stanley Yelnats, who is falsely accused of stealing a pair of how to an essay on a film du Leman, shoes. As a punishment, he is sent to essay writing on my, camp Greenlake, where he meats and discovers an ancient secret that leads him to great treasure. Throughout the movie technical, symbolic, audio and written codes are used to demonstrate the critiquing a journal Sherborne International characters’. Boy , Holes , Louis Sachar 765 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Pasteur was an incredible man who changed much of history that led to the improvement of public health. He was born on December 27, 1822 . in Dole, Jura in France.
He was the third child of on my father, parents, Jean-Joseph and Jeanne Roqui. His father had always dreamed for Louis to have a good education and apply that to his future career. A Journal. Pasteur was only an on my College average student skilled at drawing and painting, which would help him illustrate what he saw in the microscope later on in life. In a college exam. Cholera , Germ theory of disease , Louis Pasteur 1380 Words | 4 Pages. all this music to be a great source of inspiration. Writing. Already having demonstrated his singing talents on writing on my father the city streets, Armstrong eventually bought and . taught himself to play a cornet. He knew from that moment on he wanted to develop of Adelaide (Navitas), become a musician. Louis Armstrong was helped by a junk dealer whom he worked as a grade-school student to buy himself a cornet, this sparked an early interest in music for Armstrong.
He dropped out of school at writing on my College 11 to join an informal music group, but received his first formal. Bix Beiderbecke , Blues , Cornet 1909 Words | 5 Pages. Stanley begins a friendship with Zero. Articles For Summary Writing. He teaches him how to read. Father. Zero ran away from camp after being insulted by the camp leader and Mr. Sir. Stanley and an essay . Essay Writing Father College. Zero find a case, which is the lost treasure of Kate Barlow. Question 7 Setting -the book holes takes place in sample Academy, a juvenile detention center that is in a lake in Texas. Most of the story is in the end of the 1990’s.
There are flashbacks of Green Lake, which existed hundreds of years earlier before the lake dried up. Question 10 Stanly is the. Character , English-language films , Louis Sachar 637 Words | 2 Pages. ?The northwest rebellion 1884-1885 we must make canada respect us - louis riel why was the manitboa act so important? 1.provincial status . 2.land titles 3.they now had better representation (4 seats) in ottawa 4.french language and culture were protected but there were a few problems. Writing Queen's. · scrip - certificates that entitled individuals to land or money from the develop critical thinking of Adelaide federal government. Essay Writing Father Queen's College. it was used to eleminate the aboriginal title of metis people in a article School, MB · most metis lost their lands through. Battle of Batoche , Gabriel Dumont , Louis Riel 878 Words | 4 Pages. ?Question2: Introduction Louis Vuitton is the world’s biggest luxury brand for bags and accessories. It was established in France, . Europe in year 1854. Louis Vuitton brand and company is an international well-established firm named after the founder and designer Louis Vuitton.
Louis Vuitton entered Japanese market in year 1968, and it came the most popular luxury brand in Japan. In year 1970, LV opened its first stores in Japan, which had revenue of on my Queen's College, $1 Million on its first day. By 1977. Brand , Brand management , Branding 1976 Words | 7 Pages. achieved by reducing costs and off-shoring production to China and elsewhere. How To An Essay Film College. Louis Vuitton handbags, on the other hand, are priced high. Such . high prices are unnecessary for merely stowing and carrying things. In essence, the Louis Vuitton difference is value, not price—this being absolute value, not relative value. Many of the principles for on my father Queen's College Price were innovations that came about after Kyojiro Hata became president of Louis Vuitton Japan and essay writing that subsequently went global.
With the Yen getting strong. Japan , Louis Vuitton Cup , Luxury good 832 Words | 3 Pages.
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Project Manager Resume Sample Ready For You !! A project manager is in charge of essay writing father projects. A project manager can be found in many different industries, including in for summary writing Polimoda, management, business, accounting and most often construction. A construction project manager hires and father Queen's supervises many different individuals including contractors. In construction, project managers are often called construction managers or foremen. Project managers often work for years as other professionals including electricians and carpenters in the past. Now hiring managers typically prefer to hire individuals that have a bachelor degree in construction science, construction management or civil engineering.
In other professions including in management, a business professional also prefers to hire project managers with a bachelor degree. Critical. Project managers also need a minimum of one to three years of work experience. This may be gained by managing jobs in the industry. Other key skills include: Interpersonal and decision-making skills Strong communication skills Good team building and leadership skills Ability to multi-task. The Bureau of Labor Statistics states that a project manager earns an father Queen's College average median salary of $83,860. Top earners can earn nearly $100,000 or more in writing, this industry if working in the construction industry. Typical job duties for essay construction managers include: Scheduling projects in ordered steps. Budgeting time to meet project deadlines.
Hiring and writing supervising personnel for essay writing on my projects. Resolving problems, designing work procedures. Film College. Preparing work contracts. Writing Queen's College. Making additions to contracts and agreements, working with consultants, clients, vendors, suppliers and critique of article (INTO) subcontractors. Working on designs, technical writing or specifications. Interpreting plans, contract and other blueprints to other staff including administrative personnel, workers or clients. To earn a job as a project manager, you have to have a resume that is top-notch. Your resume should reflect your key talents, skills and abilities as a project manager. Essay On My Father. Here is a sample resume that will help reflect your skills and abilities as a project manager. JOHN C. PROJECT MANAGER. Professional Project Manager with 7+ years’ project management experience in how to an essay on a College, the public sector with emphasis on environmental projects and essay writing on my father College managing crews, construction and demolition projects.
Construction/Demolition Environmental Projects OSHA Compliance Change Management Budgeting Cost Controls Bidding Proposals Crew Supervision. ABC Construction, LLC. (Denver, CO) – Construction Project Manager 2-08 to Present. Led infrastructure improvements on highways following award of government contract. Q Company, Inc. (Colorado Springs, CO) Site Supervisor, Project Manager 3/05 to 2/06. Helped supervise engineering and Nankai University crew teams, road projects, restore compliance and adhere to safety regulations on new construction. PC Construction Company (Manitou Springs, CO) 3/04 to 3/05.
Demolition, improvement projects, compliance and maintain OSHA regulations, project management for specific commercial construction projects. University of Colorado – BS in on my father, Civil Engineering 1998. OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response Certification. Below is Another Guide with Sample For You!! Are you a project manager seeking another level of a journal article Sherborne International challenge in your career? Do you need to essay on my Queen's College write a compelling resume? Your resume is the first thing an employer looks at, and it’s your best shot to a article review The Fessenden School stand apart from the essay on my Queen's College crowd. So, it’s really worth your time to pay more attention and ensure it is distinct. The tasks of project managers are now invaluable for companies in the information age.
Consequently, Employers look for some specific qualities in project managers. Most companies seek Project Managers because they streamline production process, and thus save cost, increase ROI and enable companies plan better. You have to a article The Fessenden bear this fact in mind when writing your resume. For project managers, what really matters to Employers are experience, education, number and writing Queen's College size of how to write previous projects, personal skills as well as other accomplishments. Let’s see the things that make a project manager resume compelling as well as the most important areas of emphasis that make the eyeballs of employers pop. What Do Employers Look for in a Project Manager’s Resume? In a project manager’s resume, employers usually look for specific information to essay father College help them decide the writing review The Fessenden best hire. This information includes:
1. Experience that can be verified: Employers want to make sure they can directly or indirectly verify candidate’s experience as specified in their resumes. Here are the things an employer would watch out essay on my College for: Number and essay writing size of the projects you have undertaken in the past: Employers want to know how many projects you have undertaken in the past as well as the size of the essay writing on my Queen's project in terms of scope, budget etc Type and complexity of write an essay on a College du Leman projects: As you know, project managers handle very wide range of tasks. Employers like to know if you have handled similar tasks to the projects in their organization. If not, they would be interested in the complexity of the projects you have handled in the past. Budget, scope and timelines of projects: Employers are interested in how you managed the budgets for essay father Queen's College previous projects, whether you met deadlines or not and the scope of the project Written Communication Skill: This is verified by the way your resume is structured and how your experience is explained in your resume. Similarly, your verbal communication skills will be evaluated during the interview session. Education: Here, employers want to know whether you applied your skills to work and how you applied them. Results: Employers also want to how to write an essay on a College know whether you achieved success and how. They like to know how you tracked project performance, how your expenses stand against the original budget, matrix management and communications management. Of course, you can’t spell out essay Queen's College all your achievements in detail but the few ones you list should be directly related to the organization you are applying to.
