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How to write a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Write Article Cambridge! There are a lot of “Best SAT Books” lists out there. Essays Anglia (Navitas)! We think most of them aren’t very good or thorough, and I’ve tried to write a much better guide here. You’ll learn which books are absolutely critical for your prep, which books you should use to improve individual sections, and which books you need if you’re aiming for a top score. Write A Newspaper For Kids CATS College! Importantly, you’ll also learn HOW to use these books to writing classes Istituto London, study effectively. Keep reading to learn more. This guide is detailed, so here are quick reference links. I recommend you read the write article CATS, whole thing if you can. What’s Better About This Guide to the Best SAT Books?

Because your SAT score is levels Ashford, important, and write CATS College you’ll probably spend a good amount of time studying, it’s important that you get the right advice. Follow the wrong advice, and write a short essay it might be too late to improve your score. Therefore, it’s important to vet the advice you get (including ours) before deciding on your SAT Prep plan. Before you read each article in your research, you should think – why should I trust this person online giving me advice? To be transparent, here’s why this guide is better than others online, so you can decide for yourself: I explain in detail why good books are good, and what each book's flaws are. You probably haven’t heard of some of write Cambridge these books, because they're either newer or are hidden gems, and essay Sevenoaks they're not featured as widely as the books from large companies that have large marketing budgets. Most other guides just list a few books without context. How To Write Article For Kids College Cambridge! One important disclaimer: I’m co-founder of PrepScholar, an online SAT/ACT prep program. I believe we’ve built the best prep program available right now. It diagnoses your strengths and weaknesses and articles on writing Western Sydney (Navitas) gives you a structured all-in-one program, combining the a newspaper College, best aspects of the books below, so you know exactly what you need to essay, study at every point.

But I want to stress that you don’t need a program to excel at the SAT. In fact, writing this guide may lose us some customers, since you might decide that you don’t need a program at all. But if you decide that you don’t want to manage 10 books and want an integrated complete program that customizes to your learning, check PrepScholar SAT out. Write A Newspaper For Kids CATS College! If you’re serious about writing essays Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) SAT prep, keep reading. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Tired of write article for kids wasting time prepping in ways that don't work? We have the writing literature Anglia, industry's leading SAT prep program.

Built by write CATS Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. It's the best prep program available right now. Best of all, we guarantee your money back if you don't improve your score by 160 points or more. Check out classes Istituto Marangoni London, our 5-day free trial today: First, this guide is for how to write for kids College students who are serious about their prep . You need to be motivated to get a high score, and you need to Trent, be willing to put in hard work. Getting through these books will take dozens of hours, simply because the write a newspaper for kids CATS, SAT covers so much material. If you just plan to study 5 hours, your choice of book doesn’t make any difference . You should focus your time just on taking a sample practice test and reviewing your answers. Your score won’t go up much, and you shouldn’t expect miracles. Buying the books is the critical thinking, first and easiest step of SAT prep. You'll need to put in how to write a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge serious work to actually get the score improvements. Write! We’ll explain below the best way to get the most out of these books. Secondly, this guide is for students who want to improve their score by over 100 points.

To make consistent improvements of this level, you need more than just tricks. You need to understand the content of what’s being tested – the how to write a newspaper article College Cambridge, underlying math concepts and grammar rules – rather than just tricks that make you feel like you learned something but are actually not effective. Western University (Navitas)! Again, if you’re just looking to improve by 50 points, it’s possible for you to do that just by retaking the test, especially if you’ve taken the test only how to write a newspaper article for kids CATS Cambridge, once. Finally, to improve by studying books, you need to have a great study strategy . Levels! It is NOT enough to just read a book cover by cover. So many students spend dozens of hours cracking through book after book without improving their score.

Why? Because they're not understanding what their weaknesses are and focusing their time on their weaknesses. If you don't focus your time on your weaknesses, you won't improve! It sounds obvious, but it's pretty hard for how to article for kids Cambridge many students to writing The Mount, Hill International, actually do this well. I write a lot more about this in my Perfect SAT Score guide, and that's how I designed our PrepScholar SAT program to do all the hard structural work for you. If you’re serious about score improvement, and you want to study with only article for kids Cambridge, books, this is the guide for you. We’re going to on writing Western University (Navitas), divide the best SAT books into a few categories: Critical Books : Must have books as part of your prep program, no matter your skill level or weaknesses.

Subject Training Books : The best books to use to train Reading, Math, and Writing. Books for Top Scorers : Books that will push you over the top. Books for Low Scorers and Low Motivation : If you only want to study for 5 hours and College improve a little bit, this is OK. Otherwise avoid. The #1 Book to Avoid : New for this year - a book I always used to recommend is writing essays University (Navitas), now squarely in the Do Not Buy list.

Find out which. Because the format of the how to write article for kids College Cambridge, test is changing so much, I do NOT recommend using Old SAT books to study for the New SAT. While the tests are more similar than not, you can waste a lot of time studying for the wrong thing, if you don't precisely know how the tests are different. Instead, use New SAT books, like the ones below, or use our PrepScholar SAT program. Writing Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)! We rebuilt the program from the ground up and dissected the test to write a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, understand it fully. These are books that I believe everyone should have, regardless of thinking their current score, regardless of where they need to improve. This is extremely hard to qualify for, and in fact there are only how to write a newspaper article Cambridge, two books out of dozens that I’ve tested: We’ve written at length about the importance of official SAT practice questions. The SAT test is weird and tests concepts in ways that you’ve never seen in school before. This means that you need to train with realistic questions so you learn the patterns of the SAT.

Official SAT tests released by the College Board are the gold standard for SAT practice questions. Each test released by the College Board contains real questions given to real students at previous administrations of the levels of critical School, SAT. The quality of official questions is a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, far better than questions written by unofficial sources like Kaplan and Barron's. Even better — all of the Official SAT Practice Tests for the New SAT are FREE ! You can download the PDFs, then print them out to classes Marangoni London, get the realistic on-paper testing experience. Visit our Complete Official SAT Practice Tests guide to download all the practice tests and answer keys for yourself. The best set of practice tests you can get anywhere, period - especially since the New SAT is so new. If you want to take a practice test, these are the ones to use. Answer explanations are not helpful for how to a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge self-learning for most students.

Most of the explanations read like this: “A is wrong because A is wrong. B is correct for these reasons” rather than showing you how to solve the of critical School, question from a newspaper article for kids CATS College step 1. Writing Literature Essays Anglia Ruskin University! If you don't know strategies for how to approach reading passages or alternative math strategies, you'll need more help. How To Write! Now that the essay writing classes Istituto Marangoni, Black Book has finally been updated for the New SAT, it's only other Critical book I'd recommend. A Newspaper College Cambridge! It’s not sufficient by essays Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) itself, and even with the article for kids CATS Cambridge, practice tests above you’ll likely need more supplemental help, as I explain below. But what it does have is so good that I believe every student studying only with books should read it. What you’ll get from the Black Book is a way to think about the writing Ruskin, SAT. What does this even mean? Here are a few examples: You learn that the SAT is designed to be a predictable, standardized test . It needs to test basic concepts so that it can be administered nationwide to all students, but it also needs to make it difficult, so it distorts the questions in how to write article for kids CATS College Cambridge a weird way. The concepts in Istituto this book were things I understood intuitively when I took the SAT and was studying for a perfect score. It’s influenced the way that I think about teaching our students at PrepScholar.

Of all books on the market, this book aligns most closely with my personal philosophy on the SAT and write article for kids College how to levels of critical, succeed on how to a newspaper for kids CATS College, it. Very lucid take on the SAT. The ideas within will change your view on the SAT and hopefully motivate you to work harder, knowing that any student can excel on of critical thinking Ashford School, the SAT. Requires a ton of how to CATS College Cambridge self-discipline and insight to use effectively. Because you’re learning from your mistakes and articles Western Sydney no one is there to how to College, guide you, you need to be self-driven to experiment with different strategies and find which one works best for you.

For some students, following a set of straight guidelines could be less confusing. Article Trent University! Once again, I highly recommend these two resources for all students studying purely through books. We cover most of the important concepts in the Black Book in our SAT prep program and provide focused practice on individual skills. As I mentioned above, most likely you'll need specific training on each subject to shore up your weaknesses. Next, we'll provide specific resources for individual subjects. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. How To Write Article For Kids Cambridge! Download it for free now: Beyond the Critical books above, you’ll most likely need extra supplemental help on specific sections.

The following section discusses the best books for Reading, Math, and Writing. These books all follow my SAT prep philosophy: divide SAT content into skills, and get focused training on those skills use realistic, high-quality questions that prep you well for the real SAT cover only what you need to know, not advanced material not on a short essay School, the SAT. In my experience with thousands of students, SAT Reading is the most difficult section to improve. It uses logical reasoning skills that aren’t as easily mastered as math concepts or grammar rules. It’s very important to drill down on what types of questions are asked, and how to approach these questions in a systematic way. My recommendation for best SAT Reading book is how to article for kids CATS College Cambridge, The Critical Reader 2nd Edition, by Erica Meltzer . This book dissects the SAT Reading section by question type and skill. She does a great job of teaching the essay writing classes Istituto London, core of what the question is asking, and how to work with the passage to arrive at the correct answer. Of all writers, Erica Meltzer aligns most closely with my personal philosophy of drilling questions skill-by-skill to recognize patterns to questions. How To A Newspaper Article For Kids College Cambridge! Great breakdown of the Reading section on a skill-by-skill level.

Helpful strategies for every type of question. Essay Mill! Exactly the same approach we use in our PrepScholar program. Pricey for for kids College Cambridge a book that covers just one section ($26-$35) My philosophy on SAT math is that the best way to significantly improve your math score is to learn the underlying math content . Getting familiar with the questions and learning some simple strategies like ‘plug in the answer choices’ can get you a little progress, but you’ll quickly run into a ceiling if you have gaps in levels of critical Ashford School your underlying math skills. How To A Newspaper Article For Kids College! Your best bet is Istituto, therefore to find a book that can both teach you math content in write for kids CATS Cambridge an organized way and give you practice problems to focus on individual skills. It should also tailor to your skill level , since math questions that are too hard or easy for you are a waste of time. For these reasons, I recommend Steve Warner’s series of SAT Math books . He has multiple books out for Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced students, as well as a set of 240 SAT Math problems organized by topic and difficulty. Lessons teaching math concepts are clear and helpful. Paper Writing International! They suggest ways to speed up how you solve questions and identify what the question is really asking. The books split into the College Board's 4 major topics – Heart of Algebra, Geometry and Trig, Passport to Advanced Math, and CATS College Cambridge Problem Solving and Data. This is too broad.

I prefer splitting these larger topics into even more specific subjects - for example, within Algebra, PrepScholar teaches linear functions, single variable equations, systems of Istituto London equations, and more. By focusing on each skill, you are able to more accurately pinpoint your weaknesses and drill them. If you’re really struggling with math at a basic level (say, scoring 500 and below), I’d recommend that you supplement your work with Khan Academy’s math modules. A Newspaper For Kids College! It’s a free program and it provides an levels of critical thinking School engaging way to train your most basic skills. I believe the core Khan Academy program has better instruction than their SAT prep program, even though it's not focused on the SAT. The best way to excel at SAT Writing is to understand the grammar rules and how they appear on the SAT. Then, you need to do a lot of focused practice questions to make sure you learn the College, patterns of the SAT. That’s how we designed our PrepScholar online program to teach you grammar. Once again, I’m returning to Erica Meltzer for her SAT Grammar books . Erica’s fantastic at distilling all of grammar into what you need to know for critical Trent University the SAT.

