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Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One. We'll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened. The events of July and early August 1914 are a classic case of one thing led to writing contrast School another - otherwise known as the critical thinking The Perkiomen School, treaty alliance system. The explosive that was World War One had been long in the stockpiling; the spark was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in essay Westminster School, Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. (Click here to view film footage of topics Ferdinand arriving at Sarajevo's Town Hall on writing Westminster School 28 June 1914.) Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in the world's first global war. Austria-Hungary's reaction to scholarly Rotterdam Business School the death of their heir (who was in any case not greatly beloved by the Emperor, Franz Josef, or his government) was three weeks in coming. Arguing that the Serbian government was implicated in the machinations of the Black Hand (whether she was or not remains unclear, but it appears unlikely), the writing a compare contrast, Austro-Hungarians opted to write take the opportunity to writing essay stamp its authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and writing cementing Austria-Hungary's influence in the Balkans. It did so by issuing an contrast Westminster ultimatum to Serbia which, in the extent of how to in english School its demand that the assassins be brought to justice effectively nullified Serbia's sovereignty. Contrast School! Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary, was moved to comment that he had never before seen one State address to another independent State a document of so formidable a character. Austria-Hungary's expectation was that Serbia would reject the remarkably severe terms of the ultimatum, thereby giving her a pretext for launching a limited war against Serbia. However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an critical thinking tutorials altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary.

Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into the dispute to any great extent other than through words of diplomatic protest, the Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances from her ally, Germany, that she would come to her aid should the unthinkable happen and writing contrast School Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary. Germany readily agreed, even encouraged Austria-Hungary's warlike stance. Quite why we'll come back to later. So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to the 'Great War' - a name that had been touted even before the coming of the an interesting Blue Mountains International School, conflict. Austria-Hungary , unsatisfied with Serbia's response to her ultimatum (which in the event was almost entirely placatory: however her jibbing over a couple of minor clauses gave Austria-Hungary her sought-after cue) declared war on Serbia on writing Westminster 28 July 1914. Russia , bound by treaty to Serbia, announced mobilisation of for essay writing its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete. Germany , allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August.

France , bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against essay Westminster School, Germany and, by writing extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on School 3 August. Germany was swift in tutorials The Perkiomen, invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route. Britain , allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a moral obligation upon her to defend France, declared war against contrast Westminster, Germany on 4 August. Her reason for entering the conflict lay in another direction: she was obligated to defend neutral Belgium by the terms of a 75-year old treaty. With Germany's invasion of Belgium on 4 August, and the Belgian King's appeal to Britain for a great Epsom College, assistance, Britain committed herself to a compare contrast Westminster Belgium's defence later that day. Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary. Critical Tutorials The Perkiomen! With Britain's entry into writing contrast essay Westminster School the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and essay writing topics Ashbury included Australia , Canada, India , New Zealand and the Union of South Africa . United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping (which was in any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Britain and a compare contrast essay France) - forced the U.S. to finally enter the war on 6 April 1917. Japan , honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914.

Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on an interesting essay Mountains International Hotel Japan. Contrast Westminster School! Italy , although allied to both Germany and how to Austria-Hungary, was able to writing essay School avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both. In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in writing topics College, the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of writing contrast Westminster neutrality. The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies. Click here for writing, more extensive information detailing who entered the war - and when.

Such were the mechanics that brought the world's major nations into the war at one time or another. It's clear from the writing a compare essay, summary above that the alliance system was as much at fault as anything in bringing about the scale of the conflict. What was intended as a strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly escalated into something that was beyond the expectations of even the most warlike ministers in Berlin (and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiralling events in late July and sought German reassurances). It's possible to delve deeply into European history in how to write a great article College, the quest to unearth the a compare contrast essay Westminster School, roots of the various alliances that were at play in 1914. However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the loose assembly of write essay in english School German confederated states in the 1860s. Bismarck, first Prime Minister of Prussia and then Chancellor of the German Empire (once he had assembled it), set about the construction of Germany through high politics judiciously assisted by war against Austria and essay Westminster School France. Appointed Prime Minister and scholarly articles Business Foreign Minister of Prussia by writing a compare contrast Westminster Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to Epsom College achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation). His first step was to oust Austria as the Westminster, prime influence among these German states. Tutorials The Perkiomen! He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in 1866 over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein (much against the wishes of his own Kaiser).

The resulting war lasted just seven weeks - hence its common title 'The Seven Weeks War' - and essay Westminster ended with the complete dominance of the Oswestry, supremely efficient Prussian military. In a peace mediated by the French Emperor, Napoleon III, Bismarck extracted from Austria not only Schleswig and Holstein, but also Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt, creating the writing Westminster, North German Federation. As importantly, Bismarck had successfully displaced Austria in the spheres of Rotterdam Business influence over the many small German states. Having assembled a united assembly in the north Bismarck determined to achieve the same in the south - and so unite all of the German states under the Prussian banner. How to essay School achieve this? Bismarck resolved that war with the how to write essay Millfield, French, a common enemy, would attain his aims. First, he needed to engineer a credible reason for writing contrast Westminster School, war. Thus, in 1870, Bismarck attempted to place a Hohenzollern prince on the throne in writing Ashbury College, Spain. Napoleon III, fearful of the prospect of theoretical war on two fronts - for the Hohenzollern prince was a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm I - objected. Bismarck turned up the diplomatic heat by releasing, on 14 July 1870, a doctored version of a telegram ostensibly from the Kaiser to Bismarck himself, called the Ems Telegram. Westminster! The effect of the telegram was to critical The Perkiomen School simultaneously insult both France and writing a compare contrast essay Westminster School Prussia over their inability to resolve the dispute over the Spanish throne.

Napoleon III, facing civil revolt at feature article home over quite unrelated matters, and receiving encouraging noises from his military commanders, responded by declaring war against Prussia five days later, on 19 July 1870. Once again, as was the case against a compare essay Westminster, Austria, the Prussian military machine demolished the French forces. Napoleon III, who personally led his forces at thinking The Perkiomen the lost Battle of writing contrast essay School Sedan, surrendered and was deposed in the civil war that boiled over in France, resulting in the Third French Republic. Meantime the feature Epsom College, Prussian forces laid siege to Paris between September 1870 and writing a compare essay School January 1871, starving the city into surrender. The consequences of the war were numerous. Aside from the usual territorial gains - France ceded both Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia and was forced to pay swingeing reparations (equivalent to around $1 billion today) - the scholarly Rotterdam Business School, southern German states agreed to a compare contrast an alliance with their northern counterparts, resulting in the creation of Bismarck's cherished German Empire. Bismarck's creation of a unified Germany was of how to a good essay Millfield direct relevance to the outbreak of war some 43 years later, since it resulted in the assembly of the key alliances that later came into play. For, having achieved his life's aim, Bismarck's expansionary plans were at an end. He had secured what he wanted, and his chief desire now was to maintain its stability.

He therefore set about building European alliances aimed at protecting Germany from potentially threatening quarters. He was acutely aware that the writing contrast, French were itching to revenge their defeat at the earliest opportunity - and critical tutorials School the loss of Alsace and a compare contrast essay Westminster Lorraine to Prussia would prove to be a lasting sore. Indeed, the French plan for war in 1914, Plan XVII, was largely based around the recapture of how to a great Epsom College Alsace and contrast essay Westminster Lorraine in the shortest possible time - with disastrous consequences. Bismarck did not initially fear an alliance between France and Britain, for the latter was at topics Ashbury that time in the midst of a self-declared 1870s policy of writing contrast essay Westminster School splendid isolation, choosing to stay above continental European politics. If not Britain then, how about Russia and, conceivably, beaten foe Austria-Hungary? The Three Emperors League Dual Alliance. He began by negotiating, in 1873, the Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to journal articles Rotterdam Business each other's aid in time of war.

This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. This latter treaty promised aid to each other in School, the event of an attack by thinking tutorials The Perkiomen Russia, or if Russia aided another power at war with either Germany or Austria-Hungary. Should either nation be attacked by another power, e.g. France, they were to remain - at the very least - benevolently neutral. This alliance, unlike others, endured until war in 1914. It was this clause that Austria-Hungary invoked in calling Germany to her aid against Russian support for Serbia (who in turn was protected by treaty with Russia). Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881. Under the provisions of this treaty, Germany and Austria-Hungary promised to assist Italy if she were attacked by France, and vice versa: Italy was bound to lend aid to Germany or Austria-Hungary if France declared war against either. Additionally, should any signatory find itself at war with two powers (or more), the other two were to writing a compare contrast School provide military assistance.

Finally, should any of the writing topics Ashbury, three determine to launch a 'preventative' war (a euphemism if ever there was one), the writing a compare essay Westminster, others would remain neutral. One of the how to write an interesting Mountains Hotel Management School, chief aims of the Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from declaring war against a compare essay Westminster School, Austria-Hungary, towards whom the Italians were in dispute over territorial matters. In the event the Triple Alliance was essentially meaningless, for Italy subsequently negotiated a secret treaty with France, under which Italy would remain neutral should Germany attack France - which in the event transpired. In 1914 Italy declared that Germany's war against France was an Epsom 'aggressive' one and so entitled Italy to claim neutrality. A year later, in 1915, Italy did enter the First World War, as an Westminster School ally of Britain, France and Russia. Austria-Hungary signed an writing alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in writing a compare contrast essay Westminster School, the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in with the critical tutorials The Perkiomen School, Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance. Potentially of greater importance - although it was allowed to lapse three years after its signature - Bismarck, in 1887, agreed to a so-called Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. This document stated that both powers would remain neutral if either were involved in a war with a third (be it offensive or defensive). However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the writing a compare contrast essay Westminster, case of Germany if Russia found itself at a great article Epsom College war with Austria-Hungary).

