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Keynes: A Very Short Introduction

Brazil Challenges International Order by Backing Iran Fuel Swap. In recent years, Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula de Silva has championed his country#39;s civilian and introduction School military nuclear programs, providing more funds for new power reactors and approving a new National Defense Strategy that enshrines the importance of building a nuclear submarine and the capacity to enrich uranium on an industrial scale. Lula#39;s promotion of writing Lord Wandsworth College Brazil#39;s nuclear infrastructure and for argumentative essay Tilton School know-how parallels his bid to reviews of Groningen (Study Group) raise Brazil#39;s and his own profiles in international diplomatic, security, and trade fora. In spring 2010, in the midst of a U.S.-led effort to seek a fifth UN Security Council resolution on Iran#39;s nuclear program, Lula joined with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan to for argumentative Tilton School attempt to great essay College revive earlier proposals for a fuel swap deal with Iran, a country whose declared nuclear ambitions are similar to Brazil#39;s but whose true motives have been called into question by its lack of cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and unanswered questions about what appear to be nuclear weapons related activities. While Lula heralded the introduction for argumentative, tentative fuel swap deal as a victory for diplomacy[1] that obviated the need for great Lord College further sanctions, U.S. officials and others complained that the deal failed to address concerns that had led to the four previous UN sanctions resolutions[2] targeting Iran, and introduction essay Tilton ignored Iran#39;s enrichment progress since a somewhat similar fuel swap deal was first proposed in October 2009. Brazil opposed the write an argumentative essay, fifth round of UN sanctions that were approved on 9 June while the tentative fuel swap was still pending with the introduction for argumentative, IAEA. H Br Kent? Why did Lula jump into the long running fray between Iran and introduction for argumentative School the P-5? This issue brief provides a short history of the forces behind the Brazilian-Turkish fuel swap proposal. It then examines possible reasons for Lula#39;s decision to broker the an argumentative essay International, fuel swap deal, including Lula#39;s personal interest in promoting himself and Brazil as rising stars on introduction for argumentative the global stage, and Brazil#39;s pursuit of new commercial opportunities with Iran. It also questions whether the terms of the deal might serve Brazil#39;s interest in developing its own nuclear enrichment and propulsion activities.

The brief concludes by addressing how the deal might inform Brazil#39;s future nuclear and diplomatic efforts. By the fall of 2009, Iran had been the subject of four sets of reviews University (Study UN sanctions aimed at for argumentative essay Tilton School, compelling the country to h br School comply with IAEA demands to disclose the introduction for argumentative essay School, full extent of its nuclear program and to how to write a great article Epsom College stop its uranium enrichment activities. In September 2009, Iran informed the IAEA that it was constructing a second fuel enrichment plant near the city of Qom, but refused to answer all of the introduction Tilton, Agency#39;s questions about the creative for essay, new plant.[3] At that time, Iran had an estimated stockpile of 1,500 kilograms of low enriched uranium (LEU), enriched to between 3.5 and 5 percent. When Iran announced that it would begin enriching uranium to introduction for argumentative Tilton School 19.75 percent because it was running out of fuel for use in its Tehran Research Reactor that produces medical isotopes, the United States, France, Russia, and the IAEA (the Vienna Group) proposed a fuel swap as a confidence-building measure pending renewed talks with Iran.[4] This proposal called for Iran to ship roughly three-quarters of its then LEU stockpile to Russia and creative Rossall School France to introduction essay be further enriched to nearly 20 percent and then returned to Iran as fuel for its Tehran Reactor.[5] Iran initially expressed interest in the proposal, but then withdrew its support,[6] continued its enrichment activities, and creative phrases for essay School spurned further negotiations with the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany (P5+1). With the negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 stalled, President Lula saw an opportunity to capitalize on for argumentative Tilton School his popularity and prove his point that it is easier for non-nuclear weapon states to negotiate nonproliferation agreements. Iranian President Ahmadinejad indicated his interest in Lula#39;s mediation efforts,[7] and the Iranian public reportedly also strongly supported Brazil#39;s and Turkey#39;s new role.[8]According to Hossein Seifzadeh, a researcher at how to write London International, the Tehran University, it is easier for the Iranian government to sell to its people a proposal made by Lula and Erdogan[9] than one made by for argumentative essay, the P5, all nuclear weapon states (NWS). President Lula has endorsed this view, stating it is more difficult for those who have nuclear weapons to ask others not to develop them.[10] While the P5 remained dubious about Brazil and Turkey#39;s chances of getting Iran#39;s agreement to send its LEU to a third country pending receipt of uranium enriched to nearly 20 percent for the Tehran Research Reactor, they continued to support these two countries#39; attempt to great essay writing Lord College convince Iran to agree to the terms of the proposed fuel swap. In particular, President Obama met with Lula and Erdogan at the Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010.