You won’t learn arcane grammar concepts that aren’t tested. For the rules that are tested, she presents them clearly and covers the foundation if you’ve forgotten the grammar rule from write a newspaper for kids CATS Cambridge school. Unlike her Reading book, for Writing she has two books . The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar covers all the grammar rules you need to know. The SAT Grammar Workbook gives hundreds of practice questions as training material. Neither book is sufficient on its own, which is write essay Sevenoaks School, a big drawback.

The first book doesn’t have enough questions to really drill the grammar rules. The second book doesn’t teach the grammar rules, and how to article for kids CATS the questions aren’t organized by grammar rule. This really complicates the studying for the student, but I still believe this is the best Writing-focused book out there. Clear writing and articulation of grammar rules. There's no guidance on study strategy. It's a nice breakdown of the essay paper International, SAT, but you don't get instruction on HOW to use the book to best maximize your score. Reading cover to write a newspaper for kids Cambridge, cover isn't the most effective way. Learn more about focusing on write essay Sevenoaks School, your writing weaknesses in my Perfect SAT Writing Score guide. Once again, the how to write a newspaper article CATS, price is high - $50 to $60 for both books . It’s good content, but I believe she could get a lot more customers by lowering her prices.

Bonus: Looking for the very best guides to every SAT section? Check out our top guides for every single section of the SAT. Choose the score level you're aiming for: Choose these guides if you're scoring a 600 or above on a section, and articles (Navitas) you want to get the how to article for kids College Cambridge, highest SAT score possible. Writing Classes Marangoni! Choose these guides if you're scoring below a 600 on a section, and you want to write article CATS, boost your score to at least a 600 level. The Mount, Mill! These are the very best guides available on how to CATS, boosting your SAT score, section by thinking Ashford section. They're written by Harvard grads and perfect SAT scorers. Don't disappoint yourself - read these guides and improve your score today. Best Additional Book for Top SAT Scorers. How To A Newspaper For Kids CATS! With all the articles Western (Navitas), books above, you already have your work cut out for you. With 8 full-length practice tests and 5+ books at your disposal, you will be studying for well over 50 hours.

If you go through all your practice using the how to a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge, guidelines we recommend, you’ll likely have made huge improvements. If you still want additional practice, I recommend the Barron’s SAT books , especially if you’re aiming for near a perfect score. I remember using these books during my own prep in The Mount, Hill high school, and while their questions are inferior to real SAT practice tests, they’re a good backup source when you finish everything else above. A lot of content. Write A Newspaper CATS Cambridge! Thousands of essay writing Istituto Marangoni practice questions and detailed lessons with many examples. Topics can get too difficult for what you need to write article for kids College Cambridge, know on the SAT. Some questions are too hard in the wrong way – they can get unrealistically hard in a way that you’d never see on writing classes Istituto, the SAT. Write A Newspaper For Kids CATS Cambridge! If you’re not an SAT expert yet, you won’t be able to Sevenoaks, detect when this happens and you can waste time studying things that don’t matter. Write A Newspaper CATS! Best All-In-One Book for Less-Motivated Low Scorers.

My recommendations have so far been for the ambitious student who really wants to improve his or her score. On Writing Western Sydney University (Navitas)! I know there are some students who just want to put in write Cambridge 5 hours, get some exposure to the test, and then take the SAT and forget about it. I personally believe that for most students, improving your SAT score is, hour for hour, the best way to improve your chances of articles Sydney University (Navitas) college admission. So I would say that if you feel this way, you should question your philosophy. But if you’re stuck in this mindset, the book I would recommend is Kaplan’s SAT book . It’s an all-in-one book that covers the three sections and contains practice questions and practice tests.

It doesn’t excel at any of what it’s doing , but it covers the important bases. It also tends to have more reasonable content than other all-in-one books like Princeton Review. I don’t love this book. I don’t even really like it. I don’t recommend it if you at all want to improve your score seriously and are willing to put in study time. But if you just want a single source that can do an OK job and is easily digestible, this is the best one out there.

Covers all three sections and write article College Cambridge contains practice tests. Practice questions tend to be unrealistic – they often don’t phrase questions the thinking Trent, way the how to write a newspaper for kids College, SAT would, and they don’t test concepts in a short School the right way. The questions also don’t trick you in the same ways that the SAT does. Want to how to write for kids Cambridge, improve your SAT score by Sevenoaks School 160 points? We've written a guide about the College, top 5 strategies you must be using to Sydney University (Navitas), have a shot at write a newspaper College, improving your score. Download it for free now: The #1 SAT Prep Book to AVOID Buying.

Unlike every other section on this guide, I'm making one specific recommendation against buying a book. This is unusual because, prior to 2015, this is the #1 book you would DEFINITELY buy. College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2018 Edition. It feels really weird to recommend NOT buying this book, because for years and year, this was THE book to thinking Ashford School, use to a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, study. It used to contain 10 practice tests that you could get only through buying this book. Why release these tests for free? This is all part of College Board's moves to make the Western Sydney University, test more accessible and to reduce educational inequality.

This is great and I support them - but it also means the Official SAT Study Guide is now a waste of money . The educational material outside of the practice tests is very superficial and unhelpful (we've written far better guides on how to a newspaper article Cambridge, Reading, Math, and Writing - all online and free). Has eight practice tests pre-printed for you, so you don't need to print them yourself. Write A Short Sevenoaks! Everything in this guide is available for free online. More important than buying the books is knowing how to use them effectively. The more books you have, the more important it is to understand how to build a unified study system.

We've written thorough guides to help guide you through how to study. Build a study plan across your high school schedule so you know when to take the SAT. How To Article CATS College! Is Book Studying the Best Option for You? There are a lot of prep methods available to you, and book studying is just one of them. Just to explore all our options, let's quickly examine whether book studying is right for you. People who choose to study by books do so for different reasons. Some so it for cost reasons. As I noted above, the best SAT books can get expensive. If you buy all the on writing University (Navitas), top books, you'll be spending around $200 . This is already close to the cost of write CATS College our online SAT prep program, which goes beyond books by guiding your study step-by-step and and motivating you to put in study time.

Others study with books because they're self-motivated, and they like teaching themselves. If this isn't you, books can be a disappointing way for writing classes Istituto London you to spend time and not improve . How To Write Article For Kids CATS! If you don't have good study strategy, you can put in on writing Western dozens of how to CATS hours and make zero improvement, because you're not understanding your weaknesses and solving them. By far one of the most important ways to improve your SAT score is to study your mistakes and learn from them. If you can't do this reliably, you'll need extra help to get you started. We've written a free guide to compare other methods of essay Istituto prep. Download this to how to write article CATS Cambridge, compare the different methods and see which one is best for essay writing International you. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or more? We've put our best advice into a single guide.

These are the 5 strategies you MUST be using to have a shot at write article CATS Cambridge, improving your score. Download this free SAT guide now: Check out our industry-leading online SAT program. We've designed it to cover all the write Sevenoaks School, advantages of books and tutors at an affordable price. Featuring in-depth strategy lessons and Cambridge thousands of practice questions, we have the content from the leading books. We include the critical Official SAT Study Guide above. Beyond that, the program acts like your personal tutor. It guides you step-by-step through what you should be working on at every moment to best improve your score. It customizes to your strengths and weaknesses, then gives you focused practice so you learn the essay writing Istituto Marangoni London, patterns on the SAT. Furthermore, it motivates you to study so that you put in enough time. There's a 160 point guarantee - if you don't improve your score by 160 points, you get all your money back. Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! As co-founder and head of product design at PrepScholar, Allen has guided thousands of students to write article for kids Cambridge, success in SAT/ACT prep and college admissions. He's committed to providing the highest quality resources to help you succeed. Allen graduated from Harvard University summa cum laude and earned two perfect scores on the SAT (1600 in 2004, and 2400 in classes Marangoni 2014) and a perfect score on the ACT. You should definitely follow us on a newspaper article CATS College Cambridge, social media. Essay Mill International! You'll get updates on CATS College, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on articles Western Sydney (Navitas), all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on how to write a newspaper Cambridge, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for articles on writing Western Sydney (Navitas) Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the how to a newspaper article CATS College Cambridge, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is write a newspaper article Cambridge used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on writing essays Ruskin University this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto write a newspaper article for kids Cambridge two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at Ashford, the end of the line. How To Write For Kids College! Do not add a hyphen to essay paper writing Mill Hill, a URL that was not originally there.

Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the how to a newspaper CATS College Cambridge, purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the write essay, sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified.

If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in write CATS Cambridge parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Articles On Writing Sydney University! Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated.

Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of how to write article for kids CATS College Cambridge Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of levels thinking Ashford Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Write A Newspaper Article! Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of write a short Sevenoaks School Loyalty: George W. Bush, the how to write article CATS College Cambridge, White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004.

If your citation is from one volume of thinking article Trent University a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. For Kids Cambridge! Education of the on writing Western Sydney University (Navitas), Senses . How To For Kids CATS College! New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter.

The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . Essay Writing! London: Harper, 1994. (Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. Write Article For Kids CATS College! The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. Essay Paper Writing! 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998.

2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Write A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS College! Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey.

of Spirit . Essay Writing Mill International! Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for how to write article for kids the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. On Writing (Navitas)! Granatstein, eds. CATS! Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy.

of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. Thinking University! The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and article Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Writing Istituto! Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed.

Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Write A Newspaper! Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.

Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Ashford! Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance:

A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. A Newspaper For Kids Cambridge! Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al.

Strong Women and write a short essay Sevenoaks Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and how to Cambridge James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds.

Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Article! Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. A Newspaper Article CATS Cambridge! Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds.

Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to a short Sevenoaks, the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Write A Newspaper CATS College Cambridge! San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to levels thinking, Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly.

New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of.

Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.

8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. A Newspaper For Kids! Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. Essay Sevenoaks School! James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Write Article For Kids CATS! 211-22.

9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of on writing People and Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the how to write article for kids CATS Cambridge, encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of write a short School editor or edition, number of volumes in a newspaper for kids Cambridge the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield.

11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in articles Western Sydney a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.

“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. How To A Newspaper Article! Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on levels of critical School page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of how to write a newspaper for kids CATS College more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g.

220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is no period after the month. Articles! The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in article for kids CATS the month, e.g. May, June, and classes July, the months are not abbreviated. Write A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS College Cambridge! If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Article Trent University! Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.

Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and how to for kids URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e).

Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb.

2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News.

10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. Critical Article Trent University! “In Tiger Country.” Photos by write a newspaper College Cambridge James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan.

2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and writing literature essays Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. Write A Newspaper Article Cambridge! 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. Writing Essays Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept.

2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. A Newspaper Article Cambridge! 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):

Suggested citation example from levels of critical thinking Ashford School SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. For Kids CATS College! 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec.

1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Istituto Marangoni! Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement.

7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Article For Kids Cambridge! Newsweek 16 Jan. Writing Essays Anglia Ruskin (Navitas)! 2006: 92. IBM. How To Write Article CATS College Cambridge! Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.

Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. Articles On Writing University (Navitas)! 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).

Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by write a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. Western Sydney (Navitas)! “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by how to write a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at essay paper writing The Mount, Mill, Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn.

Harrison. A Newspaper For Kids College Cambridge! International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente.

Rev. of Injured Brains of write a short essay Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,

Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Write For Kids Cambridge! Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct.

2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. Articles Western University (Navitas)! 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. How To Write Article! Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on University VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir.

George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM.

SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. How To A Newspaper Article College Cambridge! 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g.

BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. Articles On Writing Western! – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the how to write a newspaper for kids CATS College, word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in essay writing International the dictionary. “Mug.” Def.

2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in article the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on School book by Roald Dahl. Perf.

Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl.

Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. How To Write Article CATS! Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Essay Writing Classes Istituto London! Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.

Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and how to write a newspaper article CATS Cambridge Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and a short dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.

Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Write A Newspaper CATS College! Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. Essay Classes Istituto Marangoni London! James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir.

Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. Write A Newspaper Article Cambridge! DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of essay writing Istituto London publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and write for kids CATS College Cambridge Northern Development.

Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Essay Sevenoaks! Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in a newspaper article for kids CATS Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) underline the a newspaper for kids CATS, term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.

Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of articles on writing (Navitas) 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of write a newspaper article CATS Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation:

2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in write School quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of article for kids CATS Cambridge Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.

8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an levels of critical School, individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and write article for kids CATS College carry on, e.g. Write A Short Sevenoaks School! if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for a newspaper article an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is classes Istituto too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the write a newspaper for kids CATS, least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is of critical thinking School made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the a newspaper, line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by write a short essay Sevenoaks School some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page.

Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm.

b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an how to CATS, article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Istituto London Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. Write Article CATS Cambridge! 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in articles University (Navitas) Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic.

10 Oct. How To Write Article CATS! 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an essay paper writing The Mount, Hill International, online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the how to write CATS College Cambridge, name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Essay Paper Writing Mill! Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. How To Write A Newspaper For Kids! 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr.

2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. Writing Literature University! 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. Write Article CATS Cambridge! 10 Apr.

2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. On Writing Western Sydney University (Navitas)! 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr.

2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . Write Article Cambridge! 2005. On Writing Western University! Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service.

9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567.

d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . How To A Newspaper CATS! 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. Levels Thinking School! 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in.

Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Write College! Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Articles Sydney! Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke.

7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb.

2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. For Kids CATS! Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. Essay Writing Mill International! State. Historical Society of Wisconsin.

10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. A Newspaper Article For Kids College Cambridge! “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to writing Marangoni, E. How To A Newspaper For Kids CATS Cambridge! Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Levels Thinking! Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author.

8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. How To Write For Kids! Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the write a short School, Auditor General of Canada and article for kids CATS College Cambridge the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Essay Hill! Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. Write A Newspaper For Kids! “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003.

Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. University (Navitas)! 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb.

1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. How To A Newspaper Article College Cambridge! Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/

Sullivan, Danny. Writing The Mount, Hill International! “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No.

16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download:

It is not essential to include the file size. How To A Newspaper Article For Kids College Cambridge! Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Levels Thinking Ashford School! Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. How To Write Article Cambridge! Internet citation for essays Anglia Ruskin a speech taken from a published work with an editor:

Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . How To Article For Kids Cambridge! Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by Ashford School another:

Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Article For Kids CATS College Cambridge! Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct.

2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. Sydney University! 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.

State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. A Newspaper Article College! 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to writing essays Ruskin University (Navitas), Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo.

News 23 Jan. Write CATS! 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to levels of critical thinking Ashford, letter of Bill Clark.

Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick.

2005. How To A Newspaper For Kids Cambridge! 10 Oct. Articles (Navitas)! 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . How To Write A Newspaper Article CATS! Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map.

2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise.

Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case.

3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . On Writing University! 1936.

New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. Write A Newspaper Article For Kids College Cambridge! 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29.

Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of thinking owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is how to write article for kids College Cambridge located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,

Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. The Mount, Mill! Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11.

Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Article For Kids CATS Cambridge! Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of articles Western University artwork.

3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. How To Article For Kids! 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of Trent publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam.

Japan . How To Write A Newspaper Article For Kids College! 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. Essay Istituto! 1929].

McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. How To Write CATS College Cambridge! Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. Literature Essays Anglia University! The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.

A Basic History of Art . By H.W. For Kids CATS College Cambridge! Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the writing Mill, Louvre Museum . New York:

Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Article CATS College! Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis.

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Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. Critical University! London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St.

John the Baptist . How To Write Article For Kids College Cambridge! 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in University quotes). 2) Name of how to a newspaper article person who took the write a short, photograph.

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Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice.

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1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of article Trent University recording (underlined). A Newspaper For Kids CATS! 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23.

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Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette.

Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Critical Article! Universal, 2005.

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Write For Kids! Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Essay The Mount, Hill! Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming.

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State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. Paper The Mount,! or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss.

Columbia U, 1962.

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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in a newspaper CATS a feature called “Tip Sheet,” The Choice will post short items by a short Sevenoaks, admissions officers, guidance counselors and others to help applicants and their families better understand aspects of the admissions process. CATS. As an inaugural post in this series, Martha C. Merrill, the dean of essay writing admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and a graduate of the how to write a newspaper article for kids CATS College, class of 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to Istituto Marangoni London, begin contemplating their college essays this summer. She also offers perspective on what she looks for in an write article for kids CATS, applicant’s essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. The truth is that while no essay will make an unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out essay paper writing Hill International from the competition. A good essay just might be what turns a “maybe” into write a newspaper CATS Cambridge a “yes.” The college application process takes time, preparation and writing Istituto Marangoni creativity, which is a lot for any active senior to how to a newspaper CATS, handle.

Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of classes and essay paper The Mount, Hill International homework and many of the other stresses that come with high school. The pressure of the looming college application deadline is still months away, which allows students the freedom to play around with different ideas, test different angles and solicit feedback from friends and family. Another reason to focus your summer energy on how to a newspaper for kids College, crafting a quality essay: at this point in the admission process, it is one of the articles Sydney (Navitas), few things you can still control. This is how to CATS College Cambridge, your chance to show us what you are capable of when you have time to think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is no magic formula for the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know. Here are my Top Ten tips: Write about yourself . A great history paper on the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesn’t tell me anything about the writer.

Regardless of the levels thinking, topic, make sure you shine through your essay. Use your own voice . I can tell the difference between the write a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior. Focus on critical Trent University, one aspect of how to write a newspaper CATS Cambridge yourself . If you try to cover too many topics in your essay, you’ll end up with a resume of activities and attributes that doesn’t tell me as much about you as an in-depth look at one project or passion. Be genuine . Don’t try to impress me, because I’ve heard it all. Just tell me what is important to you. Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes it’s the simple things in life that make the best essays. Some of my favorites have included essays that reflect on a short essay Sevenoaks School, the daily subway ride to how to a newspaper article College Cambridge, school, or what the family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on the family kitchen table. Essay Sevenoaks School. It doesn’t have to be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative. Don’t rely on “how to” books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but don’t adhere too rigidly to their formulas, and definitely don’t use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the “what my room says about me” essay is way overdone.

Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Your essay will be read by a diverse group of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, so try to appeal to the broadest audience possible. A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS College. Tell a good story . Show me why you are compassionate; don’t tell me you are. Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; don’t start your essay with “I have overcome great difficulties.” Don’t repeat what is already in your application . If you go to a performing arts school and all of your extracurricular activities and awards relate to dance, don’t write about University (Navitas), how much you love dancing. Tell me something I couldn’t know just from reading the other parts of your application. Finally, don’t forget about the supplements . The supplement questions are very important – you should plan to spend as much time on them as you do on how to a newspaper CATS College, your essay.

A well-written essay won’t help if your supplement answers are sloppy and uninformative. If you’ve been through this process before — either as a practitioner, student or parent — and would like to add, or respond, to Ms. Merrill’s list, use the comment box below. If you’d like to propose a future subject for writing essays Ruskin University (Navitas), “Tip Sheet” — one you’d want to read, or perhaps even propose writing — please send a short email message to article for kids CATS Cambridge, us at thechoice@nytimes.com. Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the essay.

It is writing literature essays Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), easy to spot the student essays that have been “finished” or “edited” by how to for kids CATS Cambridge, friends and family. And the worst essays are the ones that have been edited to meet the articles on writing Sydney (Navitas), comments of multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is a hint at that student’s future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by compiling a list of how to write a newspaper for kids CATS Cambridge states that offer an early path to college. Here in Texas, it’s called the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS). Sydney. It’s a two-year program at the Univ. of a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge North Texas in Denton for write essay Sevenoaks, high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about 400 students total. Basically, the students take their first two years of college, and for kids CATS Cambridge get credit for their last two years of high school. My wife and levels of critical Ashford School I have two children, both graduated from TAMS.

Best thing is, the state covers tuition, fees, and books; only cost to write a newspaper CATS College Cambridge, us was room #038; board and a program fee. check it out by googling “tams”. I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if you’re interested. Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of write Sevenoaks School essay coaches or books we have out today. Ask the entrants to any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about this college application essay… (still a year away)

Ms. Merrill’s Top Ten tips are an how to article College, excellent guideline for the college admissions essay. I’m currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is a short, keep it lite. I think college admissions panels are tired of reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for Habitat for a newspaper for kids Cambridge, Humanity or ladling soup in articles University (Navitas) a homeless shelter. Forget the essay – play a sport and be really, really good at it. If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket. Trust me — athletes have a huge competitive advantage in the college admissions game. The admissions people won’t come right out and say it, they’ll say things like “We try for write a newspaper article for kids CATS College, balance in every class”, but if Amherst doesn’t beat Williams, Yale doesn’t beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of pressure. If the violin section is a little off one night, or the lead in the play is a bit weak, it won’t really matter. I’m not cynical, just realistic.

I would avoid grammatical errors such as Martha’s “I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior” and Mary’s (reader 1) double error: “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is articles University, a hint at that student’s future approach to how to write a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge, writing assignments.” I’m certain that Martha meant “I can tell the difference between the voice of articles on writing University a 40-year-old and that of a high school senior,” and how to write article for kids College Cambridge that Mary meant “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, I note that the application essay is a hint at students’ future approaches to essay writing Mill International, writing assignments.” the best thing you can do is write a newspaper article for kids CATS Cambridge, try out a lot of of critical ideas. my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for the first month of school. How To Write Article College. i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for writing Ruskin University, being forced to do so much writing. if you really feel you must start over how to a newspaper article CATS College Cambridge, the summer, try out lots of ideas and dont commit. ask an english teacher or recent ivy grad for advice, your parents may not have the best sense of a relevant and not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and fine tune. i went through at least 40 full drafts. Writing Istituto. luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across. finally, i think the mundane topics advice is risky. true, you can have a very good essay on a mundane topic, but you also run the risk of sounding like everyone else and being trite. if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for your dreams in life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay. These tips, while a good guide, are confusing.

If some of the best essays she’s read include what your life is like from the POV of a goldfish on the kitchen table, then what’s wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about how to a newspaper CATS College, me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for 11 years and recently published a book about my life, I believe in the power of personal story. Not all teens have found their “voices” yet, and University so they try on others for College Cambridge, size, so of University course that will come through the essay. But your voice is unique. How To Write For Kids Cambridge. It’s you. Don’t try to be anybody else. So… Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and writing Anglia Ruskin avoid adjectives and adverbs as much as possible. Tell how an experience you had made you feel and what you learned from it.

Describe what sets your heart on fire. As the parent of how to article Cambridge two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and articles the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about write a newspaper CATS College Cambridge, events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in active voice and were little windows into their characters. Neither used the writing classes London, words challenge or compassionate. I am convinced that it was the strength and sincerity of their essays that opened the doors at the top schools that said “Yes” to my sons. The essays were the differentiating factor in all the numbers that are part of an write a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge, application. I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in their essays – small is good, generalities are boring, tell about something that makes you you.

Oh, and essay Istituto London read The Gatekeepers – – it offers the write article CATS, best insights into the college admissions process of write any of the write for kids CATS College, dozens of books I read on the topic. I wonder if, at the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology: My daughter is a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at a school she chose not to attend), had an “unweighted” GPA over 3.9 at writing literature essays Ruskin University a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of how to article CATS College 2290 with an 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three “5” scores on AP exams before her senior year and every SAT II over 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied. Rejected at The Mount, Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at a newspaper for kids CATS College Columbia (and then told there is no place) and at Duke….but then, 25 of 26 applicants from levels School, her (public) school were rejected from Yale…the one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar. She IS an article CATS, athlete, but not good enough to play at the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the small college she will attend). Oh…she’s upper middle class white (and competing in a major metropolitan area against many white legacy kids at these top schools).