Secondly, ensure you specify the number of sample essay writing Thornton Academy projects you have handled since you can’t list all of them. Employers are concerned about how many times you have changed jobs and why. This is the only way they can safeguard their organization against essay writing Queen's job seekers that hop from one company to articles writing Polimoda another. 3. Timing of Project Management-Related Credentials. They want to know whether your project management credentials came before your experience or vice versa. How to Write a Project Manager Resume. Having said what employers actually look out for in your resume, let’s now discuss how to write a compelling Project Manager Resume for those who are just starting a career in essay on my College, project management and those who have lots of experience. This is the develop critical The University of Adelaide (Navitas) most important information in essay writing Queen's, this section. Employers go through hundreds of Nankai resumes; as such, they have limited time to go through your resume. So, ensure your resume is on my father Queen's College concise and clear. Very importantly, your skills and experience should be very noticeable and easy to read.
A project manager’s resume should not be unusually over-worded. Employers want to know about you, and they want to do that as quickly as possible. So, any extra word in your resume is limiting your chances of getting the job. Sample Essay Writing Topics Thornton Academy. Bear in mind that it is more professional to write in the 3rd party. It also helps make your resume more concise. Essay Writing Queen's. So, your experience should read ‘Pioneered revenue management web-based software for a journal article Sherborne International banks’ instead of essay College ‘I pioneered …’ or ‘Smith pioneered …’ It is important to bear this in mind before you start writing your resume. Having correct contact details is definitely an develop The University of Adelaide (Navitas) obvious need in writing Queen's, a resume. So, ensure your contact information is updated. Check your mobile number and email address, and be sure they haven’t change or you haven’t mistakenly deleted one or more letters. Make sure you use a number that can be easily reached.
If employers find it difficult to reach you, they’ll just move on to the next resume. This should be a summary of your past, present and future. Make sure this is really enticing, making employers want to learn more about you. Use very appropriate words to describe your skills, experience and how to film du Leman goals. This is what separates the resume of Queen's College a young graduate from an experienced project manager. A young graduate needs to list his or her educational details immediately after the personal profile to make the resume enticing. Particularly, new job seekers should ensure consistency in education progression.
You need to demonstrate the ability to focus, gain qualifications and pursue the same career. Now, your career history should come after your education. For experience job seekers, your career history should come before education. Articles For Summary Polimoda. Employers want to see facts and figures – budgets, scope, results, communication management, team management, etc. Include words like ‘Saved over $300, 000 of management cost by … ‘ or ‘ … completed the entire project within budget, with minimal deviations and in time’. On My Father College. After career, an experience project manger should list technical skills. As said earlier, the career history should come before education for experienced job seekers, whereas it should come after education for new job seekers. Here’s how your career should be highlighted. Your career should be highlighted in reverse chronological order. That means, your most recent employment should come first and a article The Fessenden School then followed by the previous one.
The important information you should include are company name, job title as well as the dates you started and stopped working there. Usually, the dates should include the months and father years, but not necessarily the day. If you have jumped around a couple of for summary writing Polimoda jobs, remember to state why you left in just one sentence. This is on my College particularly important for technical project managers – engineering or IT project managers. You don’t have to list every little thing you know. Instead, focus on the ones you’ll find easy to answer during an interview session. There are many schools of thought about the role of hobbies in critique of article Nankai, resumes. Basically, you want to appear like a disciplined person who can handle the role advertised. Below is essay father Queen's a sample resume for how to write on a College du Leman an experienced Project Manager. This will serve as your template for writing IT project manager resume, construction project manager resume and others. Jennifer White , PMP, MBA, B Sc Digital Marketing.
25B, Madison Avenue ? Sydney Area, Australia ? 123.456.7890 n firstname.lastname@example.org. Systems ENGINEER ? IT Services Deployment ? SOFTWARE Development. Close to 10 years of enterprise-related project management in customer service, marketing and operations for healthcare, management consulting and retailing environments across public and writing on my private enterprises. Information analyst with track record of boosting revenue by over 20% following the introduction of critiquing article Sherborne new tactics to old systems. Manage projects worth millions of dollars, taking outsourcing solutions across West Africa, East Africa and environs; completed the entire project within budget, in time and on my Queen's with minimal deviations from Nankai University (INTO) original plan. Experienced in project management using expert online freelancers across the world to cut down operations cost by over 40% with smoother operations and greater success rate. Email Encryption Solutions. Enterprise Messaging Solutions. Mobile Payments Implementation. Enterprise Email Messaging, Project Lifecycle. Budgeting and Cost Analysis.
Project Scope Design. Business Modeling Ancillary Skills. Team Building and essay father Management. Client Relationship Management. DEVANUS INC. (Sydney Area, Australia) May 2002 to present. Senior Project Manager, January 2006 to critiquing article Sherborne International present. Oversee the development of essay father Queen's interactive, multimedia, Internet-based customer enquiry desk for Airtel largest full service advertising and communication firm. Writing Thornton Academy. Provide project management for large projects involving complex technology and lead cross-functional teams of essay writing on my College up to 20 programmers, developers, and a article review The Fessenden analysts. Budget = over $10M. Drove up customer satisfaction score by essay on my 25% in just 8 months and turned; slashed turnaround time for write film du Leman customer service desk by as much as 5 days (from 2 weeks) by introducing sms-based customer service support system.
Elevated revenue by over one million dollars by using technology to identify the writing Queen's College most loyal and highest paying customers and then providing specialized service to them Built greater expertise and hence confidence in staffs by articles for summary writing identifying in-house, experienced experts and organizing informal training sessions for new and upcoming staffs. Project Manager, May 2002 to January 2006. Managed multiple projects totaling $5M in budget; generated new customer service architectural systems for fledgling firms; reduced the cost of business operations by introducing the use of outsourcing firms. Successfully consolidated and writing streamlined business operations following the merger of Airtel and Vodafone. Led pilot teams to test new processes, anticipate crises and provide contingency solutions. Increased revenue by develop thinking of Adelaide (Navitas) over 25% using a cross-functional team of financial, technical and business experts who analyzed and discovered a leak in business operations while working on on my father Queen's another project Honored with ‘Best Innovator Award’ for introducing web-based project management tools for managing outsourcing firms and tracking project details. MBA (GPA: 3.8), University of London, London, 2005.
B Sc (GPA: 3.75), Hult University, London, 2001. PMI-Certified Project Management Professional (PMP), 2002.
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1st amendment essays Essay contest 2010. Thank you to everyone who submitted essays for essay writing College the First Amendment Week essay contest. The judges for the essay contest were. Will Creeley, director of legal and public advocacy, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education David Greene, executive director, The First Amendment Project W. Nankai University! Wat Hopkins, professor, Virginia Tech Department of Communication Kim Zarkin, associate professor, Westminster College. The winning essay, written by essay writing on my College Kirsten Kube, a senior political science major, follows: The Real Value of Freedom.
By Kirsten Kube. “The real value of freedom is not to the minority that wants to talk, but to the majority that does not want to articles writing Polimoda, listen.” I recently came across this quote by Zechariah Chafee and it made me rethink my feelings towards the First Amendment. This quote completely encompasses what the essay on my father College First Amendment aims to protect. Sample Writing Thornton! The First Amendment provides a protection to the minority. However, to those citizens who are oppressed and prevented from sharing their thoughts, opinions, and beliefs, its protection is deeper and more powerful than that. The First Amendment ensures that the essay on my Queen's majority listens, even if they don’t want to. This is a powerful sentiment. Citizens, companies, and institutions that have the power and are reluctant to change, adverse to new ideas, and of article, opposed to contradictory beliefs cannot disregard those that they do not agree with. The First Amendment guarantees to all citizens that if they choose to speak their mind, what they are saying cannot be silenced, cannot be restrained, and cannot be ignored. That is the true value of the writing First Amendment and critical thinking The University of Adelaide (Navitas), that is what makes it one of the most important parts of our Constitution. While we may disagree with what someone says, or what someone believes in, or the reasons for which someone protests, we must still protect his or her right to do so.
The First Amendment represents the values on which this country was founded. When the colonies voiced their disapproval of King George III, they were exercising their freedom of speech. The Declaration of Independence itself is writing, perhaps the first document in which a formal “freedom of speech” is evident. Thomas Jefferson eloquently and assertively listed the numerous grievances the colonies had against critiquing a journal International the King. The document is essentially petitioning the Government of England for a redress of grievances, one of the guarantees listed in the First Amendment.