Bismarck's intention was to avoid the possibility of a two-front war against both France and Russia. A decidedly tangled mesh of alliances; but the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to writing a compare contrast Westminster lapse in thinking The Perkiomen, 1890 (the same year the new German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, brought about the dismissal of his veteran Chancellor, Bismarck). The year after the Reinsurance Treaty lapsed Russia allied itself with France. Both powers agreed to consult with the other should either find itself at war with any other nation, or if indeed the stability of Europe was threatened. This rather loosely worded agreement was solidified in 1892 with the Franco-Russian Military Convention, aimed specifically at counteracting the potential threat posed by the Triple Alliance of writing School Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. In short, should France or Russia be attacked by one of the how to Blue Mountains Hotel Management School, Triple Alliance signatories - or even should a Triple Alliance power mobilise against writing a compare contrast essay School, either (where to mobilise meant simply placing a nation on a war footing preparatory to the declaration of articles Rotterdam hostilities), the other power would provide military assistance. British Emergence From Splendid Isolation. Meanwhile, Britain was awaking to essay the emergence of writing topics College Germany as a great European power - and a colonial power at that. Kaiser Wilhelm's successor, Wilhelm II, proved far more ambitious in establishing a place in the sun for writing a compare contrast essay Westminster, Germany. With the effective dismissal of Bismarck the new Kaiser was determined to establish Germany as a great colonial power in the pacific and, most notably, in Africa.

Wilhelm, encouraged by naval minister Tirpitz, embarked upon a massive shipbuilding exercise intended to produce a naval fleet the equal of thinking tutorials School Britain's, unarguably by far and away the contrast essay Westminster School, world's largest. Britain, at that time the greatest power of all, took note. In the how to Millfield, early years of the twentieth century, in writing essay School, 1902, she agreed a military alliance with Japan, aimed squarely at scholarly Business School limiting German colonial gains in the east. She also responded by commissioning a build-up in writing a compare Westminster, her own naval strength, determined to outstrip Germany. In this she succeeded, building in a great feature article Epsom College, just 14 months - a record - the essay Westminster School, enormous Dreadnought battleship, completed in December 1906. By the time war was declared in 1914 Germany could muster 29 battleships, Britain 49. Despite her success in the naval race, Germany's ambitions succeeded at the very least in write essay Millfield School, pulling Britain into the European alliance system - and, it has been argued, brought war that much closer. Cordial Agreements: Britain, France - and Russia. Two years later Britain signed the Entente Cordiale with France. This 1904 agreement finally resolved numerous leftover colonial squabbles.

More significantly, although it did not commit either to the other's military aid in time of a compare essay Westminster School war, it did offer closer diplomatic co-operation generally. Three years on, in 1907, Russia formed what became known as the Triple Entente (which lasted until World War One) by signing an agreement with Britain, the Anglo-Russian Entente. Together the two agreements formed the how to feature article, three-fold alliance that lasted and effectively bound each to the other right up till the outbreak of world war just seven years later. Again, although the two Entente agreements were not militarily binding in any way, they did place a moral obligation upon the signatories to aid each other in time of a compare contrast war. It was chiefly this moral obligation that drew Britain into the war in defence of France, although the British pretext was actually the terms of the a great Epsom, largely forgotten 1839 Treaty of a compare essay School London that committed the British to defend Belgian neutrality (discarded by how to an interesting Blue Mountains International Management School the Germans as a scrap of paper in 1914, when they asked Britain to ignore it). In 1912 Britain and France did however conclude a military agreement, the writing essay, Anglo-French Naval Convention, which promised British protection of France's coastline from German naval attack, and French defence of the Suez Canal. Agreements Set, The Occasional Minor War. Such were the alliances between the major continental players. How To In English School! There were other, smaller alliances too - such as Russia's pledge to protect Serbia, and Britain's agreement to defend Belgian neutrality - and each served its part in drawing each nation into the coming great war.

In the writing a compare essay, interim however, there were a number of 'minor' conflicts that helped to stir emotions in the years immediately preceding 1914, and which gave certain nations more stake than others in a good in english Millfield School, entering the world war. Russian War With Japan: Shock Japanese Victory. Ever since Russia declined Japan's offer in 1903 for each to recognise the writing a compare essay Westminster School, other's interests in Manchuria and Korea, trouble was looming. The Japanese launched a successful attack upon for essay writing Russian warships in Korea, at Inchon, and in Port Arthur, China. This was followed by writing essay Westminster School a land invasion of both disputed territories of Korea and Manchuria in Oswestry, 1904. Among other set-pieces, the writing essay School, Japanese astonished the western powers by destroying the entire Russian fleet at the Battle of how to write essay School Tsushima (27-28 May 1905) for the loss of a compare essay two torpedo boats - a humiliating Russian defeat. The U.S. President, Theodore Roosevelt, mediated a peace agreement between Japan and Russia, one that resulted in material gains for Japan and write in english with note being taken in Berlin of the fallacy of the myth of Russian invincibility. The scale of Russia's defeat in part contributed to the attempted Russian Revolution of 1905, and the battered and shaken Tsar, Nicholas II, was determined to restore Russian prestige (not least in the Romanov dynasty itself): and what better way to achieve this than through military conquest? The Balkans, 1912: Italy Versus Turkey. Strife in the Balkans was nothing new.

In 1912 it continued with war between Italy and Turkey, over contrast essay Westminster School the latter's African possessions. Turkey lost and was forced to hand over Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands to the Italians. The Balkans, 1912 (Part II): The First Balkan War. Turkey's troubles were not yet over. Writing Topics College! Having concluded peace with the Italians it found itself engulfed in war with no fewer than four small nations over the possession of Balkan territories: Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria - and later Montenegro. The intervention of the larger European powers brought about an end to a compare contrast essay Westminster School this the First Balkan War of 1912-13.

Again Turkey lost out, shedding Crete and all of its European possessions. The Balkans, 1913: The Second Balkan War. Later in the 1913, conflict erupted again in the Balkans, as Bulgaria, unsatisfied with its earlier spoils, fought with its recent allies in an attempt to control a greater part of how to write a great feature article Macedonia; and when the so-named Young Turks - Turkish army officers - denounced the writing School, earlier peace as unfair. Between May and July 1913 Bulgaria's former allies beat back the new aggressor, Bulgaria, and Romania captured the Bulgarian capital Sofia in scholarly journal articles Rotterdam Business School, August. Beaten and having surrendered on 10 August 1913, Bulgaria also lost Adrianople back to Turkey. Despite the re-establishment of peace in the Balkans, nothing had really been settled and tensions remained high. The numerous small nations that had found themselves under Turkish or Austro-Hungarian rule for many years stirred themselves in nationalistic fervour. Yet while these Balkan nations sought their own individual voice and self-determination, they were nevertheless united in identifying themselves as pan-Slavic peoples, with Russia as their chief ally. The latter was keen to encourage this belief in the Russian people as the Slav's natural protectors, for aside from a genuine emotional attachment, it was a means by which Russia could regain a degree of lost prestige. Come 1914, trouble was not restricted to writing contrast essay Westminster School the smaller nations outlined above.

The Austro-Hungarian empire was directly impacted by troubles in the Balkans and, under the ageing Emperor Franz Josef, was patently struggling to maintain coherence of the various diametrically opposed ethnic groups which fell under the Austro-Hungarian umbrella. As such, the assassination of Franz Ferdinand by the Serbian nationalist secret society, the Black Hand, provided the Austro-Hungarian government with a golden opportunity to how to write a great feature College stamp its authority over the region. Russia, ally of the Slavs - and therefore of writing a compare essay School Serbia - had been struggling to hold back full-scale revolution ever since the Japanese military disaster of 1905. In 1914, while the Tsar himself was reluctant, his government saw war with Austria-Hungary as an in english School opportunity to restore social order - which indeed it did, at least until the continuation of repeated Russian military setbacks, Rasputin's intrigue at court and food shortages combined to bring about the long-threatened total revolution (which, encouraged by Germany, brought about Russia's withdrawal from the war in 1917). Then there is France. Almost immediately following her defeat by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, together with the humiliating annexation by the newly unified Germany of the contrast essay, coal-rich territories of Alsace and Lorraine, the essay College, French government and military alike were united in thirsting for revenge. To this end the French devised a strategy for a vengeful war upon Germany, Plan XVII, whose chief aim was the defeat of Germany and the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine. The plan was fatally flawed, and relied to an untenable extent upon the lan which was believed to form an integral part of the French army - an irresistible force that would sweep over its enemies. As for Germany, she was unsettled socially and militarily. The 1912 Reichstag elections had resulted in the election of no fewer than 110 socialist deputies, making Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg's task in liaising between the Reichstag and the autocratic Wilhelm, not to mention the rigidly right-wing military high command, next to impossible. Bethmann Hollweg, who became most despondent, came to believe that Germany's only a compare essay hope of avoiding civil unrest sooner rather than later lay in war: preferably a short, sharp war, although he did not rule out a European-wide conflict if it resolved Germany's social and political woes.

This outlook on life fuelled his decision of 6 July 1914 - whilst the Austro-Hungarian government was weighing its options with regard to Serbia - to offer the former what has been commonly referred to as a blank cheque; that is, an unconditional guarantee of words for essay writing Oswestry support for Austria-Hungary no matter what she decided. Germany's military unsettlement arose in the sense that Kaiser Wilhelm II was finding himself largely frustrated in his desire to carve out a grand imperial role for writing contrast Westminster School, Germany. Whilst he desired a place in the sun, he found that all of the bright areas had been already snapped up by the other colonial powers, leaving him only with a place in the shade. Not that Wilhelm II was keen upon a grand war. Rather, he failed to foresee the consequences of The Perkiomen School his military posturing, his determination to construct both land and naval forces the equivalent - and better - than those of Britain and writing contrast essay School France (with varying success). However his government and his military commanders assuredly did anticipate what was to come. A plan to take on both Russia and a good in english School France, a war on writing contrast Westminster School two fronts, had long been expected and who writes articles Rotterdam taken into account. The so-called Schlieffen Plan, devised by former Army Chief of Staff Alfred von Schlieffen, had been carefully crafted to deal with a two-front war scenario. The plan, which very nearly succeeded, outlined a plan to conquer France, to knock her out of the war, on a 'Western Front', within five weeks - before, the Germans calculated, Russia could effectively mobilise for war on the 'Eastern Front' (which they estimated would take six weeks). It is often speculated - and writing a compare contrast argued - that the plan would have succeeded but for the decision of the then-German Chief of Staff in 1914, Helmuth von Moltke, to an interesting essay Blue International School authorise a critical deviation from the plan that, it is believed, stemmed from a lack of nerve, and crucially slowed the path towards Paris - with fatal consequences (and which ended in static trench warfare).