“been through it” might think himself realistic for critical thinking article, advising that everyone get ‘really really good’ at a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to this particular problem is – – apply only to technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only for kids Cambridge partly in cheek… Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didn’t. I took a risk in a short Sevenoaks writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay. Write A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS College. It was frightening for me to do bec it revealed things about my background that I wasn’t sure Harvard could handle. But it was a risk that paid off.

So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to you. Thank you, Ms. Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at the very very beginning of this process, I’d love to see more advice on the admissions process from you — please keep it coming! And thank you NYT for Western (Navitas), passing along practical, applicable information.

Most college admission officers agree that a student’s character is the most difficult thing to measure on the application. College essays are the place for how to article for kids CATS College, students to reveal their personal stories in an authentic, engaging and sincere way . Writing Essays Anglia University. In addition to what has already been mentioned, it’s important to read the essay prompts carefully and understand the intent of the write a newspaper College, question. Jeannie Borin, M.Ed. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of articles Western (Navitas) mind.

That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the write for kids CATS College, topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad. Then let a trusted person compare the versions. London. Sometimes the latter turns out to have the write article CATS, better “flow,” and you can improve on that in the editing process. It’s a little cynical to essay paper writing International, suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and guides. Write A Newspaper. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a “story” and didn’t have a “message”), and she sent it anyway. I wrote my essay on my own and got into writing literature Anglia Ruskin a school famous for write for kids CATS College, its English program. Probably the write a short Sevenoaks School, best advice is to stay far away from how to article for kids College Cambridge, “moral of the story” lines. I’ve seen plenty of books that praise essays about the writers’ overcoming of obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about Anglia Ruskin, “through my experience, I learned…” I would get pretty darn bored of that if I were an admissions officer.

Neither of my children used a coach or had special classes. We checked the a newspaper CATS College, grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of articles Sydney (Navitas) school. Article CATS. One is at an Ivy one is at a small, tier one school. I expect the one going to the small school will get the levels of critical School, better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to many:

1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the a newspaper Cambridge, essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the a short, reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of mind. That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and write article College bad. Trent. Then let a trusted person compare the versions.

Sometimes the latter turns out to write a newspaper article for kids Cambridge, have the better “flow,” and you can improve on that in the editing process. P.S. – Sorry, forgot to tell you great post! Barbara’s #2 is a great solution to any time one gets ‘writer’s block’. Levels Thinking School. From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works. How To Write A Newspaper For Kids Cambridge. Also, the ‘trusted person’ who reads and critical thinking article edits the outcome of the “devil may care” effort can be oneself – but not until the next day. Read the essay to article for kids CATS College, someone else. Read it as if you are telling a story. You will hear what sounds clumsy, and you will see if it captures attention. I suggest that a good deal of time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to meet standards for a college education into a lottery.

That random choice is fair and is better than officers playing God as to who is fit to adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the local hospital that I volunteered at had just gotten. 2. What’s your favorite word and why?: Determination (Probably not the “best” choice but it really is and I think I showed it was genuine) 3. Choose any topic of your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by the beauty and grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in an English class for a writing contest and my teacher had rated the paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing.

Currently at the University of Virginia as a 3rd year student. Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery… And Doc? Does your daughter’s school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to the same school, based on the information you gave. As someone who was admitted to some Ivy Leagues and waitlisted at some Ivy Leagues, and who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the essay was probably the key in helping me stand out thinking from the thousands of middle-class, white, suburban applicants. The essay is really one of the how to write a newspaper article College Cambridge, only aspects of the application in which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you do–which is meaningless unless this provides insight into who you are and essay writing Istituto London how your character’s been shaped by what you do.

I’m sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to understand…”don’t write about something too grandiose” “don’t write about how to a newspaper for kids College, something too mundane” “don’t make it too intellectual-sounding” “don’t make it sound like intellectualism is not a part of write your life”–but the how to write College, best advice I can give is figure out on writing (Navitas) a writing style that works for how to for kids College Cambridge, you, and run with it. If you look hard enough, you will find people in articles on writing your life who know you well enough to give you tips on your writing style while staying true to yourself and making it genuine. How To Write A Newspaper For Kids College Cambridge. Take this advice with a grain of salt. Thinking University. Consider it carefully and write a newspaper for kids College remember…colleges are not looking to accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friend’s mom who works at a newspaper. The Mount, Mill Hill International. They are looking for true insight into write a newspaper article for kids your character, and essay writing classes you should seize this opportunity to a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge, reveal what it is that makes you who you are.

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Chapter 16 — Testing .NET Application Performance. This content is how to a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist. Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability. J.D. Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, and Alex Mackman. Home Page for a short School Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability.

Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step process that helps you to load test, stress test, and capacity test your Web application. The chapter presents testing best practices and highlights the write for kids College Cambridge common issues to avoid. It also shows how to Trent University simulate workload, and then measure and analyze results. Learn performance testing fundamentals. Perform load testing. Perform stress testing. Perform workload modeling. How To A Newspaper College Cambridge! Identify testing best and worst practices.

Performance testing is used to verify that an application is essay Istituto London able to perform under expected and peak load conditions, and that it can scale sufficiently to handle increased capacity. There are three types of performance tests that share similarities yet accomplish different goals: Load testing . Use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. This allows you to verify that your application can meet your desired performance objectives; these performance objectives are often specified in how to write a newspaper for kids, a service level agreement. It enables you to measure response times, throughput rates, resource utilization levels, and to identify your application's breaking point, assuming that breaking point occurs below the peak load condition. Stress testing . Use stress testing to evaluate your application's behavior when it is pushed beyond the on writing Sydney normal or peak load conditions. The goal of stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only how to write a newspaper College Cambridge under high load conditions. On Writing! These can include such things as synchronization issues, race conditions, and memory leaks. Stress testing enables you to identify your application's weak points, and how it behaves under extreme load conditions. Write A Newspaper For Kids Cambridge! Capacity testing . Capacity testing is complementary to load testing and critical Trent University it determines your server's ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors results at various levels of load and how to write a newspaper for kids CATS traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in conjunction with capacity planning.

You use capacity planning to plan for future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. University (Navitas)! For example, to accommodate future loads you need to know how many additional resources (such as CPU, RAM, disk space, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. Capacity testing helps you identify a scaling strategy to determine whether you should scale up or scale out. For more information, refer to How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Applications in a newspaper for kids CATS College, the How To section of essay paper writing The Mount, Hill, this guide. This chapter demonstrates an how to article CATS College, approach to performance testing that is particularly effective when combined with the other principles in this guide. To gain the most from this chapter: Jump to topics or read from beginning to end . The main headings in this chapter help you locate the critical Trent topics that interest you. Alternatively, you can read the chapter from beginning to a newspaper CATS College end to gain a thorough appreciation of the issues around performance testing. Identify your stress test tool . To execute the performance test processes defined in a short, this chapter, you need a stress test tool to a newspaper article for kids CATS simulate user load. For example, you could use Microsoft® Application Center Test (ACT) tool, Microsoft Web Application Stress tool, or any other tool of your own choice. ACT is included with Enterprise editions of the paper Mill Hill International Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET development system.

You can download the write a newspaper College Microsoft Web Application Stress tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. Identify your scenarios . Critical Thinking! Various sections in this chapter refer to a fictitious application that sells products online. For example, the user can browse and how to write for kids search through products, add them to a shopping cart, and purchase them with a credit card. When you performance test your own application, make sure you know your application's key scenarios. Use the How To section . Articles Sydney University! The How To section of this guide includes the following instructional articles referenced by this chapter: How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability How To: Use ACT to Test Web Services Performance How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications Performance testing is the process of how to for kids Cambridge, identifying how an application responds to write essay School a specified set of conditions and input. Multiple individual performance test scenarios (suites, cases, scripts) are often needed to cover all of the conditions and/or input of interest. For testing purposes, if possible, the application should be hosted on a hardware infrastructure that is representative of the live environment. How To Article For Kids Cambridge! By examining your application's behavior under simulated load conditions, you identify whether your application is articles Sydney University trending toward or away from its defined performance objectives. The main goal of performance testing is to identify how well your application performs in relation to your performance objectives.

Some of the other goals of performance testing include the following: Identify bottlenecks and their causes. How To Write Article CATS! Optimize and on writing (Navitas) tune the platform configuration (both the hardware and how to write a newspaper article for kids software) for maximum performance. Verify the reliability of your application under stress. You may not be able to identify all the characteristics by running a single type of performance test. The following are some of the application characteristics that performance testing helps you identify: Response time. Throughput. Maximum concurrent users supported. For a definition of critical thinking article Trent University, concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Resource utilization in how to a newspaper College Cambridge, terms of the amount of CPU, RAM, network I/O, and disk I/O resources your application consumes during the articles on writing Sydney University test.

Behavior under various workload patterns including normal load conditions, excessive load conditions, and conditions in between. A Newspaper Article CATS College! Application breaking point. The application breaking point means a condition where the application stops responding to requests. Some of the symptoms of breaking point include 503 errors with a Server Too Busy message, and errors in the application event log that indicate that the ASPNET worker process recycled because of literature essays Ruskin (Navitas), potential deadlocks. Symptoms and causes of application failure under stress conditions. Weak points in your application. What is required to support a projected increase in load. For example, an increase in the number of users, amount of data, or application activity might cause an increase in load. Most of the write a newspaper article for kids CATS College performance tests depend on a set of predefined, documented, and articles Sydney University (Navitas) agreed-upon performance objectives. Knowing the objectives from the beginning helps make the testing process more efficient.

You can evaluate your application's performance by comparing it with your performance objectives. You may run tests that are exploratory in nature to know more about the system without having any performance objective. For Kids College Cambridge! But even these eventually serve as input to the tests that are conducted for evaluating performance against thinking Trent performance objectives. Performance objectives often include the how to for kids Cambridge following: Response time is the amount of time taken to respond to a request. You can measure response time at the server or client as follows: Latency measured at the server . This is the time taken by the server to complete the execution of writing Marangoni London, a request. This does not include the client-to-server latency, which includes additional time for the request and response to how to write a newspaper Cambridge cross the network. Essay Writing Marangoni London! Latency measured at the client . The latency measured at the client includes the request queue, plus the time taken by a newspaper CATS College Cambridge, the server to complete the execution of the request and the network latency.

You can measure the latency in various ways. Articles Sydney! Two common approaches are time taken by the first byte to reach the client ( time to first byte , TTFB), or the time taken by the last byte of the response to write article reach the client ( time to critical thinking article University last byte , TTLB). Generally, you should test this using various network bandwidths between the client and the server. By measuring latency, you can gauge whether your application takes too long to respond to client requests. Throughput is the number of requests that can be served by your application per unit time. It can vary depending upon the load (number of how to write a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, users) and the type of essay writing Istituto London, user activity applied to the server. For example, downloading files requires higher throughput than browsing text-based Web pages. Throughput is usually measured in terms of requests per second. There are other units for measurement, such as transactions per second or orders per second. Identify resource utilization costs in terms of server and College Cambridge network resources. The primary resources are:

You can identify the resource cost on a per thinking Trent University, operation basis. Operations might include browsing a product catalog, adding items to a shopping cart, or placing an order. You can measure resource costs for a given user load, or you can average resource costs when the application is tested using a given workload profile . A workload profile consists of an aggregate mix of users performing various operations. For example, for a load of 200 concurrent users (as defined below), the profile might indicate that 20 percent of for kids CATS College Cambridge, users perform order placement, 30 percent add items to a shopping cart, while 50 percent browse the product catalog. This helps you identify and optimize areas that consume an unusually large proportion of server resources and writing essays Ruskin (Navitas) response time. In this chapter, we have defined the load on the application as simultaneous users or concurrent users. Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users hit the site at how to a newspaper article for kids CATS, exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is articles on writing likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to a newspaper CATS 1,500 simultaneous users. When load testing your application, you can simulate simultaneous users by including a random think time in your script such that not all the user threads from the load generator are firing requests at the same moment.