The values underlying the First Amendment were evident long before there was a United States of America. I believe free speech should be protected in almost every instance. However, this belief was tested when I read Texas v. Johnson in a Constitutional Law class last year. I am an incredibly patriotic person and to read a case involving the burning of the on my father American flag was difficult for me to comprehend. Write College! I was initially against the majority opinion and I found it to essay on my father, be quite troubling. In fact, I almost found myself agreeing more with Justice Stevens’ conservative dissent. Then I remembered what my Dad has continuously told me from the time I was a little girl, “Kirsten, always remember to keep an critical The University, open mind.” So I read Justice Brennan’s opinion again. The more I read, the more I began to understand the importance and astounding simplicity of the First Amendment. On My Queen's College! In the majority opinion for Texas v. Johnson, Brennan writes, “the flag’s deservedly cherished place in our community will be strengthened, not weakened, by our holding today. Our decision is critiquing article Sherborne International, a reaffirmation of the principles of freedom and writing on my father College, inclusiveness that the critical thinking The University of Adelaide flag best reflects, and of the conviction that our toleration of essay writing on my father, criticism such as Johnson’s is Polimoda, a sign and source of our strength” Brennan claims that our toleration of the flag burning and the very fact that our Constitution protects it as a form of symbolic speech illustrates the essay writing father College power and University, importance of the First Amendment. It exemplifies the writing on my strength and how to write an essay du Leman, resilience of essay writing on my father Queen's, our ideals.
Brennan adds, “If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the Government may not prohibit the expression of an critique Nankai, idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable.” As Americans, we should not be afraid to listen to someone who disagrees with us. In fact, Brennan argues we should welcome it. We should yearn for on my father someone to deny what we believe in, to test our values, and to question our principles. Without that challenge, how can we be absolutely certain that what we believe is true? While we may not want to write on a film College du Leman, hear about another religion, or read an opposing political opinion, or witness someone burn the flag we hold so dear to our hearts, it is imperative that we protect this right. Essay Writing On My Father College! For without it, our country would be paralyzed in a state of disillusionment, recession, and subjugation. We would not move our civilization forward, we would not advance our ideals, and we would be forever trapped in a moment in sample essay writing topics Thornton Academy time that would neither allow us to on my father Queen's College, continue or permit us to critiquing a journal article International, return. When President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation he was exercising his First Amendment rights. As Martin Luther King Junior delivered his “I Have A Dream” speech, he was employing his First Amendment protections. Americans who participated in sit-ins advocating equal rights or citizens who protested the Vietnam War exercised their First Amendment rights. When Jews or Christians or Muslims worship, they are exercising their First Amendment guarantees.
I am able to vote because women before me challenged the laws of their time. Without the freedom to speak, or to protest, or to practice whatever religion one chooses, these victories would not have occurred. Yet to this day, we continue to challenge these essential freedoms. In New York City, the construction of an Islamic Mosque is essay writing on my father, being aggressively opposed. Why? The First Amendment protects a freedom of essay writing Academy, religion. To prevent this mosque from being built would be a reckless abandonment of the principles and freedoms contained in the First Amendment.
In America, we are given a precious gift: freedom. This is something we should never take for essay on my father College granted. Our Constitution is a rare and sample topics Academy, powerful document that has persisted for over two hundred years. It protects our freedom and has ensured our way of on my father Queen's College, life for centuries. The First Amendment will continue to be challenged, but it will persevere.
It will continue to write an essay film College, guard the citizens of this country just as the American Flag flies over the land of the free, even if it is burned along the way.
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Essay: Agency theory – the Principal-Agent Model. 1.1 Behavioral Economics. Many of the assumptions on which economic models and theories are based are often wrong when we critically look at them from the perspective of social sciences. Thinking about essay writing on my Queen's College, yourself, do you always make fully rational choices that are only critiquing a journal article Sherborne International, self-interested? Are your preferences time-consistent? Most of essay writing on my father Queen's you will answer no to these questions or will act different from these assumptions when faced with a decision in real life. Develop Critical Thinking The University Of Adelaide (Navitas)? Economics traditionally views actors in an economic world as unemotional maximizers. Behavioral economics incorporates the College, facts, models and of article University (INTO), methods from neighboring sciences to essay Queen's College provide a more realistic representation of human behavior into economics.
It studies the findings about human behavior and social interaction of a article review The Fessenden mainly psychology, but also sociology, anthropology and biology. Behavioral economics explores the implication that these findings from Queen's College, other sciences have for critiquing article International, economic behavior. The idea of behavioral economics goes back to the 1950s when Hebert Simon tried to reunify economics and psychology. Around 1970 cognitive psychologists started to essay writing father Queen's College look into article International, economic decision-making. The main essence of behavioral economics is Queen's College, that increasing the realism of the write an essay film, underlying assumption of economic models and theories will improve the field of economics. Rabin (2002) states, ‘Ceteris paribus, the more realistic our assumptions about economic actors, the better our economics. Hence, economists should aspire to make our assumptions about humans as psychological realistic as possible’. Behavioral economists investigate in which ways the behavior of individuals differs from the assumptions made in the standard model and then show why this deviating behavior matters for economic theory. The last decade, the efforts of behavioral economists to essay father Queen's incorporate more realistic notions of human nature into economics have increased remarkably. Most behavioral economists have retained the critique of article, basic frameworks of the neo-classical models, but supplemented them with more realistic assumptions. Father College? The main assumptions of standard economics that behavioral economics criticize are unbounded rationality, unbounded willpower and unbounded selfishness.
Unbounded selfishness, the assumption that people are fully self-interested, is one of the building blocks of many economic theories and for summary writing, models. Essay Writing On My Father Queen's College? Behavioral economics, however, have found that self-interest is not all of human motivation. People tend to be altruistic, which implies that people care about how to write film, others’ people well-being as well. Essay Writing Father College? Moreover, it turns out that people do not only care about other people, but they also care about the fairness and writing review The Fessenden, distribution of resources and writing Queen's, even about the intentions and motives of other people’s behavior. One of the most classic theories in economics is the Expected Utility Theory. The Expected Utility Theory states that people value decisions by critique of article University (INTO), weighting the utility of an outcome by its probability. Behavioral economists have done a lot of research on this theory and on my father, found that this theory does not seem to hold in the real world. They developed Prospect Theory, which incorporates psychophysical features that Expected Utility theory misses.
Two main conclusions of Prospect Theory are that people are loss averse and that people do not weight probabilities linearly. In my thesis I will investigate how individuals weight probabilities and how we can incorporate a more realistic view of probability weighting into the Principal Agency Theory. It seems that behavioral economists have reasonable arguments why we should incorporate assumptions of essay Academy social sciences into economics, however not all economists agree with behavioral economists. Camerer (1999), argues that most of the active resistance to on my father behavioral economics is the fear that the alternatives of psychology to rationality are too fragmented and can therefore not suggest a coherent alternative. Other researchers argue that even though economics might not be perfect, psychology is neither. Levin (2009), argues that psychology is mainly focused on the behavior of individuals while economics is focused on the behavior of individuals in groups. He states that this is a crucial difference, which should be considered before psychological findings are incorporated in economic theories. Moreover, Winter (2014) argues that behavioral economics take on a too negative view on individual decision making. He believes that emotions do not lead us away from rational decision making, but that we need emotions to serve as a signaling mechanism to coordinate our actions and to arrive at an equilibrium. He claims that our emotional system and our rational system are intertwined around each other and are therefore inseparable from each other.
However, most economist lately have agreed upon the main arguments of behavioral economists and believe that many of the assumptions on which economic theories and models are based are not consistent with reality. 1.2 Agency Theory. In my thesis I will investigate the a journal article Sherborne International, Principal-Agent Model and I will try to tweak one of the assumptions on which the model is based according to essay writing on my the principles of Behavioral Economics. The agency theory model was first formulated in the early 1970s, by the early 1990s it had become the dominant institutional logic of how to write an essay film du Leman corporate governance. An agency relationship arises between two parties when one of the parties, the agent, acts for the other party, the principal. The principal-agent framework is thus a method that we use to investigate problems in which the principal hires an agent to essay father Queen's perform a certain task for him/her. The problem that arises in this framework is moral hazard, since the article Sherborne International, agent might not have the same incentives as the principal. Moreover, in the classical model, the actions of the essay on my Queen's, agent are not observable, leaving them with the incentive to critiquing a journal Sherborne shirk. To elaborate on this, the model assumes that an agent chooses an action that influences the Queen's, outcome, but does not determine the outcome. The principal can thus observe the outcome, but cannot observe the action that the agent has undertaken; therefore we have a hidden action problem. Since the agent’s actions are unobservable, the principal cannot simply pay the agent for the actions he or she has undertaken.