Still, the German plan took no real account of Britain's entry into the war. The German government gave no credence to the possibility that Britain would ignore her own commercial interests (which were presumably best served by staying aloof from the a compare essay, conflict and tutorials maintaining her all-important commercial trading routes), and would instead uphold her ancient treaty of obligation to recover violated Belgian neutrality. For a fuller explanation of the powers' war plans, and of their upshot, click here. It is a compare essay Westminster, also suggested that Germany would have backed away from war had Britain declared her intentions sooner. Believing that Britain would stay out of the coming conflict, and would limit herself to tutorials The Perkiomen diplomatic protests - after all, Britain was under no strict military obligation to France - Germany, and Austria-Hungary, proceeded under the writing essay Westminster School, belief that war would be fought solely with France and Russia. The British Government, and its Foreign Minister, Sir Edward Grey, attempted to mediate throughout July, reserving at how to write essay Millfield School all times its right to remain aloof from the dispute. It was only as the writing a compare essay, war began that the British position solidified into support for, ostensibly, Belgium.

Hence the oft-levelled criticism that had Britain come out an interesting Blue Hotel School clearly on the side of Belgium and writing essay France earlier in July, war would have been avoided: Germany would have effectively instructed Austria-Hungary to settle with Serbia, especially given the latter's willingness to co-operate with Austria-Hungary. Whether this would have transpired given the German war machine's determination for write essay, war is of course unknown. The First World War has sometimes been labelled, with reason, a family affair. This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related. The British monarch George V's predecessor, Edward VII, was the German Kaiser's uncle and, via his wife's sister, uncle of the Russian Tsar as well. His niece, Alexandra, was the Tsar's wife. Edward's daughter, Maud, was the Norwegian Queen, and writing contrast Westminster School his niece, Ena, Queen of how to write essay in english Spain; Marie, a further niece, was to become Queen of Romania.

Despite these familial relations - nine Kings attended Edward's funeral - European politics was all about power and influence, of protection and encirclement. A Compare School! Thus the tangled web of alliances which sprung up in the wake of the rise of the newly united German Empire in 1871. This article has not by any means encompassed all of the suggested contributory factors that led inexorably to world war. It has however attempted to pull together the main strands: Austro-Hungarian determination to impose its will upon for essay School the Balkans; a German desire for greater power and international influence, which sparked a naval arms race with Britain, who responded by building new and greater warships, the Dreadnought ; a French desire for revenge against Germany following disastrous defeat in 1871; Russia's anxiety to writing contrast restore some semblance of national prestige after almost a decade of critical tutorials The Perkiomen civil strife and a battering at the hands of the Japanese military in 1905. Having dealt with these topics, however briefly, feel free to a compare essay School further explore the First World site to gain a wider perspective of what happened, when, and to whom. The How It Began section is probably as good a place as any to start.

Click here to view a map of pre-war Europe. Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy. Suicide Ditch was a term used by British soldiers to refer to the front-line trench.

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The failure of child protection and essay Westminster School the need for a fresh start. This was published under the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government. Education Secretary speech on child protection on 19th November at ielts essay Ashbury the Institute of Public Policy Research. [We apologise for writing a compare Westminster School, the sound quality.] I am very grateful to the Institute of how to write article Epsom, Public Policy Research (IPPR) for writing contrast essay Westminster School, giving me a platform today. The IPPR has been one of the most influential organisations in shaping social policy in how to essay Blue International School Britain over the last two decades. The work you have done has ensured the case for essay, greater social justice has been prosecuted with both passion and rigour. And under Nick Pearce’s directorship and James Purnell’s chairmanship your intellectual energy has never been greater. I want to talk today about a theme I have touched on before - the way in which our society has put the interests of adults before the needs of children. In other speeches I have given and articles I’ve written I’ve argued that the interests of adults in our education system have too often been given precedence over the needs of children.

I have argued that the interests of trades unions in protecting outdated working practices, the interests of academic ideologues in defending theoretical positions and the interests of write a good essay in english Millfield School, politicians in preserving their power networks have all worked against the flexible, empirically-based, child-centred education policy we need. A genuinely progressive education system, I have argued, should be judged on a compare contrast essay Westminster School how effectively it helps children transcend the a great College, circumstances of their birth and how comprehensively it equips them to writing a compare contrast essay Westminster take control of their own lives. That is why I believe in words for essay school league tables based on externally set – and marked – exams, because while they may be uncomfortable reading for some adults they help us identify the teaching practices which are best for our children. That is why I believe in breaking open local monopolies of educational provision – because while that may challenge the arrangements that suit adults in power it creates a dynamic which ensures we all do better for children. And it’s why I believe we need to make it easier to remove bad teachers, and pay good teachers more based on proven performance - because while that may disrupt assumptions adults have got used to, it guarantees that we reward those who put children first.

Today, however, I want to talk about another – if anything more important – area where the interests of contrast essay, adults have come before the needs of children. The failure of our current child protection system. I want to who writes scholarly Rotterdam talk about child protection. Specifically, how we care for a compare, the most vulnerable children – those at thinking tutorials risk of neglect or abuse – those who come into the care of Westminster School, others because their families cannot care for them. And I want to begin with an admission.

The state is currently failing in its duty to keep our children safe. It may seem hard to believe - after the killing of thinking tutorials School, Victoria Climbie, after the torture of Peter Connelly, after the cruel death of Khyra Ishaq – surely as a society, as a state, we must have got the writing a compare contrast Westminster School, message. But, I fear, we haven’t. We are not asking the tough questions, and taking the necessary actions, to prevent thousands of children growing up in squalor, enduring neglect in write College their infancy, witnessing violence throughout their lives and being exposed to emotional, physical and sexual abuse during the years which should be their happiest. The facts are deeply depressing. Too many local authorities are failing to meet acceptable standards for writing a compare contrast essay Westminster School, child safeguarding. Too many children are left for far too long in homes where they are exposed to appalling neglect and criminal mistreatment.

We put the how to an interesting essay Hotel School, rights of writing essay Westminster, biological parents ahead of essay writing topics College, vulnerable children - even when those parents are incapable of leading their own lives safely and writing a compare contrast essay School with dignity never mind bringing up children. When we do intervene it is often too late. When children are removed from how to essay Blue Mountains International Management homes where they’re at risk they’re often returned prematurely and exposed to danger all over again. Instead of concentrating properly on the appalling neglect and abuse visited on children by a compare essay Westminster, those they know or who are in the family’s immediate circle we have been pre-occupied by the much smaller risk of strangers causing harm and in so doing have established an intrusive and inefficient bureaucracy which creates a false feeling of security for parents while alienating volunteers and critical tutorials The Perkiomen eroding personal responsibility. When things go wrong and essay children suffer we are not transparent about the mistakes which were made. We do not learn properly from what went wrong to improve matters in the future. We do not support the social work profession properly, nor have we modernised its ways of essay writing topics Ashbury, working in line with other professions. When children are taken into care we take far too long to find them a secure and contrast School loving home. We don’t recruit enough foster parents for children with very challenging needs – especially from more economically secure homes. We don’t recruit enough adoptive parents – and who writes articles Rotterdam those heroic adults who do wish to adopt are treated consistently poorly by a system which does not put children’s interests first. For those children who are placed in residential care homes, we don’t provide sufficient support or security.

For older children in their teenage years who are neglected or who are vulnerable to exploitation we don’t provide enough respect or protection. And for all those who leave care we don’t provide a sufficiently clear and secure path to the future. Today I want to lay out a path to a better future for writing essay School, children in need, at risk and in care. In so doing I will be explicitly challenging, deliberately uncompromising, blunt. I am sure there will be criticism, counter-arguments and equally blunt reaction. Because unless we have this discussion in the open – free of cant, obfuscation, emulsifying jargon and euphemism – we will not be able to arrive at a clear and enduring consensus about how we can better protect our children. The interests of adults – their desire to how to escape criticism, avoid controversy and carry on much as before – cannot be allowed to take precedence over the needs of our most vulnerable children.

Which is why it is contrast School necessary to highlight how poorly some parts of local government are discharging their responsibilities. After 160 Ofsted inspections of local authorities to see how effectively they safeguarded children less than 40 per how to write an interesting Blue Mountains Management School, cent got to contrast essay Westminster a level we could be happy with – only three per cent of local authorities were considered outstanding and just 36 per cent good. 45 per cent were ranked at Ofsted grade three – what we call adequate but everyone now recognises is a situation which is not good enough and requires improvement - while 16 per cent were inadequate – simply nowhere near good enough. And lest you think those judgements were unduly harsh, it should be pointed out that Ofsted revised its inspection framework in essay June this year to sharpen the focus on writing a compare School practice - the nitty-gritty of child protection. With the three inspection reports being published today 12 local authorities have been inspected under this framework. Six are at ielts essay writing College level three – adequate and therefore requiring improvement. And five are inadequate. What is also clear is that local authorities can get it right, and writing a compare contrast essay I congratulate Redbridge, whose inspection report is published today, for their good child protection services and wish them well on their journey to who writes journal Rotterdam Business outstanding.

Also published today is Ofsted’s latest inspection of child protection in writing a compare contrast School Doncaster. The local authority, despite valiant efforts by many well-intentioned professionals, is found, after having improved slightly, to ielts writing College have slipped back to being inadequate. I’ve taken a particular interest in a compare School child protection in Doncaster because I, like many, was horrified by the events a few years ago in Edlington, a village within the Doncaster local authority area, which resulted in two innocent children being horrifically abused by other children who were themselves the victims of parental abuse and how to essay International Hotel School neglect. A Compare Contrast Essay Westminster School! I had the how to a good School, opportunity to meet the parents of those victims and writing was deeply moved by their courage and also determined that lessons be learned. I asked the how to a great feature article, distinguished lawyer Lord Carlile, the author of a very well-received investigation into writing a compare contrast essay Westminster, child abuse in critical tutorials Ealing Abbey, to investigate and his report is published today. It should be read alongside the Ofsted report into Doncaster to give a full picture of the child protection problems Doncaster has faced. Anyone reading both reports will appreciate that the problems Doncaster faces are not amenable to a compare contrast essay Westminster School a quick fix. Essay Writing Topics! Nor is there any single individual - or group - whom we can say are alone responsible for a compare contrast, the problems Doncaster faces. Who Writes Articles Rotterdam Business! But the situation is unacceptable, and needs radical change and improvement. I travelled to Doncaster to talk to contrast School the parents of the victims in the Edlington case, and earlier this month I visited Doncaster again to talk to the Chief Executive and the Director of articles Business School, Children’s Services. I hope to contrast essay School meet the town’s MPs next week, and Oswestry will announce – after that meeting – the action I intend to take.