This is useful to simulate real world situations. However, if you want to stress your application, you probably want to use concurrent users. You can simulate concurrent users by removing the think time from your script. For more information on paper The Mount, Hill, workload modeling, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter. There are tools available to help simulate load. You can simulate load in how to a newspaper article for kids CATS Cambridge, terms of users, connections, data, and in other ways.

In addition to essays University (Navitas) generating load, these tools can also help you gather performance-related metrics such as response time, requests per a newspaper article CATS College, second, and performance counters from remote server computers. Microsoft Application Center Test (ACT) and the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool are examples of such load generating tools. The ACT tool is included with Enterprise editions of Visual Studio .NET. You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. You can also use various third party tools such as Mercury LoadRunner, Compuware's QALoad, Rational's Performance Tester, or custom tools developed for your application.

You use load testing to verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. Article University! You incrementally increase the how to write article for kids CATS College load from normal to peak load to see how your application performs with varying load conditions. You continue to increase the load until you cross the Trent threshold limit for your performance objectives. For example, you might continue to increase the load until the server CPU utilization reaches 75 percent, which is your specified threshold. The load testing process lets you identify application bottlenecks and the maximum operating capacity of the how to a newspaper for kids CATS application. Input may include the following: Performance objectives from your performance model. For more information about Performance Modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Application characteristics (scenarios). Workload characteristics. Performance objectives for each scenario.

Test plans. The load testing process is a six step process as shown in Figure 16.1. Figure 16.1: The load testing process. The load testing process involves the following steps: Identify key scenarios . Essay Hill! Identify application scenarios that are critical for performance. Identify workload . Distribute the total application load among the write for kids key scenarios identified in step 1. Identify metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to collect about the application when running the test. Create test cases . Create the essay writing classes Istituto London test cases where you define steps for a newspaper article executing a single test along with the expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate load according to the test cases and to capture the paper writing Hill International result metrics. How To A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS Cambridge! Analyze the results . Analyze the levels Ashford School metric data captured during the how to write Cambridge test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Start by identifying your application's key scenarios.

Scenarios are anticipated user paths that generally incorporate multiple application activities. Key scenarios are those for which you have specific performance goals or those that have a significant performance impact, either because they are commonly executed or because they are resource intensive. The key scenarios for the sample application include the following: Log on to the application. Browse a product catalog. Search for a specific product. Add items to classes London the shopping cart. Validate credit card details and place an order. Identify the performance characteristics or workload associated with each of the defined scenarios. For each scenario you must identify the following:

Numbers of users . How To Write For Kids CATS College Cambridge! The total number of concurrent and simultaneous users who access the application in a given time frame. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Rate of requests . The requests received from the concurrent load of users per write a short School, unit time. Patterns of requests . A given load of concurrent users may be performing different tasks using the how to a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge application. Patterns of requests identify the average load of users, and the rate of Marangoni, requests for a newspaper article for kids a given functionality of an application. For more information about how to The Mount, International create a workload model for your application, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter.

After you create a workload model, begin load testing with a total number of users distributed against your user profile, and then start to incrementally increase the load for each test cycle. Continue to increase the load, and record the behavior until you reach the threshold for the resources identified in your performance objectives. You can also continue to increase the article for kids CATS College number of users until you hit your service level limits, beyond which you would be violating your service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. Identify the metrics that you need to writing literature Anglia Ruskin (Navitas) measure when you run your tests. When you simulate load, you need to know which metrics to look for and where to gauge the performance of a newspaper article for kids CATS College, your application. Identify the metrics that are relevant to your performance objectives, as well as those that help you identify bottlenecks. Metrics allow you to evaluate how your application performs in write Sevenoaks School, relation to performance objectives — such as throughput, response time, and resource utilization. As you progress through multiple iterations of the tests, you can add metrics based upon your analysis of the previous test cycles. For example, if you observe that that your ASP.NET worker process is showing a marked increase in the ProcessPrivate Bytes counter during a test cycle, during the second test iteration you might add additional memory-related counters (counters related to garbage collection generations) to do further precision monitoring of the memory usage by the worker process. For more information about the types of metrics to capture for a newspaper article College Cambridge an ASP.NET application, see Metrics, later in this chapter. To evaluate the performance of your application in more detail and to identify the potential bottlenecks, monitor metrics under the following categories:

Network-specific metrics . This set of critical Trent University, metrics provides information about the overall health and efficiency of your network, including routers, switches, and gateways. How To Write CATS Cambridge! System-related metrics . This set of metrics helps you identify the resource utilization on essay Hill, your server. Write For Kids Cambridge! The resources are CPU, memory, disk I/O, and network I/O. Platform-specific metrics . Platform-specific metrics are related to thinking Ashford software that is used to host your application, such as the .NET Framework common language runtime and ASP.NET-related metrics. Application-specific metrics . These include custom performance counters inserted in your application code to monitor application health and how to a newspaper article for kids Cambridge identify performance issues.

You might use custom counters to Trent University determine the number of concurrent threads waiting to acquire a particular lock or the how to a newspaper article for kids College number of requests queued to articles Western Sydney make an outbound call to how to a newspaper College Cambridge a Web service. Service level metrics . Service level metrics can help to measure overall application throughput and latency, or they might be tied to specific business scenarios as shown in Table 16.1. Table 16.1: Sample Service Level Metrics for the Sample Application. For a complete list of the counters that you need to measure, see Metrics, later in this chapter. After identifying metrics, you should determine a baseline for them under normal load conditions. This helps you decide on the acceptable load levels for critical article Trent University your application. Baseline values help you analyze your application performance at varying load levels. An example is showed in a newspaper CATS College Cambridge, Table 16.2.

Table 16.2: Acceptable Load Levels. Document your various test cases in test plans for the workload patterns identified in levels thinking Ashford, Step 2. Two examples are shown in this section. Test Case for the Sample E-Commerce Application. The test case for the sample e-commerce application used for illustration purposes in this chapter might define the following: Number of users : 500 simultaneous users Test duration : 2 hours Think time : Random think time between 1 and article for kids 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Divide the users into literature (Navitas) various user profiles based on the workload identified in step 2. For the sample application, the distribution of load for various profiles could be similar to that shown in Table 16.3. Table 16.3: Load Distribution. The expected results for the sample application might be defined as the following:

Throughput : 100 requests per second (ASP.NETRequests/sec performance counter) Requests Executing : 45 requests executing (ASP.NETRequests Executing performance counter) Avg. Response Time : 2.5 second response time (TTLB on 100 megabits per second [Mbps] LAN) Resource utilization thresholds : Processor% Processor Time : 75 percent. MemoryAvailable MBytes : 25 percent of total physical RAM. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. How To A Newspaper Article CATS College Cambridge! In addition to handling common client requirements such as authentication, cookies, and view state, ACT allows you to run multiple instances of the test at articles on writing Western, the same time to match the test case. Note Make sure the client computers you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization such as processor and memory should be well below the utilization threshold values. For more information about how to a newspaper article for kids College using ACT for performance testing, see How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability in the How To section of this guide.

Analyze the captured data and compare the results against on writing Western (Navitas) the metric's accepted level. The data you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: Throughput versus user load. Response time versus user load. Resource utilization versus user load.

Other important metrics can help you identify and diagnose potential bottlenecks that limit your application's scalability. To generate the test data, continue to increase load incrementally for multiple test iterations until you cross the threshold limits set for how to write for kids College your application. Threshold limits may include service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. Essay Paper Writing! For example, the threshold limit set for CPU utilization may be set to 75 percent; therefore, you can continue to increase the load and perform tests until the processor utilization reaches around 80 percent. The analysis report that you generate at the end of various test iterations identifies your application behavior at how to write a newspaper article for kids CATS College, various load levels. For a sample report, see the Reporting section later in this chapter.

If you continue to increase load during the testing process, you are likely to ultimately cause your application to fail. If you start to receive HTTP 500 (server busy) responses from the server, it means that your server's queue is Ruskin full and that it has started to reject requests. These responses correspond to the 503 error code in the ACT stress tool. Another example of application failure is a situation where the ASP.NET worker process recycles on the server because memory consumption has reached the limit defined in the Machine.config file or the worker process has deadlocked and has exceeded the time duration specified through the responseDeadlockInterval attribute in how to write for kids College, the Machine.config file. You can identify bottlenecks in the application by analyzing the metrics data.

At this point, you need to investigate the cause, fix or tune your application, and then run the of critical thinking Ashford School tests again. Based upon your test analysis, you may need to create and write a newspaper for kids CATS College run special tests that are very focused. For more information about thinking article identifying architecture and design related issues in your application, see Chapter 4, Architecture and how to article for kids College Design Review of essay writing classes Istituto Marangoni, a .NET Application for how to for kids CATS College Performance and Scalability For more information about identifying architecture and design-related issues in your application, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance For more information about tuning, refer to Chapter 17, Tuning .NET Application Performance The various outputs of the load testing process are the following: Updated test plans. Behavior of articles on writing Sydney, your application at various load levels. Maximum operating capacity. Potential bottlenecks. A Newspaper For Kids CATS College Cambridge! Recommendations for fixing the bottlenecks.

Stress test your application by subjecting it to very high loads that are beyond the capacity of the application, while denying it the writing classes Istituto London resources required to process that load. For example, you can deploy your application on a server that is running a processor-intensive application already. In this way, your application is immediately starved of processor resources and must compete with the write a newspaper article for kids CATS Cambridge other application for CPU cycles. The goal of essay Istituto London, stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. How To Write A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS College! These bugs can include: Synchronization issues Race conditions Memory leaks Loss of data during network congestion. Unlike load testing, where you have a list of The Mount, Mill International, prioritized scenarios, with stress testing you identify a particular scenario that needs to be stress tested.

There may be more than one scenario or there may be a combination of scenarios that you can stress test during a particular test run to reproduce a potential problem. You can also stress test a single Web page or even a single item, such as a stored procedure or class. To perform stress testing, you need the following input: Application characteristics (scenarios) Potential or possible problems with the how to write a newspaper CATS College Cambridge scenarios Workload profile characteristics Peak load capacity (obtained from articles on writing Western Sydney University (Navitas), load testing) The stress testing process is a six-step process as shown in Figure 16.2. Figure 16.2: Stress testing process.

The process involves the following steps: Identify key scenario(s) . How To College! Identify the classes Istituto London application scenario or cases that need to be stress tested to identify potential problems. Identify workload . Identify the workload that you want to apply to the scenarios identified in a newspaper, step 1. This is based on the workload and peak load capacity inputs. Identify the metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to critical collect about the application. Article CATS College! Base these metrics on the potential problems identified for the scenarios you identified in step 1. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for essay writing The Mount, Hill running a single test and your expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate the how to write article for kids CATS College Cambridge required load for each test case and capture the metric data results. Analyze the results . Analyze the writing Mill International metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Identify the scenario or multiple scenarios that you need to stress test.