To overcome the hidden action problem, the agent will try to bridge the informational asymmetries by installing information systems and by monitoring the Polimoda, agent. The principal tries to align his incentives with the incentives of the agent and hopes thereby to positively influence the behavior of the agent. There are many tools that can align the interests of the principal and the agent, such as bonuses, piece rates, stock options, profit sharing etc. The problem with an incentive contract is essay, that it will impose risk on the agent since the agent does not have full influence on the outcome. The main assumptions on which agency theory is build, are widely discussed by behavioral economists. They state, for example, that agents are work averse and self-interested utility maximizers. Behavioral economists, argue that these assumptions are not consistent with behavior of agents in real life. Perrow (1986) observes that in some organizational structures human beings are other-regarding and develop of Adelaide, even altruistic.
He states that classical agency theory fails to writing College recognize the cooperative aspect of social life. Sociologists believe that we need a more nuanced understanding of the incentives of principals, agents and organizations. If we could make the assumptions on which agency theory is based more realistic, we would get a more realistic theory that shows us a more realistic picture of the interaction between agent and principal. The principal agent theory is based on of article Nankai University, the expected utility theory, which states that people make decisions under uncertainty by multiply the outcome by the probability. Behavioral economists disagree with this theory and developed Prospect Theory. Essay Writing Father College? As I stated before, in my thesis I will try to incorporate a more realistic view of probability judgment, which is a part of prospect theory, into the model of agency theory. I will start by Polimoda, describing the classical model of agency theory. Then I will continue by discussing why we need a more realistic view of on my Queen's probability judgment into the model. I will conclude with which change I believe should be made into the model and the impact that it has on the model. 2. Critiquing Article Sherborne International? Agency Theory ‘ The Model. 2.1 The standard model.
In the Principal-Agent model we have a principal whose payoff is influenced by an outcome, which can be good or bad. The principal hires an agent who helps him to achieve this outcome. The agent has to decide how much effort he/she will put in. The amount of effort that the agent will put in, influences the outcome. However, effort is costly and it will not provide a certain outcome, we thus cope with uncertainty in the model. The principal cannot observe how much effort the agent puts in; he/she can only observe the outcome. The model tries to achieve a Pareto efficient outcome, which implies that no one can be made better off without making someone else worse off. Two things to consider for a Pareto optimal outcome is the optimal division of risk and the optimal division of the profits. Essay On My Father College? The Pareto optimal division is a solution of a constrained maximization problem. For the standard model we assume that the agent is writing The Fessenden School, risk averse and essay on my Queen's College, the principal is risk neutral. The agent does not need to choose effort in this version of the model.
We consider a model of binary uncertainty and assume that the outcome can either have a value high, H, or low, L, where HL. The principal will receive the profit, H or L, minus the wage paid to the agent, gH or gL. We will define the utility function of the principal as u(x) and the utility function of the agent as v(x). The University? Where v'(x) 0 and v'(x) PL, meaning that the more effort put in the higher the essay writing College, chance that the high outcome occurs. Since effort is not costless, the agent’s utility function will change and cost of how to an essay film effort will be subtracted from the utility gained from father, wage. We assume that the cost of University low effort is zero. When the essay writing on my father, agent is risk averse and the principal is risk neutral, the agent will get a fixed wage. This fixed wage will be equal to U-1(U0+c) for high effort and U-1(U0) for low effort. The Pareto optimal outcome depends on which of the following is higher E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) or E(V|eL)-U-1(U0). We call this outcome the first best outcome.
However, it can only be attained in two special cases. The first case is when effort is of article Nankai University, observable, since the principal can then set a wage according to the effort the agent has put in. The second case is when the agent is risk neutral, the principal can then transfer all risk towards the agent by giving himself a set wage. Essay Queen's College? In this case the writing a article review, agent will choose the on my father Queen's College, effort level that maximizes his expected utility and will thus only choose high effort when the increase in expected utility is larger then the critical thinking The University of Adelaide (Navitas), costs of high effort. When effort is unobservable and essay on my Queen's College, the agent is risk averse, the how to write on a film College du Leman, first best outcome cannot be achieved. Since the agent is risk averse optimal risk sharing would imply that the agent would receive a fixed wage. However, this will not incentivize the agent to put in more effort.
First I assume that E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) E(V|eL)-U-1(U0), meaning that high effort increases the value for the principal more than it costs the essay writing on my father Queen's, agent. For the agent to accept the contract and to choose high effort, two conditions must hold. The first condition is incentive compatibility, meaning that the agent will get a higher expected utility by choosing high effort than by choosing low effort. The IC condition can be written as, PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-c’PLu(WG)+(1-PL)u(WB). Articles For Summary Writing Polimoda? The second condition is the individual rationality condition, implying that the agent will get a higher expected utility by choosing the contract and high effort then by declining the contract. This condition is on my father Queen's College, written as PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-c’U0. The principal needs to maximize E(V-W) subject two both constrains.
The second-best contract will yield lower expected utility for the principal than the first-best contract, this is because he/she needs to induce the agent to exert high effort. 3. Decision Making Under Uncertainty. 3.1 Probability valuation. ‘Economists traditionally have assumed that, when faced with uncertainty, people correctly form their subjective probabilistic assessments according to the laws of on a film du Leman probability. But researchers have documented many systematic departures from rationality in judgment under uncertainty’, (Rabin, 1998). Faced with decision under uncertainty, people depart from perfect rationality and seem to essay Queen's College rely on sample essay topics Academy, some heuristic principles, which help them to make the essay on my Queen's, complex task of assessing probabilities to a simpler judgmental operation. This can, however, lead to systematic errors.
Hence, it seems that people are not following the principles of probability theory when they judge the likelihood of uncertain events. Thinking (Navitas)? ‘Some deviations of on my subjective from objective probability seem reliable, systematic and difficult to eliminate’ (Kahneman #038; Tversky, 1974). If Kahneman and Tversky are right that these biases are systematic, we could incorporate one or more of these deviations into our Principal-Agency model. We would make the develop thinking The University of Adelaide, model more realistic from a psychological perspective. There are several biases in probability judgment and I will discuss a few. Essay? One of the biases is the Law of Small Numbers, it implies that people exaggerate the chance that a small probability will occur, contrary they undervalue the probability that an Polimoda, event with a high probability will occur. People become less sensitive to changes in probabilities as they move away from essay writing on my College, a reference point. Critique Nankai University (INTO)? In probability distribution 0 and 1 can be seen as the reference points, which implies that the weighting function can be pictured as an inverse S-shape. This leads to the overvaluation of small probabilities and the undervaluation of writing Queen's higher probabilities. In section 4.2, I show by means of figure 1 what this bias graphically does with probability weighting.
Another bias in people’s judgment of probability is representativeness. Representativeness implies that a person will evaluate the probability of an uncertain event by two degrees. First, the degree to which it is similar to other known events and second the essay topics, degree to which it reflects similar features of the process by which it is generated. People will attain a higher probability to essay on my father the event that appears more representative to them. This causes people to make wrong judgments since an event that is more representative does not actually need to be more likely. Representativeness can for example lead to an excessive reaction to current information and critique (INTO), too little weight on the prior odds. The representativeness heuristic is most of the time systematic in direction. In section 4.2, I also show on the hand of figure 1 what the representativeness bias graphically does with probability weighting. Moreover, we have the isolation effect, which explains that people tend to often isolate consecutive probabilities instead of treating them together.
This leads to essay writing on my Queen's inconsistent preferences when the a journal Sherborne, same choice is presented in different forms. There are many more biases, many of them probably not even known yet. In my thesis I will concentrate on on my father Queen's College, the Law of Small Numbers and the representativeness bias. I will build decision weights that adapt the probabilities towards the articles for summary writing Polimoda, judgments of individuals that are affect by these two biases. 3.2 Implication for the Principal Agent Model. The most important consequence of essay writing on my Queen's these findings is articles Polimoda, that people do not simply interpret a probability as a given number, but since they are not fully rational they value this number differently based on judgment. The beliefs and essay writing father Queen's College, expectations of an individual about the probability of a certain event will differ from the actual probability of that event. They will therefore assign a different probability to the event than would be rational. Sample Essay Academy? Consequently, we need a different theory of choice under uncertainty; we need to on my father College replaced probabilities in the model by decision weights.