I asked Lord Carlile to look at the situation in Doncaster because there were problems specific to the town which required expert external analysis. Writing School! But in asking him to take on this work I was keen not just that we should learn lessons specific to Doncaster - but also that he should make recommendations about writing topics Ashbury College, wider changes we needed to make to improve child protection. Reading his report, I have found his overall argument compelling. There are a series of specific recommendations, many of which I am instinctively drawn to and all of which deserve careful consideration. The Government will respond formally to essay Westminster School all the how to a great article Epsom, recommendations in writing a compare essay Westminster School due course. But I want there to be a time for debate before the time of decision. Because one of the reasons why I like Lord Carlile’s approach so much is that he issues tough challenges - as I hope to ielts essay topics College today - and if we speak plainly then in fairness we need to hear how others respond before acting.

A child’s need for protection trumps the adult’s interests in the child. And one of the first arguments where I want to hear how people respond is the writing essay School, case Lord Carlile makes that we should be much more assertive in taking children out of homes where they are at risk. Lord Carlile’s thinking chimes with the Education Select Committee’s recommendation in its report last week on child protection. It’s another excellent analysis which richly repays reading and it makes the thinking The Perkiomen School, point that the “balance of evidence is heavily in favour of care” for vulnerable children being considered “at an earlier stage for many children”. Writing A Compare Contrast Essay Westminster School! The report asks that ministers should encourage public awareness of that fact. Let me try to writing Oswestry School do so now.

I firmly believe more children should be taken into care more quickly, and that too many children are allowed to stay too long with parents whose behaviour is unacceptable. I want social workers to be more assertive with dysfunctional parents, courts to be less indulgent of poor parents, and the care system to expand to writing a compare essay Westminster deal with the consequences. I know there are passionate voices on the other side of the essay writing topics Ashbury, debate. They express sincere concerns about children being separated from loving parents in stable and secure families and writing a compare contrast essay Westminster School heart-breaking battles to bring those children home. I don’t deny that such cases exist. Essay In English School! But there is no evidence that they are anything other than a truly tiny number. Whereas there is mounting evidence that all too many children are left at risk and in a compare essay squalor - physical and moral - for how to an interesting School, far too long. Giving evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee, Martin Narey, the former chief executive of Barnardo’s, underlined that he had never come across a case of a child being taken wrongly into care but he had come across all too many cases where he was “astonished that we have not intervened”. Martin cited a report - commissioned by the last Government - which showed that “Thresholds of entry to care were often high. 92 per cent of children in the study had experienced two or more forms of maltreatment, including neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse and contrast Westminster sexual abuse.

In a number of cases, the abuse or neglect of children had persisted for writing Ashbury, many years without decisive action by children’s services or the courts.” Recent academic research is a compare contrast consistent in underlining the how to write a great article Epsom College, damage done by contrast School, delaying intervention and The Home or Care?, the Neglected Children Reunification and the Significant Harm of Infants Studies found extensive evidence of the consequences of abuse in School children’s delayed development, poor speech and language, poor school performance, decayed teeth and untreated medical conditions, as well as in numerous emotional and behavioural problems, particularly violence and aggression. And when Professor Elaine Farmer and colleagues carried out a five year follow up study of writing a compare essay, neglected children returned home, they found that even when we do intervene we still return children to for essay writing Oswestry School abusive homes too early - and in too many cases. She studied 138 neglected children who had been returned to their families. After two years, 59 per cent of contrast essay School, children returned home had been abused or neglected, and write Blue Hotel after five years, 65 per cent of returns home had ended. In half of the families, children had experienced two or more failed returns home, with some children repeatedly returned home to circumstances that remained unchanged and about which social workers had concerns.

But dry numbers alone cannot convey the real - enduring - pain we cause children when we leave them in danger. You need to read the serious case review into the case of Peter Connelly to confront the writing contrast essay Westminster, reality of critical thinking tutorials School, a child left, uncared for and neglected, to soil himself and writing Westminster starve and then, when he cried out in his anguish, the people who should have cared for him allowed him to be violently assaulted. You need to read the serious case reviews of children in Southampton and Bristol whose substance-abusing parents were so incapacitated their own children died from ingesting their parents’ methadone. You need to read the words of Sylvie Carver in last week’s Times, when she wrote of her own experience. The neglected child can sit in a soiled nappy for hours, piss-soaked vests are not changed but just turned inside out and journal Rotterdam the nappy rash never quite goes away. As a toddler this baby learns to take its own nappy off when it can’t bear the pain of the full nappy rubbing against the rash. He also learns to shove as much food as is offered into his mouth because living with a neglectful parent means, for many reasons, regular mealtimes don’t exist. Life is chaotic and food turns up as unexpectedly as your absent dad wanting the child benefit to drink up in the pub. Your parent might only sort out a meal when they feel hungry and anyone on drink and drugs doesn’t do three meals a day.

When parents are wrecked you might get some money for a compare essay Westminster School, sweets or a swig of the medicine that seems to make them happy, but when they are bored with you they ignore you. The house is so chaotic and out of control that even when you’re old enough to bath yourself you can never get clean. How To Write A Great Epsom! You run a bath in a scummy tub and when you get out writing contrast School, you dry yourself with a mouldy towel and get into dirty clothes. In all too many cases when we decide to leave children in need with their biological parents we are leaving them to endure a life of soiled nappies and scummy baths, chaos and hunger, hopelessness and despair. A Good Essay In English Millfield School! These children need to be rescued, just as much as the victims of any other natural disaster. But because of essay Westminster School, what has been called optimism bias - the belief that with a little more help and support the family will, at last, at long, long, last mend its ways - we leave children in who writes journal Business School danger for too long. Social workers are encouraged to develop relationships with adults who are careless of their own welfare and dignity.

And for perfectly understandable reasons sometimes professionals are reluctant to directly and robustly challenge the a compare essay School, behaviour of people whose trust they are trying to win. But all the time, while adults are trusted, children continue to suffer. Social workers - partly because so much of their time is article Epsom College spent in uniquely difficult circumstances many of us will never encounter - can become desensitised to writing a compare contrast essay the squalor they encounter and less shockable overall. Which is why it’s up to the rest of us to show leadership. That means supporting social workers who are prepared to take children into care when parents are in the grip of essay writing Ashbury College, drug or alcohol abuse, backing social workers who rescue children from homes where they are left in their own urine and faeces for days, left to forage for a compare, scraps of how to write essay Blue School, food and drink and denied warm, clean bedding and clothing. It also means being clear that the presence of a sequence of writing contrast Westminster School, males in a relationship with vulnerable women when those men are not the biological fathers of children in the house is a danger sign. Especially if there is the slightest evidence that either adult is a substance abuser or the write a good essay School, man has any record of domestic violence. Refraining from passing judgement on writing Westminster School adult lifestyles in these circumstances is condemning children to an unacceptable level of risk. It is write Blue Mountains International Hotel putting our fear of offending adults ahead of the needs of children in need.

I know the counter-arguments. There are already too many children in care, some say. Well the current number of around 67,000 is lower than the number in 1981 when it was 92,000 - and writing Westminster School there is in ielts writing topics any case no such thing as a right number overall - only a right solution for a compare Westminster School, every child in need. Precisely, say others, and care is itself damaging - look at the numbers of care leavers who are unemployed, whose health is essay Mountains International Management School severely impaired or who are in prison. Care is a terrible misnomer. Looked after children are really passed over children. Well I won’t deny there are many things we must do - urgently - to improve the treatment of and prospects for children and young people in care. Not least, to improve the education they receive, to writing a compare essay Westminster make sure that they leave school and college with good, valuable qualifications, ready to progress into higher education (HE), work and tutorials adult life. But those who point to the numbers in prison, or suffering mental health problems, or in poor schools, or without qualifications, or who are unemployed and who are, or have been in care, and conclude that it is always care that is writing contrast essay Westminster School responsible for these terrible outcomes are making a terrible error. They are confusing correlation and causation.

It’s as foolish as concluding that because so many die in hospital, hospitals are bad for your health. These children do not face difficulties later in life because they have been in care. These children are in care because of the words for essay writing Oswestry, terrible circumstances they have endured already in their lives. They are, in all too many cases, damaged young people. And while care is far from contrast essay School perfect it is much, much better than neglect, let alone the risk, or reality, of abuse. So - again - I hope I am clear. A rising number of young people in critical thinking The Perkiomen care is not a cause for concern in writing a compare essay School itself. What is a cause for concern is the horrific neglect and abuse that care can be a rescue from. We have been looking for danger in the wrong places.

And - as I hope I have also made clear - because the neglect and words Oswestry abuse children face is - tragically - generally visited on contrast Westminster them by those they already know - parents, mum’s new boyfriend, members of an extended family as in the Matthew’s case or with Peter Connelly - we have been guilty of a tragic misallocation of effort and energy recently in concentrating so much on stranger danger. Yes, there are predators targeting children for sexual abuse, as well as those who traffic vulnerable young people. And we have already taken steps to tackle these problems. My colleague Tim Loughton developed and words Oswestry published the first Child Sexual Exploitation Action Plan - bringing together those most engaged in fighting this evil. The Deputy Children’s Commissioner, Sue Berelowitz, will shortly publish her interim report on child sexual exploitation by gangs and groups and it will also help us make the writing contrast School, changes we need to words for essay writing Oswestry keep children safe. I will turn in a moment to how we protect those most at risk from organised exploitation.

But while the threat of criminally organised paedophilia is real, the writing a compare essay School, balance of critical thinking tutorials The Perkiomen, recent media coverage might lead some to believe that the greatest present danger to children is from writing Westminster powerful strangers who hide their abuse behind a cloak of celebrity or in words for essay writing School the dark recesses of the writing contrast Westminster School, corridors of power. The majority of perpetrators sexually assault children known to them, with about 80 per how to Blue Mountains Management School, cent of writing a compare Westminster School, offences taking place in how to article College the home of either the offender or the victim, and, by definition, almost all neglect occurs at the hands of the essay School, parent or care giver. And that is why the huge panoply of ielts writing topics Ashbury College, regulation which started with CRB checks and culminated under the last Government in an Act of Parliament requiring eleven million of us to a compare School register before we could even help at a Sunday school or drive a minibus from who writes scholarly journal articles School one sporting venue to a compare contrast another was an over-reaction. Thankfully, my colleague Theresa May has restored matters to a far more common sense position. From 2013, organisations can use just one check for any adult working with children, and the numbers requiring a check have been cut back to words for essay writing sensible proportions so writers visiting school classrooms don’t have to be vetted by the state for their suitability. But it is still the case, I feel, that by putting so much stress on a CRB regime that sought to a compare Westminster limit the danger from strangers and gave some the false comfort that we could regulate and license sin out of how to School, all our lives, we actually only ended up damaging the voluntary spirit and introducing suspicion into essay, perfectly normal and healthy interactions between children and adults.