Generally, you start by defining a single scenario that you want to stress test to identify a potential performance issue. There are a number of ways to choose appropriate scenarios: Select scenarios based on how critical they are to overall application performance. Try to test those operations that are most likely to affect performance. These might include operations that perform intensive locking and synchronization, long transactions, and disk-intensive I/O operations. Base your scenario selection on the data obtained from load testing that identified specific areas of your application as potential bottlenecks. How To CATS! While you should have fine-tuned and removed the bottlenecks after load testing, you should still stress test the system in these areas to verify how well your changes handle extreme stress levels. Scenarios that may need to be stress tested separately for a typical e-commerce application include the Anglia (Navitas) following:

An order processing scenario that updates the inventory for a particular product. This functionality has the a newspaper article College potential to essay writing International exhibit locking and synchronization problems. A scenario that pages through search results based on user queries. If a user specifies a particularly wide query, there could be a large impact on memory utilization. For example, memory utilization could be affected if a query returns an entire data table. For illustration processes, this section considers the order placement scenario from the sample e-commerce application. The load you apply to a particular scenario should stress the how to write article for kids Cambridge system sufficiently beyond threshold limits. Essay Paper Writing The Mount, Mill Hill! You can incrementally increase the load and observe the application behavior over various load conditions. As an alternative, you can start by applying an anti-profile to article the workload model from load testing. The anti-profile has the workload distributions inverted for the scenario under consideration.

For example, if the of critical Ashford School normal load for how to write a newspaper College Cambridge the place order scenario is 10 percent of the total workload, the anti-profile is 90 percent of the total workload. Writing Literature University! The remaining load can be distributed among the other scenarios. How To For Kids CATS College Cambridge! This can serve as a good starting point for your stress tests. You can continue to essay paper International increase the load beyond this starting point for stress testing purposes. Configure the how to a newspaper anti-profile needs in such a way that the load for the identified scenario is deliberately increased beyond the peak load conditions.

For example, consider the normal workload profile identified for a sample application that is essay paper The Mount, Mill Hill shown in Table 16.4. Table 16.4: Sample Workload Profile for a Sample Application. The anti-profile used to write a newspaper article for kids CATS stress test the write a short essay School order placement scenario is shown in how to write a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, Table 16.5. Table 16.5: Order Use Case Anti-Profile. Continue to increase the levels School load for how to write article CATS College Cambridge this scenario, and observe the application response at various load levels. The time duration of the a short essay tests depends upon the scenario. For example, it might take 10 to write a newspaper CATS College 15 days to essay paper writing The Mount, Mill International simulate deadlocks on a four-processor machine, but the same deadlocks may be simulated on an eight-processor machine in a newspaper article for kids CATS Cambridge, half that time.

Identify the metrics corresponding to articles Western Sydney the potential pitfalls for how to write Cambridge each scenario. The metrics can be related to articles on writing Western (Navitas) both performance and throughput goals, in addition to ones that provide information about the potential problems. This might include custom performance counters that have been embedded in the application. For example, this might be a performance counter used to monitor the memory usage of a particular memory stream used to serialize a DataSet . For the place order scenario, where contention-related issues are the how to a newspaper article for kids CATS focus, you need to measure the metrics that report contention in addition to the basic set of counters. Writing Essays Anglia University! Table 16.6 shows the metrics that have been identified for a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge the place order scenario.

Table 16.6: Metrics to Measure During Stress Testing of the Place Order Scenario. Document your test cases for the various workload patterns identified in step 2. For example: 1,000 simultaneous users. Use a random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Run the test for 2 days. The ASP.NET worker process should not recycle because of articles on writing Western Sydney (Navitas), deadlock. Throughput should not fall below 35 requests per a newspaper article for kids, second. Response time should not be greater than 7 seconds. Server busy errors should not be more than 10 percent of the total response because of contention-related issues. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. This allows you to capture the data for your metrics.

Note Make sure that the client computers that you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization, such as processor and memory, should not be very high. Analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. If the a short essay Sevenoaks School results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. To address the issue, you might need to do one of the how to write a newspaper article following: Perform a design review. Writing Literature Essays (Navitas)! For more information, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of how to article CATS College, a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability. Perform a code review. For more information, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance.

Examine the stack dumps of the worker process to diagnose the writing London exact cause of deadlocks. For example, to reduce the write CATS College Cambridge contention for the place order scenario of the sample application, you can implement queues into which orders are posted and are processed serially rather than processing them immediately after the write a short essay Sevenoaks School order is placed. For more information on tools and techniques for debugging, see Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954594.aspx. For more information on debugging deadlocks, see Scenario: Contention or Deadlock Symptoms in Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954592.aspx. For more information on deadlocks, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 317723, INFO: What Are Race Conditions and Deadlocks? at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;317723. Workload modeling is the process of identifying one or more workload profiles to write for kids College Cambridge be simulated against the target test systems. Each workload profile represents a variation of the following attributes:

Key scenarios. Numbers of simultaneous users. Thinking School! Rate of requests. Patterns of requests. The workload model defines how each of the identified scenarios is how to write article for kids Cambridge executed. It also defines approximate data access patterns and identifies user types and International characteristics. You can determine patterns and write a newspaper CATS Cambridge call frequency by using either the predicted usage of your application based on market analysis, or if your application is already in thinking Ashford, production, by analyzing server log files. Some important questions to CATS help you determine the essay The Mount, Hill International workload for your application include:

Identify the how to a newspaper article CATS College scenarios that are critical for your application from a performance perspective. You should capture these scenarios as a part of the requirements analysis performed in the very early stages of your application development life cycle. Simultaneous users are users who have active connections to the same Web site. This represents the writing maximum operating capacity for your application. How To Write A Newspaper Article For Kids CATS! For the sample e-commerce application, assume 1,000 simultaneous users. If you are developing a new application, you can obtain these numbers by working with the write a short essay School marketing team and using the a newspaper article College Cambridge results of the team's analysis. For existing applications, you can identify the number of simultaneous users by analyzing your Internet Information Services (IIS) logs.

This depends upon the actions a user can perform when he or she is essay logged into the application. For the sample application, consider the following actions: Connect to the home page. Log on to the a newspaper article application. Browse the product catalog. Search for specific products. Add products to the shopping cart. Validate and place an order.

Log out from the application. Articles On Writing Western University (Navitas)! What are the various user profiles for the application? You can group together the various types of users and how to write article for kids CATS Cambridge the actions they perform. Writing Essays Anglia (Navitas)! For example, there are groups of how to article for kids CATS College Cambridge, users who simply connect and browse the product catalog, and there are other users who log on, search for specific products, and then log out. The total number of users logging on is a subset of the users who actually order products.

Based on this approach, you can classify your user profiles. For the sample application, the user profile classification would include: Browse profile. Search profile. Place order profile. What are the literature Ruskin operations performed by an average user for a newspaper article for kids CATS College each profile? The operations performed by an average user for levels of critical Ashford School each profile are based on a newspaper for kids College, marketing data for a new application and IIS log analysis for an existing one. For example, if you are developing a business-to-consumer e-commerce site, your research-based marketing data tells you that on an average, a user who buys products buys at levels of critical thinking, least three products from your site in a single session. The actions performed for the place order profile for the sample application are identified in Table 16.7. Table 16.7: Actions Performed for the Place Order Profile. A typical user for a newspaper for kids CATS College the place order profile might not search your site, but you can assume such actions by averaging out the activity performed by various users for a specific profile.

You can then create a table of actions performed by an average user for all the profiles for your application. Think time is the levels of critical thinking Ashford School time spent by the user between two consecutive requests. During this time, the user views the information displayed on a page or enters details such as credit card numbers, depending on the nature of operation being performed. Think time can vary depending on the complexity of the data on how to a newspaper article for kids CATS College, a page. For example, think time for on writing Sydney the logon page is less than the how to for kids CATS Cambridge think time for write a short School an order placement page where the user must enter credit card details. You can average out the think time for all the article for kids College requests. For more information about think time, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. The usage pattern for each scenario gives an essay paper Hill, idea in a given time frame of the percentage mix of business actions performed by write a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge, users. An example is shown in Table 16.8.

Table 16.8: Sample User Profile Over a Period of Time. The test duration depends on essay Istituto Marangoni, the workload pattern for your application and may range from 20 minutes to as long as a week. Consider the following scenarios: A Web site experiences a steady user profile throughout the day. For example, if you host an how to write article CATS Cambridge, online e-commerce site, the operations performed by an average user visiting the site are unlikely to vary during the course of an 8-to-10 hour business day.

The test script for such a site should not vary the profile of users over the test period. The tests are executed simply by varying the writing Marangoni number of users for each test cycle. For this scenario, a test duration in the range of 20 minutes to 1 hour may be sufficient. A Web site experiences a varying profile of write a newspaper College, users on a given day. For example, a stock brokerage site might experience more users buying (rather than selling) stocks in the morning and essays Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) the opposite in the evening. The test duration for this type of application may range between 8 and 16 hours. You may even run tests continuously for a week or multiple weeks with a constant load to how to for kids observe how your application performs over a sustained period of literature Anglia Ruskin, activity. This helps you identify any slow memory leaks over a period of time.

Your test environment should be capable of simulating production environment conditions. To do this, keep the a newspaper article Cambridge following considerations in mind during the test cycle: Do not place too much stress on the client . Critical Thinking! Create baselines for your test setup . Allow for think time in your test script . Consider test duration . Minimize redundant requests during testing . How To Article College! Consider simultaneous versus concurrent users . Ruskin University! Set an appropriate warm up time . The next sections describe each of these considerations. Do Not Place Too Much Stress on the Client. Do not overly stress the client computer used to generate application load. The processor and memory usage on your client computers should be well below the threshold limit (CPU: 75 percent). Otherwise, the client computer may end up as a bottleneck during your testing. To avoid this, consider distributing the load on multiple client computers. Also, monitor the network interface bandwidth utilization to ensure that the network is not getting congested. Create Baselines for Your Test Setup. Create baselines for your test setup for all types of tests you need to perform.

The setup should be representative of the real life environment. This has two advantages. First, the results from various categories of write article for kids, tests do not reflect the of critical thinking Ashford type of hardware you are using. This means that your application modifications are the only variable. Second, you can depend on the test results because the for kids Cambridge test setup closely mirrors the real life environment.

Allow for Think Time in Your Test Script. Think time reflects the amount of time that a typical user is likely to pause for thought while interacting with your application. A Short Essay Sevenoaks School! During this time, the user views the information displayed on the page or enters details such as credit card numbers or addresses. You should average the how to write for kids Cambridge think time across various operations. If you do not include think time in your script, there is no time gap between two subsequent requests on a per-user basis. This directly translates to all users firing requests to the server concurrently. Western University! So, for a concurrent load of 200 users, there will be 200 requests fired at a given instance to the server. This is not a true representation of how your typical users use your application. Note Omitting think time can be helpful when you want to generate excessive load on the server. Make sure that the how to write article for kids think time in your test script is based on real life conditions.

This varies according to literature Ruskin (Navitas) the operations performed by the user, and write a newspaper CATS College Cambridge it varies depending on the page the user is critical article Trent University interacting with. For your test scripts, you can program for either a fixed think time between consecutive requests or a random think time ranging between minimum and maximum values. You should base the time duration for your tests on the end goal. A Newspaper CATS! If the goal is to thinking University load test and how to a newspaper article College Cambridge monitor the application behavior for your workload pattern, the test duration might range from 20 minutes to as long as one week. If the site is expected to on writing Western Sydney (Navitas) experience users of similar profile, and the average user is expected to perform the same set of operations during the intraday activity, a test of 20 minutes to one hour is sufficient for generating data for load testing.

You may want to CATS College run load tests for an extended period — four to five days — to Ruskin University see how your application performs on the peak operating capacity for a longer duration of time. However, to generate test data for article for kids CATS Cambridge your site if your site expects users of different profiles during various hours of literature essays University, operation, you may need to how to a newspaper article for kids CATS College test for at least eight to critical thinking Trent 10 hours to simulate various user profiles in the workload pattern. For stress testing purposes, the end goal is to run tests to identify potential resource leaks and the corresponding degradation in application performance. This may require a longer duration, ranging from a couple of hours to a week, depending on the nature of the bottleneck. For tests used to measure the transaction cost of an operation using transaction cost analysis, you might need to run test for how to write a newspaper article only approximately 20 minutes. For more information about capacity planning and transaction cost analysis, see How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications in the How To section of this guide. Minimize Redundant Requests During Testing. Make sure that your test load script simulates an appropriate load for your particular scenario and does not generate additional redundant requests. For example, consider a logon scenario.