Decision weights take into account the articles for summary Polimoda, beliefs and expectations that the individual has about the probability of a certain event. Since the likelihood of a certain event is an important part of making decisions under uncertainty, replacing probabilities with decision weights will make a model more realistic and would thus lead towards a more optimal outcome. Writing Queen's College? I will build decision weights on the two biases I just discussed, the Law of Small Numbers and representativeness, and a journal International, incorporate them into the Principal Agent model. Important is to notice that since people hold different knowledge, different believes and have different manners to assess probabilities no single probability will be interpret the same. Therefore, the decision weights of the principal and agent will differ from each other.
Moreover, we could argue that the principal has more information and on top of that might be able to make more rational judgments since there might be some systems in place for preventing him/her from making these kind of non-rational judgments. The fact that people judge probabilities as decision weights can have many implications. The principal might be aware of this and on my father Queen's, can therefore manipulate the writing Polimoda, decision weight that the agent will assign to the outcome. If we take for example the representativeness bias, the principal might manipulate the essay father Queen's College, representativeness of the outcome he prefers, making that outcome seem more salient to the agent will cause the writing a article review School, agent to put a higher decision weight on the preferred outcome of the principal. However, there is also a possibility that the principal does not know that the agent does not make a rational judgment of the probabilities. The principal will then make a wrong assessment of the essay writing on my Queen's, valuation process of the critique (INTO), agent and this will then lead to an outcome that is essay writing on my father College, sub-optimal for one or both parties. As can be seen, substituting probabilities by decision weights can have many implications into the Principal Agent model, which I will discuss next. 4. The Adapted Model with Binary Uncertainty, without effort. 4.1. Adapting the standard Principal Agent Model. In its simplest version the Principal Agent model starts with 2 persons, a principal that hires an agent.
The principal cannot observe effort, he/she can only observe the outcome. The agent and principal thus have to cope with a decision under uncertainty. As I discussed in my introduction, classical economic theory uses Expected Utility Theory for decision-making under uncertainty. Agency theory is also based on Expected Utility Theory. Behavioral economists, however, invented Prospect Theory.
Prospect Theory introduces a more realistic view of decision making under uncertainty and sample essay writing topics Thornton, I will change the Principal-Agent model by writing father College, incorporating some of the findings of this theory. To be more specific, I will substitute the probabilities in the model by decision weights. When we consider binary uncertainty, as discussed in section 2.1, we deal with risk and the suggestions of Prospect Theory will be of importance. Write On A Film Du Leman? One of the assumptions on which the binary model is build is the probability distribution P(H) = p and P(L) = 1 ‘ p. This assumption is one of the essay writing father College, basics of the qualitative law of probability; it is called the conjunction rule. The conjunction rule states that the probability of a conjunction P(A#038;B), cannot exceed the probabilities off either P(A) or P(B), since it is an extension of these elements. Of Article (INTO)? Behavioral economists despite have found that judgments under uncertainty are not bounded by the conjunction rule, since they are often based on intuitive heuristics. A violation of the conjunction rule is called the conjunction fallacy and often occurs because of the representativeness bias. I argue that people rely on a natural assessment to produce an estimation or a prediction, which most of the Queen's, time is not rational. To adapt a more realistic view on probability judgment to the Principal-Agent model, I will substitute the probabilities within the model with decision weights.
There are many biases in probability judgment and to make decision weights as realistic as possible, all these biases would need to be incorporated. This is too extensive for my thesis and probably not even possible, therefore I focus on two biases, the Law of sample essay topics Thornton Academy Small Numbers and representativeness. Decision weights are a function of probabilities, in which parameters represent the biases. The probabilities will, thus, be affected by the degree of these biases. 4.2 Implementing decision weights into the standard Principal Agent Model. Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992) suggest that decision weights should be specified by the following formula: The parameter ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers, it establishes whether ‘small’ probabilities will be under- or over-weighted. The parameter accomplishes this by specifying the on my father Queen's College, slope of the curve and it thereby measures the sensitivity towards changes in probability. ?? can take on values between 0 and critiquing Sherborne International, 1, so 0”??1.
The smaller . the larger the deviation of the probability weighting function is from linear weighting. When ?? = 1, the essay writing on my Queen's College, individual does not overvalue small probabilities and undervalue large probabilities. The parameter ?? originally represents a degree of optimism, it can either shift the probability curve upward or downward. Originally it can take on articles, values below or above 1, presenting an optimistic or pessimistic view on the probability of the outcome. Essay On My Queen's College? I suggest using this parameter to The Fessenden represent the representativeness bias. If a certain outcome seems more representative to essay writing Queen's College an individual he or she will attach a higher perceived probability to that outcome, consequently it will lead to write film College an upward shift of the essay father Queen's College, probability function. Since there is a positive relationship between probability judgment and representativeness, ?? can only take on the value 1 or higher, so ‘?? 1. If a certain outcome does not seem representative to a journal article the individual, ?? will be equal to 1. Moreover, if ?? = 1 the conjunction rule will hold. If ??1, however, the parameter will provide more weight on the probability of the outcome.
Concluding, the on my Queen's College, decision weight given to Academy each outcome is thus the function of the probability distribution as described above. When ??=??=1, Expected Utility Theory holds. However, most individual behavior deviates from this situation. Figure 1, shows how the on my, parameters originally proposed changes the sample topics Thornton Academy, probability distribution. The left side of the figure shows the effect of changing the Law of Small Numbers has on the probability distribution. The lower, . the essay on my father Queen's College, steeper the inverse S-shape becomes and thus the more low probabilities will be overvalued and high probabilities undervalued. The right side shows the representativeness bias, keeping ?? constant. In my case, ?? would only lead to an upward shift of the probability distribution. Causing the develop critical of Adelaide, point at which p = 0.5 to essay on my father only shift above the linear line.
Figure 1, Decision weight originally proposed by College du Leman, Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992). Notice that in my case ??1, and not below 1. Retained from Gonzalez, R., #038; Wu, G. (1999). On the shape of the probability weighting function. Cognitive psychology, 38(1), 129-166. The decision weights I will use are defined as follows. Where 0 ‘ ‘?? 1, ‘?? 1, i represents the discussed individual (A for agent and P for principal) and H or L stands for high or low. On My Queen's College? For example ??_(A,H) stands for the representativeness bias of the agent towards the high outcome.
Accordingly, I will substitute the probabilities in the principal-agent model by the decision weights as specified in equation 3. The weights that will be assigned to the parameters will differ for writing a article review The Fessenden, each individual and for each situation. Some people might be very sensitive to the Law of Small probabilities and therefore will have a low value for ?? in there decision weight equation. The weight that is attached to . Essay Queen's? will depend entirely on the representativeness of the specific situation that the a article School, individual faces. In section 2.1 I showed the essay on my father Queen's, maximization problem that the principal faces, see equation 1. The maximization problem will change since I will incorporate the for summary writing, decision weights in the model. In section 3.2, I discussed the different scenarios that could occur. For now I will discuss the scenario in which the principal is rational and does not use decision weights, the agent however judges probabilities according to College judgmental heuristics.
I will thus substitute the probabilities by decision weights for the agent only. Critique Nankai? The model can now be defined as follows. The optimization problem can be solved by using the Lagrangian method. The first step in this method is rewriting the constraint to. We can then rewrite the problem according to the Langrangian method as follows.
The first order conditions will now be. 4.3 Exploring the effect of decision weights on the standard Principal Agent model. 4.3.1 Effect on the participation constraint. Now that we implemented the decision weights into the Principal Agent model we can explore the effect that it has on the model. Essay Writing College? The effect that the decision weight has on the model depends fully on the parameters . the develop The University, representativeness bias, and . the Law of Small Numbers. If we assume that ??=1 for on my College, the agent, we can investigate the effect of the representativeness bias. When one of the writing The Fessenden, outcomes seems more representative to the agent, ?? will be greater than 1. It cannot be that both outcomes seem more representative to him/her, therefore we use ??H and ??L, representing either the high outcome or the low outcome. Writing College? If the agent feels that the high outcome is more representative, ??H 1 and ??L = 1. He will put more weight on the value of the thinking The University of Adelaide (Navitas), high outcome than the rational agent would do in on my College the original model. Therefore, the expected utility of the agent will be higher than in the original model and consequently the reservation utility will be satisfied faster.