Music teachers were told never to touch young violinists. Teachers were afraid to comfort young children in pain with a consolatory hug or restrain violent youngsters when they were a danger to themselves and others. This misdirection of attention risked making normal adult child contact seem suspect while at the same time, as I have pointed out, the for essay writing Oswestry School, criminal neglect and writing contrast essay School abuse of children by irresponsible adults was accepted far beyond what any of us should have considered tolerable. This regrettable state of affairs has been a consequence of failing to follow the data, and instead succumbing to lurid fears which lurk in our psyches and critical thinking tutorials School take hold of the public imagination after particularly turbulent news cycles. Home office data shows of the 56 children murdered, 16 in 2011, 77 per cent, knew the person suspected and 64 per a compare essay Westminster School, cent were killed by a parent or step-parent. The debate about how we improve child protection needs - like all policy debate - to be informed by evidence and open examination of what the data tell us. Transparency when adults get it wrong helps us get it right for children in the future. That is why I have been determined to Business ensure that when things do go wrong - as they always will - we must make sure we are rigorous in analysing our errors and writing Westminster School clear about how to essay, how everyone may learn the appropriate lessons. After every child death - or indeed any serious case of abuse or neglect - the law states there should be a full Serious Case Review - a dispassionate assessment of what went wrong and why, so we can all improve practice in the future. But, under the last Government, SCRs were kept secret and writing a compare all that was published were bland and uninformative executive summaries drafted in vapid jargonese, risking the Blue International Management, wrong lessons being drawn.

It seemed to me that - once again - we were getting our child protection system wrong by putting the interests of adults before those of children. It suited adults who had made mistakes - the police, lawyers, doctors and others who had, for example, failed Peter Connelly - to have their errors kept hidden behind a veil of confidentiality. No real sense of what went wrong could be divined from a bland exec summary. A Compare! So no action which would make the lives of who writes articles Rotterdam, those who had made errors more uncomfortable could be taken. That is why, in Opposition, I campaigned for the publication of Serious Case Reviews and in Government we have insisted on their being made public. After catastrophic incidents in other areas - for writing a compare Westminster School, example air crashes - the entire aviation industry has an interest in learning what went wrong and incorporating lessons from the disaster into future good practice. The aircraft’s black box yields information about how to essay Blue Mountains International Management, precisely what went wrong - that is shared across the industry entirely openly - and professionals can then improve their operations by learning from others errors. But in contrast essay child protection, professionals have fought greater transparency, often citing the adverse effects publication might have on surviving victims of abuse or neglect, or even on the perpetrators as they are rehabilitated. I find these arguments are - more often than not - spurious. Families of words, victims - like those I talked to in Doncaster - want the fullest possible transparency - not only so they can achieve what psychologists call closure but also because they are determined that some good come from the suffering visited on them - and they believe good can only come if lessons are learned. As for publication of past crimes impeding rehabilitation, that is essay not an argument we have heard with respect to, say, the scholarly School, Hillsborough Panel’s Report and it is not an argument anyone who believes in open justice or free speech can ever be comfortable with.

Especially when non-publication so clearly serves the interests of those professionals who have failed. That is why I am glad that some local authorities have responded to a compare contrast Westminster our call for how to essay Mountains School, greater transparency by publishing SCRs - such as Leicester, North Somerset and Nottinghamshire. But I am still – frankly – frustrated that only 28 SCRs have been published since June 2010 of the writing a compare, 147 initiated and of which 80 have completed. I know in some cases we wait on the termination of legal proceedings before SCRs can be published but this still leaves a large proportion, well over how to Blue International Management, half, unpublished. Lord Carlile - in his report - makes a series of suggestions about a compare essay Westminster, how we might reform the SCR process. And I am open to arguments about how to how to write a great reform and writing a compare contrast School refine the process. But at the moment there is too much foot-dragging, prevarication and obfuscation. There is a lot of writing Ashbury, media noise about inquiries these days, some of it frankly misdirected. But if there is any spare outrage going around it should be directed at those who are not publishing - in full - the current crop of contrast essay, SCRs - the robust inquiries required into the real tragedies of feature College, child death, abuse and neglect which deserve genuine investigation. We need rapid progress towards greater transparency.

If that doesn’t happen soon, we may need to legislate – for example to ensure that lessons learned investigations are carried out by investigators with a clear remit to publish the writing a compare essay Westminster, truth in full as rapidly as possible. Because at the moment there are real structural impediments to greater open-ness. One of the biggest is the way in which those responsible for write International, child protection are held accountable. Writing Contrast Essay! The body which commissions an who writes journal articles Rotterdam SCR in relevant cases is the Local Safeguarding Children Board. Writing Essay! But the a great feature article Epsom College, members of the LSCB are generally representatives of writing essay, those very organisations - the a good essay in english, local authority, the writing a compare contrast Westminster School, local police force, the NHS and others - who have made mistakes in child protection and who writes articles whose errors need exposing. And the writing a compare contrast essay, Chair of the LSCB - the principal watchdog - will be appointed by words for essay writing Oswestry School, the Director of Children’s Services - the figure in the local authority with direct responsibility for child protection. There is a clear potential conflict of interest. Which is a compare contrast essay Westminster why - at the very least - we need to change the write a good in english Millfield, way we appoint chairs of LSCBs. I am open to suggestions and arguments about the future approach, provided we can ensure that it creates more pressure for accountability, transparency and writing a compare Westminster more energetic action to how to write a good essay School protect children.

The structures adults hide behind need to be reformed in children’s interests. But this change can only be a first step. The whole structure we inherited - a tangled web of trusts, partnerships, committees and boards pulling professionals away from their core responsibilities - has not made children safer. We need to ensure there is clarity about who is responsible for what in child protection. And clarity over a compare, the steps required to words for essay writing Oswestry School keep children safe. The last Government’s guidance in these matters, including Working Together to Safeguard Children, was over 700 pages long.

Impossible to digest, let alone remember, for any hard-working teacher or police borough commander pulled in every direction by the many competing demands on their time. Even at that length - perhaps indeed because of that length - professionals were still left confused and writing a compare uncertain about basic principles of child protection. Professionals today - as serious case reviews I have read have revealed - still do not know what facts they can share with other professionals about children in need because there is no clarity in their minds over how data protection laws operate. We are working in Government to simplify - and clarify - the write a great feature Epsom College, rules in all of Westminster School, these areas. We are fortunate that directors of children’s services, the royal colleges and others are working with us. But let me again be frank. Essay College! The over-complicated bureaucratic machinery we inherited diffuses accountability rather than clarifying it, makes sharing information more difficult, not easier, privileges process over results and committee attendance over action. We are taking steps to improve things as quickly as possible - following on from Eileen Munro’s superb work on how we improve children’s experience of child protection. But there is still much to do.

I still believe that the best people to help lead improvements in children’s services are those from local government who have outstanding track records in child protection. That is writing a compare essay why I have committed to funding the work done by the Local Government Association, the ADCS and SOLACE for another year. Their approach teams strong councils with weaker councils to improve child protection. But we need to see rapid progress if that support is to continue in the future. And critical to improvement - as Eileen’s own work so clearly demonstrates - is improving the quality of social work practice. Learning from education when it comes to reforming the profession. One of the reasons why there has been so much bureaucratic intervention intended to regulate the social work profession into better performance is because previous governments had a fundamental lack of a great feature article Epsom College, confidence in social workers themselves. As Andrew Adonis has pointed out - what was done for teachers now needs to be done for a compare essay, social workers. Ielts Essay Ashbury! They too need support to improve their practice. That is why the College of Social Work has been set up and we are planning to establish the office of Chief Social Worker. More requires to be done - both in improving initial training and enhancing leadership - but the recognition is there - among ministers and writing a compare School social workers - that we need to work harder to improve how the profession operates.

And one of the most promising developments in improving how the how to a good essay School, profession operates is the idea - first floated here at writing contrast the IPPR by a Teach First alumnus Josh McAllister - that we support a charity doing for Social Work what TeachFirst did for teaching. Frontline - the proposition Josh has advanced with such care, thought and passion - is a brilliant idea. How To Essay Blue Mountains International Management! It offers more talented graduates the chance to make a dramatic difference to the lives of writing essay, our most vulnerable citizens. For Essay Writing! The same idealism which drew TeachFirst alumnae into the nation’s most challenging classrooms can now be harnessed to get committed, intelligent, compassionate leaders into the homes where children need most help. By providing a shorter and more focussed training programme - just as TeachFirst does with its recruits - one of the biggest barriers to entry for gifted graduates contemplating social work has been cleared. That is why I intend - on receipt of a proper business plan in the next few months - to support Frontline’s establishment and get it up and running as soon as possible. But if we are to improve the writing a compare Westminster, lives of vulnerable children it is a great article College not just more high quality social workers we need to writing a compare contrast essay Westminster School recruit. Finding the right adults to care for children. We also need to recruit more foster parents. And more adoptive parents. We know that one of the surest foundations for any child’s progress through life is a secure attachment with an topics College adult who loves them in their earliest years.

And we know that for writing contrast Westminster, damaged children who’ve grown up in households where love is absent, fitful or glimpsed only occasionally when the haze of intoxication clears, the search for love - indeed for almost any display of affection or even attention - can dominate their later years. Every child needs to be somewhere they are genuinely cared for, protected, and where the how to write a great article Epsom College, adults looking after them love them and a compare essay aspire for them to how to write a good in english Millfield School succeed in school and as they grow into a compare essay Westminster School, adulthood. For Essay Writing! When children are in an environment where they know they are loved they are also more ready to accept boundaries and limitations, because they know curtailments of their liberty or restraints on their wilfulness are being imposed by someone whose heart is committed to them rather than someone who is simply discharging a responsibility. Adoption means taking a child not just into your home but into your heart - it is writing a compare Westminster a relationship for good in every sense of the word. It means committing to another person for life in a way which as profound, indeed even more so, than marriage. That is why it is such a daunting responsibility. But also such a wonderful gift. And because I have benefitted from ielts Ashbury that gift so much I am determined to ensure more and a compare essay more vulnerable children also find loving homes for good.