The complete operation typically consists of two requests: A GET request used to retrieve the initial page where the (Navitas) user supplies a logon name and password. A POST request when the user clicks the Logon button to verify the credentials. The GET request is the same for all users and can easily be cached and served to all users. How To For Kids College Cambridge! However, it is the POST request that is critical from a performance perspective. In this example, your test script should avoid sending a GET request before submitting a POST request. By avoiding the GET request within your test script, the client threads of the load generator are able to iterate faster through the loop for a given set of critical Trent, users, thereby generating more POST requests. CATS Cambridge! This results in a more effective stress test for the actual POST operation. However, there may be conditions when even the response to on writing Western Sydney a GET request is customized for write article for kids CATS Cambridge a user; therefore, you should consider including both the GET and POST requests in the stress tests. Consider Simultaneous vs. Concurrent Users.

Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users connect to the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is likely to write a short essay occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. To stress test your application by using tools such as ACT, use a think time of how to a newspaper for kids CATS, zero in your test scripts. This allows you to stress your application without any time lag, with all users concurrently accessing the site. By using an appropriate think time, however, you can more accurately mirror a real life situation in which a user takes some time before submitting a new request to the server. High numbers of simultaneous users tend to essay Istituto London produce spikes in how to article CATS Cambridge, your resource usage and can often cause interaction that is beyond the concurrent load a server can handle. Istituto! This results in article for kids CATS College, occasional server busy errors. Tests with simultaneous users are very useful because they help you identify the actual load your system can handle without sending back too many server busy errors.

ACT supports warm-up times. The warm-up time is used in a test script to ensure your application reaches a steady state before the test tool starts to essay Sevenoaks record results. How To Cambridge! The warm-up time causes ACT to articles Western University (Navitas) ignore the data from the first few seconds of a test run. This is how to write a newspaper article CATS College Cambridge particularly important for ASP.NET applications because the first few requests trigger just-in-time (JIT) compilation and thinking Trent caching. The warm up time is particularly relevant for short duration tests, so that the initial startup time does not skew the test results. To determine an appropriate warm-up time for write a newspaper for kids College your application, use the ASP.NET ApplicationsCompilations Total counter to measure the write a short Sevenoaks effects of how to CATS Cambridge, JIT compilation. This counter should increase every time a user action triggers the JIT complier. In some cases you may want to know how long it takes to compile and paper writing Hill cache.

It should be a separate test; it should not be averaged into your steady state measurements. Best Practices for Performance Testing. When you test, consider the following best practices. When performing performance testing, make sure you do the CATS Cambridge following: Clear the application and database logs after each performance test run. Excessively large log files may artificially skew the performance results. Identify the correct server software and hardware to mirror your production environment. Use a single graphical user interface (GUI) client to capture end-user response time while a load is generated on the system.

You may need to generate load by using different client computers, but to make sense of client-side data, such as response time or requests per second, you should consolidate data at a single client and generate results based on thinking Trent, the average values. Include a buffer time between the how to a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge incremental increases of essay writing Istituto Marangoni, users during a load test. Use different data parameters for how to a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge each simulated user to create a more realistic load simulation. Monitor all computers involved in the test, including the client that generates the load. This is important because you should not overly stress the client. Prioritize your scenarios according to levels of critical Ashford School critical functionality and high-volume transactions. Use a zero think time if you need to fire concurrent requests,. This can help you identify bottleneck issues. Stress test critical components of the system to assess their independent thresholds. Do not allow the test system resources to cross resource threshold limits by a significant margin during load testing, because this distorts the data in your results. Do not run tests in live production environments that have other network traffic.

Use an how to for kids CATS, isolated test environment that is representative of the actual production environment. Do not try to break the system during a load test. The intent of the load test is not to break the system. The intent is to observe performance under expected usage conditions. You can stress test to determine the most likely modes of failure so they can be addressed or mitigated. Do not place too much stress on Istituto Marangoni, the client test computers. The metrics that you need to capture vary depending on the server role. For example, a Web server will have a different set of metrics than a database server. The metrics in this section are divided into the following categories:

The next sections describe each of these categories. Table 16.9 lists the set of metrics that you should capture on all your servers. These metrics help you identify the resource utilization (processor, memory, network I/O, disk I/O) on the servers. For more information on the metrics, see Chapter 15, Measuring .NET Application Performance. Table 16.9: Metrics to Be Measured on All Servers. You can either capture a small set of metrics for the Web server that lets you evaluate the application performance with respect to your performance goals, or you can capture a bigger set of counters that helps you identify potential bottlenecks for your application. Table 16.10 shows a set of counters that helps you evaluate your application performance with respect to goals. The counters can be mapped to some of the goals as follows: Throughput : ASP.NET ApplicationsRequests/Sec Server-side latency (subset of Response Time) : ASP.NETRequest Execution Time Process utilization : Processor% Processor Time Memory utilized by the ASP.NET worker process : ProcessPrivate Bytes (aspnet_wp) ?Free memory available for the server : MemoryAvailable MBytes. Table 16.10: Metrics for write a newspaper College Cambridge Application Performance Goals. The set of metrics shown in Table 16.11 is the set that you should capture on your Web servers to identify any potential performance bottlenecks for essay classes Istituto London your application.

The set of metrics shown in Table 16.12 is the set that you should capture on your database servers that are running SQL Server. This section shows a report template that you can use to create load test reports for your applications. You can customize this template to suit your own application scenarios. The analysis section of the report demonstrates performance analysis with the help of suitable graphs. You can have other graphs based upon the performance objectives identified for your application.

Before you begin testing and before you finalize the report's format and wish list of required data, consider getting feedback from the write a newspaper article report's target audience. This helps you to literature Anglia Ruskin plan for your tests and capture all the a newspaper article CATS Cambridge relevant information. Thinking Trent! Table 16.13 highlights the main sections and the items you should include in a load test report. Table 16.13: Load Test Report Template. Memory: 1 GB RAM. Number of servers: 2. Load balancing: Yes. Memory: 1 GB RAM.

Number of servers: 1. Load balancing: No. Number of servers: 2. Network Bandwidth between client and server: 100 Mbps. Web server: IIS 5.0. Platform: .NET Framework 1.1. Database Server: SQL Server 2000 Service Pack SP3. trace enabled=false requestLimit=10 pageOutput=false traceMode=SortByTime localOnly=true / sessionState mode=InProc timeout=20/ Table 16.14 shows the workload profile for the sample e-commerce application.

Table 16.14: Sample Application Workload Profile. Table 16.15 shows some sample performance objectives identified in how to write article CATS, the performance modeling phase for the application. For more information on performance modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Table 16.15: Performance Objectives. (for each server) Disk I/O (for database server): (custom performance counters)

Table 16.16 lists typical Web server metrics. Table 16.16: Web Server Metrics. Table 16.17 lists typical SQL Server metrics. Table 16.17: SQL Server Metrics. After you capture and consolidate your results, analyze the essay paper Mill captured data and compare the write a newspaper for kids CATS results against the metric's accepted level.

If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, you can analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. The data that you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to articles Sydney your application's performance objectives: The next sections describe each of these data comparisons. The throughput versus user load graph for the test results is shown in write article for kids College Cambridge, Figure 16.3. Figure 16.3: Throughput versus user load graph. The graph identifies the classes London point-of-service level failure. This point represents the user load the sample application can handle to article for kids Cambridge meet service level requirements for requests per writing essays Anglia Ruskin University, second. The response time versus user load graph, based on the test results for the sample application, is shown in Figure 16.4.

Figure 16.4: Response time versus user load graph. The response time is essentially flat with a gentle rise and write article for kids College Cambridge linear growth for low to essay writing Istituto medium levels of load. After queuing on a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge, the server becomes excessive, the response time begins to increase suddenly. Levels Of Critical Ashford School! The graph identifies the user load that the sample application can withstand, while satisfying the service level goals for response time for the application scenario under consideration. The graph in Figure 16.5 shows the variation of processor utilization with user load.

Figure 16.5: Processor versus user load graph. This graph identifies the workload for the sample application that is how to article for kids College below the threshold limit set for literature Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) processor utilization. The potential bottlenecks based on the analysis of performance counters for the sample application are the following: Low cache hit ratio for how to a newspaper for kids Cambridge the application indicated by the ASP.NET Applications: Cache Total Hit Ratio performance counter. A significant amount of time is writing classes Marangoni London spent by the garbage collector in article for kids CATS College Cambridge, cleanup (indicated by writing The Mount, Mill International, .NET CLR Memory% Time in GC). Write Article CATS College! This indicates inefficient cleanup of resources. This chapter has explained the three main forms of performance testing: load testing, stress testing, and capacity testing. It has also presented processes for load testing and stress testing. Use these processes together with the other guidance and recommendations in this chapter to plan, develop, and run testing approaches for Ashford your applications.

By acting appropriately on the test output, you can fine tune your application and remove bottlenecks to a newspaper for kids Cambridge improve performance, and you can ensure that your application is able to scale to meet future capacity demands. For more information about testing performance, see the following resources in this guide: See the following How Tos in the How To section of this guide: For further reading, see the following resources: Performance Testing Microsoft .NET Web Applications , MS Press®.

For a context-driven approach to performance testing and practical tips on running performance tests, see the articles available at Effective Performance Testing at http://www.perftestplus.com/pubs.htm. For a systematic, quantitative approach to performance tuning that helps you find problems quickly, identify potential solutions, and literature Anglia (Navitas) prioritize your efforts, see Five Steps to Solving Software Performance Problems, by Lloyd G. How To A Newspaper College! Williams, Ph.D., and Connie U. Smith, Ph.D., at http://www.perfeng.com/papers/step5.pdf. For techniques and strategies for building a collaborative relationship between test and development around performance tuning, see Part 11: Collaborative Tuning from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT11.pdf. Write A Short Essay School! For insight into bottleneck identification and analysis, see Part 7: Identify the Critical Failure or Bottleneck from Beyond Performance Testing by how to CATS College, Scott Barber at thinking, http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT7.pdf. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies.

This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to a newspaper for kids sites or pages that no longer exist.

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Job satisfaction – sample IELTS essay. This is the how to write for kids CATS College, next in my series of model IELTS essays. In this essay on job satisfaction and employment, I talk you through different ways to structure the writing essays Anglia Ruskin, essay – there is always more than one way to article College, skin a cat. I also give you notes on how you can use repetition to help your writing become more cohesive and coherent. Repeating words and ideas can be a good thing. In addition to the essay to essay Mill, download, you will also find 3 separate exercises on vocabulary to help you write the essay yourself. This is a particularly tough question because it is a double/double question. For Kids CATS College. You need to discuss both stress and longer working hours and explain the reasons for them and suggest what can be done by employers. Nowadays many jobs are more stressful and the working day is longer. Western Sydney (Navitas). What are the a newspaper article for kids CATS Cambridge, reasons for this?

What can employers do to articles Western (Navitas), help employees? There are different ways you can structure this essay. Whatever option you choose, you must ensure you cover all the points in how to a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge the task. This is where you need to leave yourself plenty of thinking time before you start writing. What I do here is to show you some of the possible choices you have.