This could mean that the principal will actually need to offer a lower wage, so gH could be decreased, and the reservation utility will still be satisfied. The principal could also keep gH equal and decrease gL or moreover the principal could increase gH and decrease gL even more. Thinking? If the principal is essay writing on my Queen's, aware of the behavior of the agent, the principal could anticipate on develop The University (Navitas), it and essay writing father Queen's, adjust the wages in such a way that is profitable for a article School, him-/herself. The optimal choice depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing, as I will calculate later on. If the other way around, agent X puts more weight on the low outcome since it feels more representative, ??H = 1 and ??L 1. The same thing will occur now, the value constraint will be higher and the reservation utility will thus be satisfied faster. The principal could thus offer a different waging scheme. The optimal choice once again depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.
Concluding, if the essay on my father Queen's College, agent puts more weight on one of the outcomes, the value of the writing a article review The Fessenden School, participation constraint will be higher than in essay father College the original model. The principal could use this information and adapt his wage scheme to it, which will be profitable for him/her. However, the effect will be smaller for writing, the low outcome than for the high outcome, since gHgL. We move on by investigating the on my father Queen's, situation in which ??H=??L=1 and critique of article University (INTO), ?? 1-p, and on top of that the agent feels like the essay, high outcome is more representative, so ??H1; the two effects might actually compensate each other and the decision weights might be approximately equal to the original probabilities. The principal might not change anything in the wage scheme in writing The Fessenden this case. However, if for example ??=0.75, the essay on my father Queen's College, low outcome has a higher probability than the high outcome, 1-p p, and the agent feels like the high outcome is more representative, so ??H1; the two effects reinforce each other and the high outcome is overvalued by the agent. Moreover, the principal could in this situation offer a lower gH to the agent and the agent will still achieve its reservation utility, or he could offer a lower gL or he could offer a higher gH and an even lower gL. The optimal choice depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.
4.3.2 Effect on the condition of sample essay topics Thornton Academy optimal risk sharing. The condition of optimal risk sharing can be calculated by the first order conditions. We could rewrite both equation 7 and essay writing College, equation 8 in for summary the form ?? is father Queen's, equal to. ?? tells us with which value the maximum value of the objective function increases when we relax the constraint. Equation 7 and 8 are rewritten as follows. Since ?? is equal to . we will get the how to write on a film College, following condition of optimal risk sharing. The left hand side of the equation tells us how the utility of the principal changes when gH increases by 1 unit relative to the change in the utility of the agent with 1 unit increase in gH. The right hand side tells us the same but then for gL. In the general model the probabilities that the agent and principal adjudge to the outcomes are equal, therefore both agent and principal assign the same weight to the outcomes in their utility functions. Consequently, the probabilities do no play a role in the optimization problem; they disappear in this equation since they cancel each other out. In my new model the probabilities are substituted by essay father Queen's, decision weights for the agent. The agent and principal do not assign the same weights to the outcomes in their utility function anymore.
Therefore, the probabilities do play a role in the optimal solution. How To Write An Essay On A Du Leman? This will have an impact on Queen's College, the optimal risk sharing, since the marginal rate of substitutions need to be equal to each other for optimal risk sharing. In case the agent overweighs the probability that the high outcome will be achieved there are several things we could do, as I discussed before. The most optimal choice depends on the optimal risk sharing condition. When we look at the optimal risk sharing and the MRS’s we will see the following effect; when the critical thinking The University, agent overweighs the outcome high, the left hand side of the equation will be lower than the right hand side. This occurs since the denominator will be higher than the numerator on the left side of the equation. The agent attaches more weight to essay writing on my Queen's College gH, and thus values gH higher, then the critiquing a journal International, principal does. Therefore, it is optimal for the principal to give the agent more gH and essay writing father College, less gL. When doing so, the a article, MRS’s will at the optimal point become equal to each other again and this is what we ultimately need for optimal risk division. More gH will cause a decrease in father v'(gH) since the critiquing Sherborne International, utility curve of the agent is convex, he/she is risk averse, u'(H-gH) will stay the same since the principal is risk neutral and essay, thus has a linear utility curve.
For the writing, same reason less gL will cause an increase in v'(gL) and u'(L-gL) will stay the same. Therefore the ratio on essay writing on my father Queen's College, the left and right hand side of the equation will become equal again. Noteworthy is that in the original model gH=gL since the agent is risk averse and a journal International, the principal is risk neutral, meaning that it is optimal for the principal to carry all risk. Writing On My Father Queen's? In my new model this is not the case anymore, the agent will get more gH and critique University, less gL than in the original case. The agent is now subject to risk and since his/her concave utility function implies that the essay father College, expected utility of an uncertain wage is lower than that of a certain wage, the essay, agent needs to receive a risk premium.
The wage scheme will however raise the expected utility of the principal by such an writing on my Queen's College, amount that it will be profitable to pay the critique of article University (INTO), agent the risk premium. Moreover, Gonzalez and Wu (1999) argue that when w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the individual tends to embrace risk in essay that specific situation. Therefore, in University some situations an unequal gH and essay writing Queen's, gL will not make the agent worse off. All by all, in this scenario the article, agent overvalues the essay on my Queen's, high probability and w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the expected utility of the agent can thus be decreased. The optimal way to do this is University, thus by increasing gH and decreasing gL in such a way that the total sum of wages is lower than in the original case, since the overall expected utility of the agent is then still equal to the reservation utility. The agent will be equally well of since the essay writing on my, expected utility in both models is equal to his/her reservation utility. The principal however is better off since the total sum of wages is lower than in the original case and this will increase his expected utility. This works the other way around when the sample essay topics, agent undervalues the probability that the good outcome will occur and overvalues the probability of the low outcome. Father Queen's College? In this case he will value gH less than the principal and gL higher than the principal. The best thing that the for summary writing, principal can do is to give the agent less gH and more gL. By giving the agent less gH, v'(gH) will increase since his utility function is convex.
On the other hand, v'(gL) will decrease since we increase gL. Writing On My Queen's? The ratio on the left side of the write an essay on a, equation will then decrease and essay writing College, the ratio on the right hand side of the International, equation will increase. The condition of optimal risk division will be restored again and thus the optimal solution in this case is less gH and more gL. The agent will not be worse or better off since his expected utility will remain the same, however since the wages, gH and gL are not equal anymore the agent has to carry risk and asks a risk premium. The principal however has different beliefs about the probabilities of the outcomes high and low and this makes it profitable in terms of writing on my father College expected utility for the principal to sample writing topics increase gL and decrease gH. Namely, the principal will fulfill the reservation utility with more gL and less gH, since the principal beliefs that the essay writing father Queen's College, chance that the of article, outcome L occurs is lower than the agent does.
The principal is essay writing, therefore willing to pay this risk premium. 4.3.3 Total effect on the maximization problem. The new version of the develop thinking of Adelaide, general model that I suggest thus substitutes probabilities by decisions weights for writing on my father, the agent. Articles For Summary? The decision weights depend on two variables that represent the Law of Small Numbers and the representativeness bias and can have different effects on writing father, the model. The agent and principal now value the probability that a certain outcome will occur differently.
As I discussed the effect that this has fully depends on the values of the parameters and the implication that this has on the participation constraint and an essay, the condition of optimal risk sharing. Moreover, the condition of essay writing Queen's optimal risk sharing ultimately decides what the most optimal wage scheme is and whether this is profitable or unprofitable for the principal. When the principal is fully aware of the behavior of the agent he/she could try to how to write manipulate the decision weight of the essay writing on my father Queen's, agent for his/her own sake. How To Write On A College Du Leman? As discussed before, when one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, he/she will attach a higher value to it and therefore will be equally well off with a lower waging scheme. When the principal is aware of this mechanism, he/she can make one of the outcomes seem more representative to the agent. In this way, the principal could increase his own expected utility without affecting the writing College, expecting utility of the agent. The principal would be most likely to make the high outcome seem more representative since this has the most profitable effect for the principal. Another scenario occurs when the principal is not aware that the agent values the articles for summary writing Polimoda, outcomes with decision weights. The principal will in this case simply think that the original model occurs and set gH equal to Queen's gL. However, we have seen in the new model that this is not optimal in every case anymore.
The principal would thus suggest a waging scheme to the agent that is not optimal. This could imply that the principal is not maximizing his/her expected utility and that of the article, agent. Moreover, in some cases the principal could even offer the agent a waging scheme that the agent will not accept. This shows the importance of the essay writing on my Queen's College, new model, the more realistic view helps to attain the optimal situation; the thinking The University (Navitas), maximization of the utility of both the agent and principal. 5. The Adapted 2?2 Model. 5.1 Implementing decision weights into the 2?2 model. In section 2.2 I discussed the 2?2 model, which is an extension of the general model.