If adoption is right for how to write Epsom College, a child who is taken into care, we are doing everything we can to ensure that he or she is placed for adoption as soon as possible. That is why we’ve published data on a compare contrast Westminster School the performance of local authorities in ielts writing helping children find adoptive parents - so we can learn from the best and challenge others to improve. It’s also why we’ve changed rules to a compare essay Westminster make it easier for children to how to write a great article Epsom move out of the care system more quickly and into the arms of loving parents. We’re legislating to ensure BME children are not left in care for many months longer than average because adults believe they need to find a perfect or even a partial ethnic match. We’re changing the rules so that approved adopters can foster the child they hope to adopt at an early stage - thus building attachment and security. We are also exploring changes to allow siblings to be adopted separately - and to strictly limit or prevent contact between birth parents and adopted children. In both cases the wishes of adults and children to keep siblings together - or to maintain historic relationships - can work against a compare Westminster School, the interests of children - who may best be served by being adopted as quickly as possible and forming as secure an how to in english attachment as possible with their new parents. Waiting until two or more siblings can be adopted together can limit the speed with which either might find a loving home. Allowing inappropriate contact with a birth parent could impede a child’s ability to settle in a new family without any gains for either child or parents. I am open to making whatever other changes are necessary to speed this process - but as reform bites so it becomes even more imperative that we accelerate and writing contrast increase the numbers becoming approved adopters. That is why I am open to changing how we recruit new parents, giving voluntary adoption agencies a bigger role, with costs and Blue payments reflecting their ability, indeed determination, to recruit more parents.

Local authorities have little incentive at the moment to recruit beyond the writing a compare contrast Westminster, numbers they may consider appropriate for their own area - while voluntary adoption agencies want to work across localities to recruit more parents. I don’t have any ideological preference as to who recruits more parents as long as more parents are recruited. As that thoughtful advocate of competition in the provision of public services, Deng Xiaoping, once said, it doesn’t matter whether the cat is black or white as long as it catches mice. And I don’t mind it if it’s a council or an in english agency recruiting adoptive parents as long as they don’t ask unnecessary and intrusive questions about faith or sexual politics, as long as they don’t keep compassionate volunteers waiting for long weeks and months to be assessed, as long as they don’t impose irrelevant class, race or lifestyle tests on a compare prospective parents and as long as they work hard to make sure that sooner or later every prospective parent is how to write a great Epsom College given the a compare contrast School, chance to words writing Oswestry School adopt. But unless I can see a change in attitude, quickening of the pace and a raising of the level of ambition, again, we are prepared to act. And just as I want a wider range of people encouraged to writing contrast essay School become adopters so I want to help an even wider range of The Perkiomen School, people to become foster parents. Contrast Essay! We need in for essay particular to encourage more foster parents from a wider range of homes. Edward Timpson – the Children’s Minister – grew up with a total of 89 foster siblings. Writing A Compare Essay Westminster! He is used to how to a great article College people saying “you must be a very special person to do this” but he and his parents disagree. You don’t have to be special – there are lots of people who could foster children.

We need more aspirational and engaged parents who can introduce looked-after children to a wider range of experiences and opportunities would be hugely powerful in improving the prospects of our most vulnerable children. Writing Westminster School! Other EU nations tend to recruit foster parents from an even broader pool than we do and we are looking at just how we can extend both the number, and the diversity, of those who foster. And I should add, of course, that the growth in special guardianship provides another route for children who cannot be cared for by their birth parents to enjoy the how to a great article College, security of a home in which they are loved and cherished. All of these options together provide an opportunity for writing contrast essay Westminster, children who have known only Rotterdam Business upheaval and neglect to writing contrast Westminster enjoy permanence and love - and thanks to the generosity of adopters, fosters parents and for essay writing special guardians the number of children and young people in residential care homes has diminished during my lifetime. Holding adults to contrast essay Westminster account for children in their care. Of course there are some children and an interesting essay Mountains International Management young people who simply cannot function in the family environment of writing contrast, foster care, and they need the how to feature article College, framework and intensive professional help to be found in good children’s homes. A Compare Essay Westminster School! I know that many children recognise and respond to the warm and sympathetic care they then receive. Words For Essay Writing! The best residential care homes are very good indeed - warm and essay School caring environments where the highest professional standards help young people find stability after years of abuse or neglect. It is, however, very sadly the case that there are residential care homes where these high standards are not maintained.

Homes where facilities are poor, supervision ineffective, affection absent and support for the young person either scanty or misdirected. Worse, many of these homes are located in parts of the country where other facilities for young people are poor. Worse still, many local authorities deliberately send their looked after children many miles from their friends and families to critical The Perkiomen School care homes in distant areas. Worse still, some of these homes are located in high-risk areas with large numbers of sexual offenders or organised criminal activity which can ensnare vulnerable young people. Now, no Director of Children’s Services or Council Chief Executive would willingly put vulnerable young people in harm’s way - but that is what happens.

In places such as East Kent and East Lancashire there are vulnerable children from all over the United Kingdom, at risk of exploitation and vulnerable to criminal activity. They have been sent there by a compare Westminster, professionals charged with protecting them. How can this happen? In order to establish why good-hearted and ielts writing topics Ashbury College well-intentioned people are not just allowing this to happen - but directing this activity - my colleague Tim Loughton established detailed work to consider how we could improve provision. That work will be completed shortly.

We know that many of the young people who have found themselves in these homes - and essay Westminster School whose lives will already have been characterised by neglect and Oswestry School abuse, the withholding of affection and the manipulation of their emotions - are being targeted by adults intent on sexual exploitation. Thanks to writing a compare contrast essay School the determined work of Times journalist Andrew Norfolk, we know that the targeting, grooming and horrific mistreatment of write an interesting International Management, young girls is facilitated by the failures of our residential care system. Indeed our care system overall. Policing the a compare School, boundary between children and adults. For a disproportionate number of young people who have been sexually exploited are or have been in care. And as Sylvie Carver’s Times article also made clear children who have been neglected early in ielts essay Ashbury College their lives are uniquely vulnerable to sexual exploitation later. We need to writing a compare essay Westminster ensure all adults recognise this vulnerability. That means tackling head on critical tutorials The Perkiomen School the attitudes of these professionals reported to have dismissed many of these young girls as “difficult”, “drawn to danger”, “risk-fuelled” “asking for it” or “sexually available”. It is chilling to read how nominally responsible adults treated the sexual activity of children in Rochdale. Because of an attitude that may have begun as exasperation with damaged young people but ended in acceptance of their abuse by adults, we let those children down.

We let them down because we did not - for them - and for a compare School, others - uphold the principle that laws are there to protect the innocent. The law of consent is there precisely to how to a great feature article College protect young people - children in fact and in law - from exploitation by their elders. When anyone - anyone - interprets children’s sexual activity - or availability - as a matter of free choice, or evidence of their appetite for risk and danger, or behaviour just too difficult to handle, they are acquiescing in contrast essay Westminster School abuse. Because the girls exploited in School Rochdale are not an isolated and wholly unrepresentative group. According to a compare contrast Westminster data from the Health Protection Agency approximately 3000 children - children - attended a genitourinary medicine clinic on more than one occasion between April 2010 and March 2011. The Department of Health confirms that in 2011 there were 84 terminations of scholarly journal articles, pregnancy for writing a compare contrast essay Westminster School, children under the age of 16 - who had already had at least one previous termination.

Now I am absolutely convinced that we must have good sexual health services for every citizen. I know that health professionals must always - always - act to alleviate harm and The Perkiomen School never seek to pass personal judgement - and I am not one of those who wishes to see any reduction in women’s reproductive rights or undermining of women’s health and well-being. But while I do not wish to see the NHS be any less responsive to those in need, I have to a compare essay Westminster ask - can we as a society be happy with the exposure to risk - to physical and mental health, to social and emotional maturity - revealed by this evidence of early sexual activity? I think we all need to ensure the importance of 16 as the age of consent is who writes scholarly journal articles appreciated by Westminster School, every one who has responsibility for young people. As Anne-Marie Carrie says, no child can consent to their own abuse. They deserve our protection. And to help combat the erosion of a good, that safeguard, and the exploitation of the vulnerable, I think we should erect more - not less - protection around childhood. That is writing Westminster School why I applaud the campaigning efforts of organisations like Mumsnet with their “Let Girls be Girls” campaign, and why the Government commissioned the Bailey Review into the premature sexualisation and commercialisation of children. It is also why I think we need to recognise that all the pressures put on young people to for essay Oswestry grow up faster need to writing essay School be resisted. That is why I think we should do all we can to discourage young people in care from leaving care before they are 18. We are - rightly raising the age of compulsory participation in education.

We believe young people should carry on learning until they are at least 18, in preparation for adult responsibilities and how to write a good essay School opportunities. And I think - in line with the steps we are taking to raise the participation age - we should ensure looked after children are expected to remain in care until they are 18. And, much more often, to stay with their former foster carers until into their early twenties. We should not be allowing vulnerable young people at 16 or 17, before they are ready, to be placed in additional risk. We know that the prospects for many care leavers across the country are poor. The circumstances some of them find themselves in essay are desperate. Even when they are in suitable accommodation in a foyer or supported lodgings they may be vulnerable to exploitation from drug dealers, pimps and other predators who may live in the area. So we need to ensure children are not leaving foster or residential care only to how to a great article Epsom have their whole futures endangered. And because local authorities have a specific duty of care here I want to ensure we hold them accountable for what happens to these young people.

We are holding our schools more effectively to account by recording the essay Westminster School, number of their students who go onto university, college, proper apprenticeships or satisfying jobs. How To Essay Millfield! This destination data will complement other performance measures to writing a compare ensure schools prepare students for all the essay writing Ashbury, challenges of adult life. I believe we should hold local authorities similarly to writing a compare essay Westminster account for the destinations of write Mountains Hotel Management School, looked after children. We should be able to plot where children in care progress to, local authority by local authority, so councils have an a compare contrast even more powerful incentive to who writes scholarly ensure care leavers are prepared and supported for a compare, all the how to Epsom, risks, and opportunities, of writing a compare contrast essay, adult life. The proposals I have put forward today are, I hope, the thinking School, start of a debate, not the summing-up; the beginning of a conversation, not a conclusion. I have spoken as honestly as possible today because I want there to be no excused for inaction in the days ahead.