The idea is write a short essay, you write a logical answer to the essay question and write a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge, do not follow one model . One choice would be to critical article, divide the write CATS College, essay by employees (stress and Sydney (Navitas), hours) and employers (solutions): content 1: explain reasons for both stress and long working hours content 2: suggest what employers could do. content 1: write about stress and what employers could do about how to write Cambridge, it content 2: write about working hours and what employers could do about it. content 1: write about stress content 2: write about working hours content 3 and conclusion: what employers could do about writing classes Istituto Marangoni, stress and how to write article CATS, working hours. One option is to write about different reasons for stress and of critical thinking School, hours in separate paras and then write about employer solutions. The reason for this is that the question asks you for reasons in the plural. content 1: reason 1 for stress and hours content 2: reason 2 for stress and how to a newspaper article Cambridge, hours content 3: employer suggestion. content 1: write about stress content 2: write about working hours content 3: what employers could do about stress and on writing Western Sydney (Navitas), working hours separate conclusion.

Ideas for the essay and for job satisfaction essays. Stress and longer working hours ideas. employees are worried about losing their jobs because of job market conditions – mass unemployment globalisation causes greater competition and write article, leads to everyone having to work harder employees are not given adequate training employees work individually and not in teams poor management and lack of feedback some countries do not regulate working hours employees do too much overtime to earn more cash. employers recognise longer hours do not mean more efficiency employers limit the hours of work and restrict overtime set meal breaks provide a better working environment provide all the training necessary encourage employees to paper The Mount, Hill International, spend some time relaxing during the working day managers set clear targets for employees that can be attained. Here are some other job satisfaction ideas for how to write a newspaper for kids CATS Cambridge other employment essays. sense of belonging to a team sense of essay writing Marangoni doing a job that is a newspaper article CATS College, worthwhile – if low paid (teachers. ) being promoted and paper writing The Mount, International, taking on write a newspaper for kids CATS College, more responsibilities enjoyable work environment and socialising with your colleagues sense of achievement when you meet a target or complete a project learning new skills understanding why and how what you do matters understanding more about critical article University, your company and its business. Vocabulary for the essay – think word formation and collocations. It is write for kids College, important that you have some variety of vocabulary when you write this essay. Thinking Trent University. This does not mean that you need to use lots of different words.

In fact, your essay will be more cohesive if you repeat some words. All you need to how to a newspaper CATS College Cambridge, do is make sure that you use them in different ways. That means using different forms of the words (word formation) and use them in different ways. In this essay, the key word is work. Here are some variations I use: work longer hours. do the same work.

work more efficiently. I do of course use other words too. However, by repeating and rephrasing the one word “work” in different ways the essay is linked together and becomes more cohesive. It’s a trick you should try. You will find more employment vocabulary on my employment vocabulary page. Two ways in which the workplace has changed in a short essay Sevenoaks the modern era are that employees are required to work longer hours and write for kids CATS, there is essay classes Istituto, more pressure on them than in a newspaper article for kids CATS College Cambridge the past. Write Sevenoaks School. In this essay, I examine how competition is the main reason for this and suggest how employers can improve their employees’ working conditions . Competition from the job market is one reason why some employees are under more pressure at work. High levels of unemployment mean that it would often be cheaper for an employer to hire someone else to a newspaper article, do the same work.

This naturally has a negative psychological effect on employees . It can also result in their staying longer in on writing University (Navitas) the office to ensure that they meet their performance targets. Increased competition caused by globalisation is article for kids College, also significant . Many smaller businesses now need to compete either with multinationals or companies from developing countries where labour is cheaper. The effect of this on employees is that they know they may be made redundant if the thinking Ashford School, business they work for fails. This is not only stressful, but can also lead to how to write a newspaper for kids College Cambridge, their working longer hours to help the Istituto Marangoni London, business survive. Despite this competition, employers should ensure that their staff have the best possible working conditions . This means that employees should not be required to work overtime unless in an emergency, be given regular breaks and be reassured that their future is safe. How To A Newspaper College Cambridge. If this were to classes Istituto London, happen, the how to a newspaper for kids College, employees should work more efficiently, something which is in the interest of the University, employer. My conclusion would be that competition from the job market and globalisation is the principal cause of stress at how to write a newspaper article College, work and a longer working day . Employers can help address these problems by recognising that reducing stress and regulating working hours will lead to greater efficiency. You will find more exercises on vocab below. You should note the range of different employment vocabulary words I use.This means I can afford to repeat the word “work” when I need to and still have enough variation of vocab.

The skill is to vary when you need to Marangoni, and be consistent when you need to. To write this essay well, you need to think about cause and effect. See the different cause and effect language I use. Identifying the task in the introduction. The introduction clearly identifies all the parts of the task. The first sentence identifies the topic areas of stress and working hours. The second sentence leads into the body of the write a newspaper College Cambridge, essay by stating how I will examine the reasons and suggest solutions.

Coherence and paper The Mount, Hill, essay structure notes. See how the first sentence of each content para links to the main idea of the write a newspaper for kids, introduction and articles on writing University (Navitas), the conclusion. Sometimes repetition is write a newspaper College Cambridge, a good thing. Also note how each content para starts with a relatively short simple sentence. Essay Classes London. All I am trying to do is write article, show the reader what the one main idea of that para is. Note how I don’t try and include all my ideas in the essay.

Vocabulary exercises on the essay. Here are 3 exercises to help you write the essay yourself. How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on Sydney, the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on how to write for kids CATS Cambridge, Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 11 Responses to Job satisfaction – sample IELTS essay.

First of all I would like to thank you because of such useful site that I think you could never find site on the Internet which has as much effective information as this site has (ofcourse I like Simon too). Despite of designing part of site which I felt to some extent confusing to follow and takes a bit time to on writing Sydney (Navitas), be familiar with , I think without no doubt that this is the best site about IELTS. Im sure if someone likes you were lived in my country , he never would share his knowledge as you are doing. Next I would like to ask you put some exercises about relative clause and how to write a newspaper article Cambridge, how we can omit them as I found it is the Hill, best way to add information . At the end I have problem with this sentence in terms of grammar. From (check your vocabulary for ACADEMIC ENGLISH ) The atmospheres of most planets is not transparent , MAKING IT difficult for us to see the surface.( Am I right that it was” which makes it” then turned into making it) Sorry if I am so basic and take your time. Thanks for how to for kids CATS College Cambridge the comment.

Re the writing literature Ruskin, site design which part is most confusing? I know there are problems!! At the mo the write a newspaper CATS, site is only about writing literature essays Ruskin (Navitas), a tenth built. By year end there should be neatly organised guides to essays. listening and reading (and perhaps part 1 writing). A Newspaper For Kids College. The aim is for people to start at different points and work through a skill systematically. I do believe it is importan tto be systematic in your learning and not just start anywhere.

However, it will me take a little time to get there. Good question. In fact, I should be doing another lesson on relatives quite soon. You are quite right that it could have been “which makes it”. The point is levels of critical thinking, that we often avoid relatives – they tend to be ugly and make your writing harder to how to write a newspaper CATS Cambridge, understand. Article Trent. One way we do this is by using -ing. This site is excellent … very strong on Writing Skills.Simon?s site is perhaps stronger on The Speaking section with numerous model answers (for all 3 parts)and useful tips. Unlike the previous post I think the site is very well organised – and the model essays with their color-coded attention to a newspaper for kids CATS College Cambridge, vocab, cohesion, linking words … are first-rate. Thank you for your hard work.

Yes Simon is good. If you are looking for alternative speaking materials (I shall be updating mine more systematically once my writing materials are more complete) can I point you in the direction of Splendid Speaking. They have by some distance the best speaking materials on the net. Don’t be put off by the subscribe feature – it’s all free and the weekly transcripts and write a short Sevenoaks School, tips are second to none. What this site gets very right is the for kids CATS, distinction between the written and the spoken language. I’d add that the materials for other exams are also well worth looking at. Levels Of Critical. It can be very misleading to think of IELTS speaking as a peculiar skill. It isn’t. The best speaking tips are normally very simple and don’t require a “specialist” approach.

Good speaking is good speaking and a newspaper Cambridge, ultimately the one tip that should be carried into the exam is “listen to write essay Sevenoaks, the question and answer it”. I’ll update this comment with another link from article for kids, my IELTS directory. Without question, the most complete set of speaking materials on the net for IELTS is thinking article Trent University, English Lab. This is another site written by an ex-IELTS examiner (they’re not supposed to how to write a newspaper for kids, say they are!). It is very, very complete indeed. It takes a bit of navigation because it so big but you’ll find everything you could possibly want there – if you are after IELTS specific speaking materials and ideas. dear Dominc,hi it,s my pleasure to see such a useful site for those want to study ielts .not only for students ,but for teachers .i as a teacher ejoy a lot and learn many things form it.just i want to thank you for your great job you ,ve done.wishing you the very best.i would like to ask ,if possible texplain how to teach geapghs which is considered to be very important in IELTS.please.IS there a specific method to teach?thanking you ..with deep respect and regards M.Andalibi. Hi Always nice to hear from a fellow teacher. This year I aim to post quite a lot of teacher specific materials as I know a number of teachers drop by.

In principle, I should post an idea/resource each Sunday. Have you found my task 1 teaching ideas that I have already posted? There are lots more to follow. Increasingly, I teach task 1 as just another bit of writing. I think it can be misleading to thinking Ashford School, concentrate on too much “trend language” for example. Task 1 is CATS College, graded in exactly the same way as an essay. I also think that students get confused by thinking that it is a short, completely different. I’m not sure it is.

You pick out the details you need, you organise the logically combining main points and explanations just as you would in an essay. Ironically, the idea of charts and graphs is to how to a newspaper College, display information more clearly, but in my experience students often go wrong because they don’t really get the point of the chart/graph. Hence the lesson on demystifying charts. My personal students did much better once they understood the concept of writing classes Istituto Marangoni charts in this way – and that was without bothering to teach much/any specialised language. THIS IS ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION ON IELTS TASK 2…….I HAVE NEVER SEEN SUCH A WONDERFUL BLOG ANYWHERE …THANK YOU….SIR.

THESE ARE ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION ON IELTS TASK 2…….I HAVE NEVER SEEN SUCH A WONDERFUL BLOG ANYWHERE …THANK YOU….SIR. In the competitive world of today, it is common for employees to spend long and stressful hours at how to write CATS Cambridge, work. This essay will discuss the socio economic reasons why employees need to work harder and put in longer hours ; it will also discuss what the employers can do to make the essay writing classes Istituto, life easier for their working staff. intro for the above topic —– I wud chose the simple 4 paragraph essay – one describing the reasons why employees need to a newspaper article for kids College Cambridge, put longer hrs -one describing what employers can do to ease this — the intro and conclusion —– i loved your intro -mine suddenly looks awful – and paper The Mount, Mill Hill, i also love the way in which you have organised your essay —its terrific – thanks for for kids CATS sharing it with us #128578; The nights spent on learning insanely academic words would foster a good foundation for literature essays Anglia (Navitas) the language proficiency – I thought at the start of my journey to English.

However, as years passed by, I realized the language shouldn’t be confined with tons of specification barriers that would limit one’s outlook into profound possibilities of the language. The foundation should be built on a flexible framework that grasps every aspect of the article College Cambridge, language. Take into account, it doesn’t mean expanding one’s vocabulary with colloquial phraseology, but spreading the experience of what the School, language represents in a native environment. Ielts is write a newspaper College, a cornerstone of English. Nonetheless, do not limit youself on merely accomplishing the requirements. Instead, try to diversify your learning path with discovering nuances of literature essays English. It can be done in infinite amount of ways. First, start with reading news, reviews of gadgets, PC or whatever you are interested in. The internet is your right hand for most of the cases.

Other times, try to talk to how to Cambridge, natives. Ah, I am running out of time. So, Cheers up! And do not give up on writing Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas), your dreams!