I will focus on the general case with the writing Queen's, second best result, since this is the most likely case. The model will again be adjusted by essay Thornton, substituting the probabilities by decision weights. I will also implement here the second scenario in which the principal is rational and the agent is not. Since the probabilities in the 2?2 model change, the decision weights will look different as well. Essay Father Queen's? We will get four different decision weights; the interpretation of the variables stays the same. ?? presents the representativeness of the outcome, so it depends on G or B. Consequently, ?? has the same value in PH as in PL, ??H, and ?? has the same value in (1-PH) and Polimoda, (1-PL), ??L. ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers; this variable stays the same across the different outcomes. The decision weights are as follows. The principal tries to maximize E(V-W) subject to the two conditions explained in section 2. There is one critical assumption made; the expected outcome minus wage is higher when high effort is put in than with low effort.
The two conditions will be rewritten using decision weights instead of probabilities. The incentive compatibility condition will change to. The second condition, the individual rationality condition, will change to. 5.2 Exploring the on my, effect of decision weights on the 2?2 model. I will concentrate on the effect that the an essay film College, implementation of decision weights has on the IC condition. The decision weight is, as discussed, based on two biases and I will first investigate the effect of both biases separately. On My Father College? When ??H=??L=1 and write an essay, ?? pL the effect of the Law of Small Numbers will be greater on on my father, the left hand side of the equation than on the right hand side. Therefore, the value of the left hand side will become closer to the value of the right hand side and it will thus be harder to achieve the incentive compatibility condition. Moreover, the Law of articles writing Small Numbers has another effect.
As you can see in essay writing figure 1, when the probabilities are very small or very high, the curve is almost flat. Consequently, a change in this area has almost no psychological effect even though mathematically it would have an impact. For example, when the writing review The Fessenden School, chance of a bad outcome is very low for low effort, 0,002, and for high effort, 0.001. Since both probabilities are so small the individual will attach the same weight to both probabilities, even though the bad outcome for low effort is actually twice as high as for high effort. This would imply that the value on the left hand side and right hand side of the writing on my Queen's, equation become closer to each other and it would be harder to fulfill the condition. Hence, both effects of the Law of Small Numbers have the how to write an essay on a College, same effect. On My Queen's College? The two effects together, would thus enhance each other. When ??=1 and ??H1, ??L=1 o r ??L1, ??H=1 we can investigate the effect of the representativeness bias. Articles? When ??H1 and essay writing on my, ??L=1, the probabilities w(PH) and w(PL) will increase by the same amount while w(1-PH) and w(1-PL) will stay equal to there actual probabilities. Since this change will impact both sides of the condition by the same amount the critique of article Nankai University (INTO), representativeness bias will actually have no effect.
The exact same situation occurs when ??L1, ??H=1. Hence, only the Law of Small Numbers will have an writing on my College, effect on the incentive compatibility condition and how to write an essay film, once ?? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Economics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to essay on my father a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to critiquing a journal Sherborne International your essay question. Writing College? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Economics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Economics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
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calm things essays GINGER JAR AND FRUIT Painting by writing on my Queen's PAUL CEZANNE. by Shawna Lemay. M aybe it is worth something, too, in this world of ours, to write two words at the top of a piece of paper. Calm things. We live in Sherborne International the world as little as possible.
When the phone rings in this quiet house, there is genuine shock. We answer, incredulous, stuttering and stumbling over too few words. I wonder what most people talk about at mealtimes. For us, the subject is usually still life. Rob says what area of his painting he’s been working on. He works from a photo that I’ve seen beforehand, and still there is news. The grapes were much darker than he thought they would be before mixing the paint. Father Queen's! Adjustments have to be made continually from photo to canvas. A shadow has to be deepened, a band of light refined. The calligraphy of stems needs be rewritten. At the kitchen table is also where I hear the news of the rest of the article Sherborne world.
Rob listens to the radio, usually CBC, while he paints, and he breaks it to writing father Queen's College me gently while we eat and in between telling me about his current subject mattermaybe an apple, a lemon, a Chinese vase. This past year or so has been especially tiring, exhausting. We have been out of breath continually. I finished my M.A. and defended my thesis all in a year and a half. During this time, a book I had written previous to this had been rejected by one publisher and later accepted by another. Critiquing A Journal Article Sherborne International! Rob had a show that didn’t sell terrifically well. He was taken on trial by two new galleries and then let goby one gallery on essay writing on my College, the very same day as I defended my thesis. We came home to this news after my defence and critiquing a journal article Sherborne never even got to drink the champagne we’d set aside for that evening as our puffed up hearts had been stuck with pins that day and we couldn’t bring ourselves to celebrate. None of these things are particularly unusual in the lives of poets and artists.
But for a while the highs and lows were off-balance and we found ourselves teetering about, half sunk. But the work rights one, it calms. We sink into writing Queen's College, it, and develop of Adelaide somehow our breathing aligns once again to writing on my father College the silent song of the Sherborne International still life, to essay writing father Queen's the poetry in and of it all. In a book on the painter Balthus, Claude Roy notes that in Japan, during the thinking The University (Navitas) Meiji era, the term seibutso was formed. This translates as “calm things” and on my father Queen's College is the term used by the Japanese when talking about what we most commonly call “still life.” Roy says that “the peaceful contemplation of write on a film calm things, has its roots deep in the Japanese past, in politeness with regard to those objects that man has fashioned, generated, humanized.”
I believe in writing on my Queen's the calm of things, and also that one must come to critique of article Nankai (INTO) them in essay on my Queen's College politeness. The great paintings of still life that I have come to revere, that I come to with utmost politeness, are ones that must have been painted with the same approach. I think of Morandi’s rough clay jugs and pitchers and vases. The dust and muddiness of them and the clear, compassionate way he painted them, just so. Looking even at reproductions (alas I am always looking at reproductions), one can feel the man’s hand, hefting the earthen objects into place. Making adjustment after adjustment, his hand careful, sliding, nudging, sometimes adding or removing a vessel.
The intimacy of these gestures! The way he has come to thinking The University of Adelaide these things is with a direct politeness. He doesn’t presume to know themone can see that he comes to knowing through the paint, but the mystery of what they are remains. And so it is writing on my father, with a painting like Juan Sanchez Cotan’s Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon and Cucumber , which was the poster art for the Spanish Still Life from Velazquez to Goya show at the National Gallery in London in 1995. Each seed of the melon, each vein in the cabbage that hangs by a thread, and all the for summary dimples and crags of the essay on my cucumber resting near the edge of the niche, are respectfully recorded, the colour and line and heft of them. They are arranged in their darkened niche in a journal International a parabola, the light falling on each object with utmost gentleness and a common stateliness.
The air is cool where they are, and as the eye curves around the invisible crescent moon-spine, from the quince down to the cucumber, there is writing father Queen's College, time for a slow and critique Nankai deep exhalation. Essay Writing Queen's! Back up is the cool, quiet, discreet inhalation. It is as if the painting is training the viewer how to breathe, telling what rhythm it requires. This picture of the lambent curved breath by Cotan was painted circa 1600. Thirty-three years later, Francisco de Zurbaran painted Still Life with Basket of Oranges . Sample Essay Topics! To the left of the basket of oranges crowned by essay writing father Queen's leaves and blossoms, is a silver plate with lemons. To the develop The University of Adelaide (Navitas) right is a plain white two-handled cup with a rose, both on another silver plate.
All of these sit radiant on a dark wood table before a black background. They glow as if they are the centre of the world, and yet they are a world too, a fine and serene one. As John Berger writes about Zurbaran’s still lifes in his book Keeping a Rendezvous , “What is visible has been placed on the very edge of this darkness, as if somehow the visible has come through the essay writing darkness like a message.” And these paintings do indeed seem to hold a message that comes to us through the darkness, through slant and sliver, and write an essay on a College du Leman through the fires of writing father time. For Summary Writing Polimoda! Berger also says, “Zurbaran has become eloquent at the end of our century because he paints stuffstuff one might find in essay writing Queen's a flea marketwith a concentration and care that reminds us how once it may have been sacred.” If we hold these things at the centre of our heart, if we look closely and write on a du Leman attentively enough, as carefully as the painter did, then there is a visitation, the writing Queen's calm eloquent message. Writing The Fessenden School! We stand in the darkness of a door frame and suddenly remember to dip a toe into the other side, into the brightness. After a few years of predominantly painting still lifes with swaths of dramatic white, light-filled drapery as the background, Rob has begun painting ones with a dark background, not unlike Zurburan’s or Cotan’s or many other painters from the essay writing father Queen's College Baroque period. The current painting in the living room, on our old rickety sideboard, is of purple grapes, pears, and critiquing International lemons. Writing Father! The pears are in for summary a sapphire blue glass bowl, and essay on my father the lemons and grapes are heaped in a tarnished silver scallop-shaped dish. They sit on a red carpet. To me they seem as sacred jewels lit from write an essay on a College du Leman, within, working against the darkness, eloquently oblivious to it, too.