I want those of us entrusted with responsibility at this time - in central and local Government - in social work, schools, the police, the health service - to work together to improve our child protection system. I want us to ensure that - at last - ahead of the interests of adults - we put the needs of children. Published: 21 November 2012. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Compare & contrast essays

essay good behaviour Read the following essay from the subject Human Behaviour. Contrast Essay School? Click on the blue highlighted numbers to see comments. Words or phrases highlighted in pink are wrong or in some way problematic. Most of these have comments attached, but in a few places we leave it to you to think about what is wrong, or how the writing might be improved. 1 Cancer is still seen by many as an incurable disease that slowly takes over healthy human tissue, and ultimately causes death.

2 Through advances in medical science, different physical procedures have been developed to treat cancer for thinking School, example, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. In recent years however, there has been a growing perception by cancer specialists and patients that the a compare contrast essay School onset and treatment of cancer may be affected by psychological factors. A new field of research called psycho-oncology has emerged to investigate how the mind can slow down, or even reverse, the critical progress of cancer. The results from such studies however, have not always been conclusive, and in the case of retrospective studies, have often proved contradictory. 3 While it is important that medical science properly investigate the merit of mind-cancer theories, the contrast benefits of alternative therapies and viewpoints should not be overlooked in how to write Blue International Management School the debate over cancer research. 4 The essay briefly surveys the origins of mind-cancer research and the emergence of the field of psycho-oncology, before addressing contemporary research in the area, in particular, the problem of validating results. It concludes by examining the merits of alternative therapies with regard to contrast Westminster School patient psychology. 5 Before examining the origins of mind-cancer research, the Ashbury physiology of cancer will be briefly discussed. Cancer is a general term used to describe a physiological disorder in which cells in the body begin to reproduce as abnormal cells, forming a mass called a tumour. There are different types of cancers and tumours, and the body utilises the immune system to destroy the cancerous cells. If the tumour is malignant, the contrast immune system stops the an interesting essay Mountains International Management cancer cells from moving to other areas of the body.

The immune system halts the spread of the cancer cells by the use of cytotoxic T-cells, also known as 6 natural killer (NK) cells. These cells attack the cancerous cells and writing a compare essay, destroy them. This is why much cancer research over the years has concentrated on the immune system because in effect, this system provides the body#039;s own natural cancer treatment. In several studies completed over the last two decades, 7 researchers have found that psychological factors such as stress and topics Ashbury College, bereavement can suppress NK cell activity in the body, and the activity of all T-cells in general 8 (Bartrop, 1977; 9 Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992). Writing A Compare Essay Westminster School? This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed as a contributing factor in many physiological diseases including allergies, infections, digestive disorders, asthma, heart disease, and cancer 10 (Edelman Kidman, 1997). The idea however, that psychological factors could have an influence on cancer was first raised as early as the second century. The Greek physician, 11 Galen, noted that depressed women were more likely to develop cancer than happy women (cited by Sdorow, 1995).

Other eminent physicians and surgeons also noted that the ielts writing Ashbury personalities of writing essay School people who had developed cancer were markedly different to a good in english Millfield people who had not developed cancer (cited by Kune, 1992); 12 i.e, they concluded that cancer was more likely to develop in people who possessed a #039;melancholy#039; disposition (cited by writing a compare contrast School, Horne, 1996). 13 This raised the question of why such psychological factors might influence the behaviour of cancer. Critical Tutorials School? Studies in the field of psycho-oncology, which combines oncology with psychiatry, therefore tried to a compare contrast essay Westminster show how the mind affected physiological functions. Dedicated experimentation in the field first began with laboratory mice. 14 Sklar and Anisman (1979) implanted cancerous cells into mice, and then subjected them to Millfield a series of escapable and inescapable electric shocks. They reasoned that the writing a compare contrast essay School mice subjected to the inescapable shocks would be placed under more stress than the mice allowed to escape the shocks. They further found that the mice in the former category developed exaggerated tumour sizes and did not survive as long as did the mice in the latter category. Nevertheless, the results were regarded as inconclusive since different tumour systems are differentially influenced by stress (chemically induced tumours are inhibited by increased stress levels), and the experiment involved mice and not humans. 15 Research was then directed to cancer patients.

Many studies concentrated on women suffering from breast cancer, and consisted of interviewing them after a significant event involving their cancer (such as diagnosis, or an operation). The patients were then followed up after a number of years. However, the results often proved contradictory, as has occurred in several retrospective studies. In one well-known case, 16 Ramirez et al. (1989) found that there was a prognostic association between severe life stressors and the recurrence of breast cancer. Words For Essay Writing Oswestry School? Barraclough et al. (1992) 17 on the other hand, 18 found that psychosocial adversity such as depression, or a severe life event, was not conducive to a relapse of contrast Westminster School cancer and this conclusions has since been supported. Write A Great Feature Article? 19 There is good evidence for any relation between stressful life events and breast cancer (McGee 1999, p.1015). Certain studies found that patients could be classified into contrast essay Westminster different psychological groups, and that a pattern emerged in ielts topics Ashbury the life span of the patients in each of the groups. In one study, Greer et al. A Compare Essay? (1979) classified 20 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into who writes scholarly articles Rotterdam Business one of four groups , 21 the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of Hopelessness groups. The Denial group consisted of those patients who rejected any evidence of their diagnosis, and 22 didn#039;t consider having cancer as serious.

The Fighting Spirit group consisted of writing contrast Westminster School patients who possessed a highly optimistic attitude, and sought to learn more information about their cancer and to do everything they could to conquer the disease. The Stoic Acceptance group comprised patients who ignored their cancer and any symptoms as much as they could, continuing with their lives as normal. The patients in the Feelings of Hopelessness group considered themselves gravely ill, and were totally preoccupied in a negative way with their illness. At the completion of the study, researchers found that the patients classified in topics Ashbury the first two groups were more likely to achieve a favourable outcome than the patients classified in the latter two groups (Greer et al. 1979). This conclusion was similar to writing essay School Galen#039;s hypothesis, which claimed that women who had cancer and died from it were more likely to have different personalities than those women who did not develop the disease or were cured of how to essay in english Millfield School it. Other studies reinvestigated the role of stress in cancer. Medical research had established that stress could cause immunosuppression, and that in times of writing essay Westminster stress, people could become sick more readily. Goodkin et al. Scholarly Rotterdam? (1984) postulated that an invasive cervical carcinoma could develop as a result of writing contrast essay Westminster School a mediating mechanism such as the immune system becoming adversely affected by stress. Scholarly Articles Rotterdam Business School? As mentioned previously, exposure to stressful life experiences can also alter T-cell activity in the immune system. Writing A Compare Contrast Essay? Schleifer et al. (1985) demonstrated that in most people T-cell activity returned to who writes journal Rotterdam normal after a time, but for others, it remained lower than prior to the stressor event leaving them more susceptible to illness.

However, like many other findings, it remains to be determined whether these changes in immune function are specifically related to cancer. 23 Can the mind really play a role in cancer onset and cure? While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and writing contrast essay Westminster, psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive, and in some cases, contradictory. It is also possible that researchers have concluded what they wanted to believe. A Great Feature Epsom College? . . . In those studies which have directly linked stress to writing contrast Westminster School cancer, stress may only College, be an writing contrast essay Westminster School, indirect cause. People in general, when confronted with something that causes stress, tend to isolate themselves and words, engage in #039;emotion-focused coping behaviour,#039; to prevent being overwhelmed by their negative emotions (Atkinson et al. 1996).

Typical examples are behavioural strategies including cigarette smoking and drug and alcohol consumption. Such behaviour can cause numerous health problems with smoking being especially linked to the development of lung cancer. In turn, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body. A Compare Westminster? These coping factors may in fact, represent the thinking School real reason why stress has been linked to cancer. Issues such as these are among the writing contrast essay Westminster School questions that mind-cancer research needs to resolve. The quality of studies conducted has also prevented any definite conclusions being reached about the validity of theories that view the mind as influencing cancer. Many of essay Ashbury College these studies for writing essay Westminster, example, have been criticised for poor methodology and ielts topics, design faults (Edelman and Kidman, 1997). 24 Small sample sizes, the use of unvalidated instruments, no control groups, no vital information taken into account and no randomising of treatment groups may have led to errors in the calculation of writing essay School results, and therefore, to questionable conclusions.

Many studies have not been replicated by other researchers to determine the accuracy of their results. . . . Or, they may have been based upon what was in effect, the measurement of feelings. Since feelings cannot be determined quantitatively, it is hard to assess the exact amount of stress or depression that a person has experienced. . Thinking School? . . In addition, the equipment used in some studies to measure psychological variables may have varied between studies. A Compare Contrast Essay Westminster? All these factors can contribute to School inconclusive outcomes. Although verifying mind-cancer studies is problematic, medical personnel need to a compare consider the psychology of their patients. For this reason, the for essay writing Oswestry School benefits offered by a positive mindset or alternative therapies should not be too readily dismissed. It may well be useful for some cancer patients to writing contrast School believe that the mind can be used as a tool to treat, or even, prevent the onset of cancer. Similarly, it may also benefit some cancer patients to attempt alternative treatments such as meditation and positive thinking.

No matter how strange a cancer treatment may appear, it should not be immediately discredited. One woman with breast cancer was able to write an interesting International keep her malignant tumour localised for writing Westminster, a period of seven years, before undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy to finally destroy the cancer. For Essay Writing Oswestry? Over a period of seven years, she underwent vibrational healing and oxygen therapy, took high doses of Vitamin C and Vitamin B17 (Laetrile), but most importantly, adopted a positive attitude toward life and living (Ward 1996). A Compare Contrast Essay? . Business School? . . Such a patient may well be an example of the phenomenon Sarafino (1990) notes of patients who appear to #039;will away#039; cancer. 25 The extent to which the mind can affect cancer still remains unresolved. Specific questions cannot be answered with any certainty due to the ambiguities, inconsistencies and direct contradictions of some studies.

Nevertheless, an examination of the literature that discusses these issues reveals broad findings that are worth emphasising: Stress can negatively affect the immune system. Although the evidence is ambiguous, stress can also affect the onset and progression of cancer. An individual#039;s psychological profile can affect the progression of cancer in the body. Such findings should not be ignored, but rather used to the patient#039;s advantage. With the advent of newer medical technology, more research and greater knowledge about how the mind works, the answers to questions in the field of psycho-oncology will hopefully be revealed. Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J., and S. Nolen-Hoeksema . A Compare Contrast Essay School? Hilgard#039;s Introduction to Psychology. Feature Article College? (12th ed.). Writing Essay Westminster School? USA: Harcourt Brace and how to essay School, Company, 1996. Barraclough, J., Pinder, P., Cruddas, M., Osmond, C., Taylor I., and M. Writing A Compare Essay Westminster? Perry. Life events and essay in english, breast cancer prognosis. British Medical Journal, 304, 1078-1081, 1992.

Bartrop, R.W., Luckhurst, E., Lazarus. L., Kiloh, L.G., and R. School? Penny. Words For Essay School? Depressed Lymphocyte Function After Bereavement. The Lancet, i, 834-836, 1977. Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman. Essay? Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - 27 A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. Goodkin, K., Antoni, M.H., and P.H.

Blaney. Stress and hopelessness in the promotion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30, 67-76, 1986. Greer, S., Morris, T., and K.W. Pettingale. Words Writing? Psychological response to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. The Lancet, ii, 785-787, 1979.

Home, R. Cancer Proof your Body. Adelaide: Griffin Paperbacks, 1996. Kune, G.A., and S. Bannerman. Contrast Essay Westminster? The 1st Slezak Cancer Symposium - The Psyche and how to write a great Epsom College, Cancer. University of Melbourne, 1992. McGee, R. A Compare Contrast? Does stress cause cancer? There#039;s no good evidence of a relation between stressful events and cancer.

British Medical Journal, 319, 1015-1019, 1999. Ramirez, A.J., Craig, T.K.J., Watson, J.P., Fentiman, I.S., North, W.R.S., and critical tutorials, R.D. Reubens. Stress and relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 298, 291-293, 1989. Sarafino, E.P. Health Psychology-Biosocial Interactions. Canada: 28 1990. Schleifer, S.J., Keller, S.E., and M. Stein. Central Nervous System Mechanisms and Immunity: Implications for Tumour Response. In S.M.

Levy, Behaviour and Cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1985. 29. Sdorow, L.M. Psychology, (3rd ed.). 30 Brown and Benchmark , 1995. Sklar, L.S., and H. Anisman. Stress and writing contrast School, coping factors influence tumour growth.

Science, 205, 513-515, 1979. Ward, D. One in 10 - Women living with Breast Cancer. Sydney: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1996. The first thing to how to a good essay School do in a typical introduction is to introduce the contrast essay Westminster topic , and provide a little relevant background information to orient the reader. The first statement here identifies the Epsom broad topic as cancer, with a brief description of what it is. The second stage of a typical introduction limits the scope of the discussion. The next 4 sentences focus on the history of the treatment of cancer, and specifically the contrast role of the how to write essay School mind in controlling the disease. This next stage points out the importance or relevance of the a compare contrast essay topic. We don#039;t yet know, however, exactly how the writer is how to write essay International Management going to tackle the subject.

In the final stage of the writing contrast essay introduction, the how to a good essay School writer gives a brief outline of the structure of the essay, and what the writer intends to achieve. Note, however, that this plan avoids using #039;I#039; statements (In this essay I will . ); to do so would overemphasise what is purely organisational information. Instead it does the same thing in a less personal way: This essay . Contrast Essay Westminster? surveys . It concludes by examining . . In general,#039;I#039; is rarely used in scientific writing, where the critical School #039;facts of research#039; are required to speak for themselves. Notice how the topic sentence in this paragraph maintains the overall theme - the effects of the mind on cancer - while at the same time moving the discussion forward. If you wish to use an acronym like NK = natural killer in your essay, introduce it the first time by using the full term and adding the acronym immediately after it in brackets. Use the active voice and human agent(s) where possible (i.e. Researchers have found. instead of impersonal constructions of the type It has been found.

Impersonal constructions do not clearly indicate authorship or responsibility. This first use of a reference focuses on introducing relevant information rather than specific researcher achievements/events/opinions. This is a typical practice in the early stages of an a compare contrast essay School, essay. See Citing previous research on the difference between information-prominent and words for essay School, author-prominent citations. (Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992) is a reference within a reference . In general, you should avoid reporting writers at #039;third-hand#039;; instead go to the original source if possible. If that is not possible, you can use this method to cite authors referred to essay Westminster School in another source. When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, a reference at the end of a sentence is always placed in brackets before the a good Millfield full stop, not after it: This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and cancer (Edelman, 1997). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and cancer. Writing Contrast? (Edelman, 1997) Galen is a source cited by another author (Sdorow, 1995), as are other eminent physicians and surgeons (cited by Kune, 1992). In formal writing it is preferable to avoid using abbreviations - use #039;that is#039; rather than i.e. and #039;for example#039; rather than e.g.

The pronoun this is often overused by writers. In this sentence, you may feel it is not clear what #039;this#039; refers to. The following sentence is more specific, and you might consider dropping this first sentence altogether. Author-prominent citations (see Citing previous research) are appropriate at this point as the writer#039;s focus has now moved to the work of individual researchers. Note that if you have cited a particular reference once already in ielts topics Ashbury a paragraph, it is not necessary to writing essay Westminster School cite that work again in the same paragraph unless a second reference has also been cited, and you need to clarify any possible ambiguity. In this paragraph only one reference has been cited (Sklar and an interesting essay International, Anisman 1979), and a compare contrast Westminster, the reader will naturally assume that any information in the rest of the paragraph comes from the same source.

The topic sentence must state the intention behind the paragraph clearly and write essay in english Millfield, specifically. In this case the point is the turn from research on animals to research on human patients. Adding a couple more words could clarify this; for example: At that point, therefore, research was directed to cancer in human patients. et al. Essay School? is the Latin short form for a good in english Millfield School, #039;and others#039; or #039;other writers#039; and is used when more than two writers are referred to. Strictly speaking, it should only writing essay Westminster, be used the second time you refer to the same source - in other words, give the full citation the first time the work is cited. Here, therefore, the citation should be to critical Ramirez, Craig, Watson, Fentiman, North, and Reubens (1989) . (Of course, the authors#039; initials are not included in the citation - except when two of the authors have the same surname.)

Note, too, that et al. is plural in reference; so make sure the verb agrees with its plural subject. Transition markers such as #039;on the other hand#039; are used to organise your argument and to emphasise particular points - e.g. cause ( because , since, etc.), effect ( as a result , therefore , etc.) contrast ( however , on the other hand , etc.), concession ( although , etc.) and example ( for instance , etc.) (see also Linking. Use them strategically and carefully. It might be better to use #039;claimed#039; here in writing essay place of #039;found#039;. Vary your reporting verbs (i.e. Scholarly Articles Business? states , claims , suggests , aintains , demonstrates , etc.), but make sure the appropriate verb is used. #039;Say#039; and #039;tell#039; are not used when reporting written sources. Use a direct quote only when the wording is exceptional. Otherwise, use a paraphrase instead. A direct quote was not necessary in this case. Direct quotations are generally not used in writing essay Westminster academic writing; they are a feature of journalistic style.

For a direct quote, use quotation marks around the exact words of the original. Use three dots to indicate any omission of word(s), e.g. (between . and cancer). Write A Good? Include the page number in the citation, after the year. A quote longer than three lines should be set out as an indented block, single-spaced, without quotation marks. Numbers are written as words (one, two . ) up to ten, and thereafter usually as figures. So the writer here is correct to writing essay Westminster write 69 patients but four groups. It would be better to use a colon rather than a comma here to introduce the list that follows like this: In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into Business School one of writing a compare contrast School four groups: the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and The Perkiomen, Feelings of Hopelessness groups. Do not use contractions in formal writing - use full forms (i.e. #039;did not#039;

Topic sentences in the form of questions are not appropriate in formal scientific writing. They look lazy or journalistic. Make a clear statement to a compare contrast essay School introduce the topic of the thinking tutorials The Perkiomen paragraph. Contrast School? In this case the scholarly articles second sentence in this paragraph would make a better topic sentence: While many researchers in the field of writing psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive.

Keep items in a list parallel in grammatical form. In this case, make them all noun phrases like small sample sizes or the use of unvalidated instruments. Here, rather than using no . it would be better to write: the absence of control groups and the failure to take vital information into account and randomise treatment groups. The conclusion that follows here does what is recommended for concluding an essay: it firstly sums up the argument with appropriate reference to the main points discussed, and then attempts to indicate further implications or future directions. Essay? However, the final statement is essay Westminster rather glib that is, it looks good, but doesn#039;t say very much. This weakens the overall impact. It might be better to offer a more cautious, reasoned statement at the end:

With the advent of better medical technology and continuing research, answers to some of the questions in the field of mind-cancer research may become clarified. In the how to write a great feature meantime, the professional desire for verifiable results should always be balanced against the patient#039;s well-being. Notice the use of writing a compare essay Westminster cautious language here. Words Writing? Academics are generally careful not to make claims that could easily be proved wrong, and use qualifiers, modal verbs and hedging expressions (some, may, possibly, etc.) to do this. Remember, too, that the conclusion should never introduce new information. Make sure you are consistent in the setting out of your bibliography and contrast essay Westminster, that you include all relevant information. Once you adopt a particular way of setting out the information, don#039;t chop and feature Epsom, change between items. Note that article titles are typically formatted in writing a compare contrast Westminster lower case apart from the initial capital and thinking tutorials The Perkiomen, the capital after the colon: Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman.

Mind and a compare contrast Westminster School, cancer: Is there a relationship? - A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. This is to distinguish them from book and journal titles, especially where italics are not used to identify these, as they are in critical thinking School this case. The name of the writing a compare essay School publisher must be provided with the ielts writing City of publication. See the entry for Home, R. as an example. Page numbers must be provided for single chapters in a book, as well as for a compare essay School, any journal articles used. City of how to Mountains International Hotel publication must be provided with the name of the publisher. See the Westminster School entry for Home, R. as an example.

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