It seems to me that part of essay on my father what a still life does is make what is regarded commonly as un-sacred, sacred. How To Write Film! The un-holy, holy. We experience life in writing on my College all its details. When we remember intense moments, we often begin by recalling small things. Memories of lost loved ones are often triggered when seeing and touching an object that once belonged to them or that was associated with them.
A Globe and Mail article about essay writing Academy survivors of the Tsunami tells of a woman whose family and on my father College home had been wiped out and who was left to care for a childthe only other person left in writing review The Fessenden School the world to whom she was related. At the communal shelter, aid workers had at essay College, last provided her with a pot and a small stove to cook on, and though she’d been stoic to this point, here is where she broke down. Because the pot reminded her of another pot that had resided in her kitchen, now lost, and the kitchen and the pot reminded her of thinking of Adelaide (Navitas) all the people she had cooked for, also irretrievable. In writing of a friend who had simultaneously lost her apartment and her lover, Susan Griffin says, “For loss is experienced through detail, when, for instance, one shops alone if before one shopped for the night’s food with a lover.” For loss is experienced through detail. This is when we most intensely feel the details that connectand also that every last detail is somehow connected. Anita Albus quotes the early Christian mystic, Nicholas of Cusa, who believed that “all is in all and each is in essay each.” And in this way, we are all connected as well. Write On A! Arbus herself says that “the tender links between each various thing, unity in multiplicity, are astounding, deserving of admiration.”
One cooking pot links tenderly to the one violently swept away, which connects to those missing loved ones. Apples hefted at the supermarket link one to the lover who has left. We think of the on my Queen's still lifes of Pompeii, the pears and vessel of water on a shelf, the writing topics Thornton Academy asparagus, bread, and fish. Someone once ate this food, and poured and took refreshment from this vessel, someone long since gone. Essay Writing On My Father Queen's College! And all the objects that we, too, use will at some point in the future belong once again to the dead. The pears from the writing review School bowl in Rob’s recent still life have been eaten. I cut them into quarters and peeled and cored them and father Queen's College placed them in a dish for our daughter. The grapes we all had a hand in eating. And the lemons were made into how to write an essay film College, lemon ginger muffins. The tarnished silver dish has been returned to its place on essay writing on my father Queen's, the shelf above the how to write an essay film College bathtub and filled again with seashells. Essay On My! All of the dishes, plates, vases, rugs, fabric, and various objects that appear in Rob’s still lifes also take up residence in our home.
For the most part, we use them. The fruit is always eaten by us, and many of the sample topics Academy flowers were grown in our small garden along the length of the fence. Albus says that “it is only very rarely that we are able to find traces of the lives of the discreet painters of still lifes in their paintings.” But I see this isn’t true. For I gaze at my own small, quite ordinary life there in the pictures that Rob paints, and I can tell you the story of each one. I can see the scant weight of my entire life held in the yellow lily that I grew near the west side of the house from the bulbs given to me by essay on my father College a friend. I see my life in the bowl that I use for cereal and in the hand-painted plate I chipped once putting it away too quickly. Perhaps the traces are discreet, but they are nonetheless traces.
But the still life tells another story too. While the of article Dutch paintings of the seventeenth century mirror a society that was wealthy and that traded with certain countries, the still life of writing today mirrors a different economy. The objects come from far-flung places that we often know too little about. Review School! And the essay writing on my College same is writing a article review, true of the fruit that is flown into our barren, sleeping winter. We try to keep all the stories straight about essay writing these objects, these things, our abundance, but they get away from us sometimes in spite of that. Maybe it’s because of this that I have always found it interesting to read articles about a still life painting whose author has painstakingly tracked down an item similar to the item depicted. A Journal Article International! In the monograph from the 2000 Chardin show are photographs of various pieces of essay on my father College decorated porcelain similar to those in the paintings: a Chinese porcelain ewer, a basin, a cup and saucer, and articles for summary a small pot made of Japanese Imari porcelain. In her essay “Contemplating Kalf,” Anne Lowenthal researches the covered Chinese porcelain bowl ringed with the memorable “eight Taoist immortals” in Willem Kalf’s most incredible Still Life with a Nautilus Cup . A photograph of a similar piece in the Rijksmuseum is essay writing, included in the appendix, as is a photo of a seventeenth-century Persian carpet like the one in the painting. In other places, I have seen photos of a similar nautilus cup. I wonder where this desire to match up the real object with the painted one comes from.
Is it that we imagine a connection that is of article (INTO), yet possible to make? That our loss is somehow lessened by knowing the object still exists? Is it a sort of atonement for essay on my Queen's College, all that we have glossed over, taken for of article (INTO), granted? Does it speak to a slight disbelief in the still lifethat more-or-less ordinary objects could be raised to divine status? I only essay writing Queen's, know that it is oddly satisfying to see these photographs of the original object, even if it’s not quite the same one. When I see these comparisons, I feel inexplicably comforted. In his book Thou Art That , Joseph Campbell says the title phrase is “the sense of Zen Buddhism.
You must find it in yourself. You are it.” He compares this to the Christian idea that the Kingdom of Heaven is within you. Campbell quotes the Thomas Gospel, “Split the stick, you will find me there; lift the stone, there am I.” The mystery is always there, in articles writing Polimoda everything. And this is essay on my Queen's College, where Campbell gets at what I think is also at the core of still-life painting: “Take any object, draw a ring around it, and you may regard it in for summary Polimoda the dimension of its mystery. You need not think that you know what it is, for you really do not know what it is, but the mystery of the being of your wristwatch will be identical with the mystery of the being of the universe, and of yourself as well. Any object, any stick, stone, plant, beast, or human being, can be placed this way in the centre of a circle of mystery, to be regarded in its dimension of wonder, and so made to serve as a perfectly proper support for meditation.” It seems to be enough, most days, to essay writing Queen's College draw our circles, our rings. To split the stick. It has to an essay on a film College be. We’ve reached the point, too, Rob and I (and this is a gift), where we have quit asking why? Why keep going on with this odd and lovely and at times, invisible life?
It’s not that the question isn’t hovering there along with us, behind us, like a crazed neon sign, blinking out of the darkness. The darkness, that’s part of the answer. The mystery, the mystery is another part of the essay writing on my answer. Also, living with still life is a way of write an essay on a College du Leman breathing. Heidegger quotes Johann Herder: “A breath of our mouth becomes the portrait of the world, the type of on my father College our thoughts and feelings in the other’s soul. On a bit of moving air depends everything human that men on critiquing article, earth have ever thought, willed, done, and ever will do; for we would all still be roaming in the forests if this divine breath had not blown around us, and essay writing on my Queen's College did not hover on review The Fessenden, our lips like a magic tone.” And perhaps it is my particular bias toward the on my College genre of still life, but I think that when we sit long enough, quietly enough, and develop (Navitas) calmly before a fine and essay on my eloquent picture of things, it is possible to enter into that mystery, into the sweet breath of the world, magical, wondrous, divine. When we practice politeness in this contemplation, when we bow our heads, breathe deep and clear and even, we have the capacity to enter into articles for summary, the souls of others, to experience a delicate tracery that connects across time and distance, from one ordinary life to another. Copyright 2007 by father Queen's College Shawna Lemay. In this house, our entire existence seems to revolve around still life, the poetry in objects, things. My husband, Rob, has been painting still life for more than twenty years.
We notice the way the light comes in through various windows at various times of day. A Article Review School! Our daughter, now nine years old, has been trained to notice shadows, and the way light transforms things. We collect odd bits and pieces and are often given beautiful objects, flowers, and fruit by friends. Essay On My Queen's! There is something miraculous to notice in the details of things every day. I think that this way of looking is not limited to the painter of still lifes.
I wanted to share this stance, and in doing so it seemed natural to move from critique of article Nankai University (INTO), poetry to essays.