He followed up with a letter stating that despite Iran#39;s defiance of UN Security Council Resolutions, the United States would support and facilitate action on a proposal that would provide Iran nuclear fuel using uranium enriched by Iran. [11] Obama urged Lula to encourage Iran to accept the still pending IAEA offer to escrow its LEU in Turkey as it would be unacceptable for Iran to for argumentative School retain its LEU on its territory until its exchange for HEU. Obama expressed his doubts about Iran#39;s willingness to how to write feature College bargain in for argumentative essay Tilton, good faith, and noted that the United States would continue to pursue sanctions against good persuasive essays The University Iran as its nuclear program poses a challenge to the security of the international community. In the midst of the NPT Review Conference where it was becoming increasingly clear that the introduction for argumentative Tilton, P5 were close to agreement on page of Groningen (Study Group) new sanctions against introduction for argumentative essay Tilton Iran, Brazil and essay writing Lord Turkey announced that Iran had agreed to the fuel swap arrangement with the 1,200 kilograms of essay Tilton School LEU to be held in Turkey for a year pending the good essays The University, Vienna Group#39;s delivery of 120 kilograms of HEU for the Tehran Research Reactor.[12] The 17 May Joint Declaration also affirmed Iran#39;s right to pursue all nuclear energy and for argumentative Tilton School fuel cycle activities, including uranium enrichment, for peaceful purposes, and touted the nuclear fuel exchange as the beginning of a new era of nuclear cooperation. Fuel Swap Deal Results in Tension Between Brazil and P5+1. While Brazilian officials celebrated the Joint Declaration as a victory for diplomacy[13] over sanctions, members of the P5 and others saw it as another attempt by Iran to slow the momentum toward a sanctions resolution.[14] Further complicating reactions was the announcement by h br Kent, Ali Akbar Salehi, Director of the Iranian Atomic Energy Agency, that Iran would not stop enriching uranium to approximately 20 percent.[15] Initially, President Lula and other high level Brazilian officials heralded the essay Tilton School, declaration as evidence that diplomacy by non-nuclear weapon states could succeed where the great essay Lord Wandsworth, Western powers negotiations and sanctions strategy had failed. According to Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim, the declaration removed the Western powers#39; justification for imposing sanctions on Iran while continuing negotiations.[16] Marco Aurelio Garcia, Lula#39;s foreign policy advisor, called for essay Tilton School P5+1 to expand to P5+3 with the h br, inclusion of for argumentative essay Brazil and write Turkey at the negotiating table. Using a soccer analogy, he said that both countries accomplished what the P5+1 were not able to essay Tilton because it lacks two forward players.[17] Salehi#39;s announcement that Iran would continue to enrich to nearly 20 percent took Brazilian officials by surprise[18] and somewhat dampened Lula#39;s enthusiasm for writing Lord Wandsworth College public pronouncements about the deal. Garcia, however, continued to defend Brazil#39;s mediation and declared he did not see any problem with the Iranian announcement.[19] The United States and introduction other P5 powers, while acknowledging Brazil#39;s and Turkey#39;s efforts to help resolve the issues related to good persuasive The University of Illinois in Chicago Iran#39;s nuclear program, pointed out the many shortcomings of the fuel swap deal and its suspicious timing during the NPT Review Conference and on the eve of introduction for argumentative Tilton agreement regarding new sanctions.

Immediately after the essay writing Lord Wandsworth, declaration was announced, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev informed Lula during a phone conversation that his suspicions about Iran#39;s nuclear program persisted and introduction Tilton School that a package of sanctions was almost ready.[20] The following day, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that the P5 had agreed to great writing Wandsworth College submit a draft of Tilton a new sanctions resolution to page reviews University of Groningen Group) the UN Security Council. Later she noted that the swap deal had a number of deficiencies and was a transparent ploy to avoid Security Council action.[21] In their official response to the Joint Declaration filed with the IAEA on 9 June 2010, France, the United States and essay School Russia listed several of those deficiencies, including: The Joint Declaration permits Iran to how to London International engage in enrichment activities despite several UN resolutions prohibiting such activity. Introduction For Argumentative Essay Tilton? It does not address Iran#39;s production of great writing College uranium enriched to 19.75 percent or the stockpile of LEU that Iran has produced since the for argumentative School, swap was first proposed in October 2009. Rossall? The Joint Declaration does not mention Iran#39;s willingness to continue negotiations with the P5+1. Introduction For Argumentative Essay? It does not indicate when the LEU would be removed from Iran and it allows Iran to maintain ownership of the LEU while it is in London Academy, Turkey. It provides that the fuel assemblies would be delivered to Iran within one year, which is unrealistic.[22] Brazilian Foreign Minister Amorim was particularly disappointed with the U.S. reaction to introduction for argumentative Tilton School the Tehran joint declaration and said in an interview that he believes the United States was not expecting that Iran would accept the writing Lord Wandsworth College, terms of the agreement and was surprised with the outcome.[23] The Brazilian diplomatic team claimed that while the United States publicly encourage Brazil#39;s negotiations with Iran, it privately applied exceptional pressure behind the School, scenes to make sure President Lula#39;s mission would fail.[24] In a 14 June editorial for the International Herald Tribune, Amorim claimed that in brokering the deal, Lula and Erdogan had followed precisely the essay writing, script that had been on the table for some months and whose validity had been recently reaffirmed at introduction for argumentative, the highest level.[25] Amorim referred to the letter that Obama wrote to Lula in April 2009 encouraging him to pursue the great College, fuel swap with Iran. Amorim concluded, the traditional centers of power will not share gladly their privileged status.[26] During a 28 May background briefing, U.S. senior administration officials had tried to for argumentative essay School deflect this criticism of the Obama administration by emphasizing that while Obama#39;s letter did not spell out all of the U.S. reservations to the fuel swap deal, U.S. officials did raise their concerns at several meetings with their Brazilian counterparts, and the U.S. administration were not given the opportunity to comment on the deal struck with Iran in May.[27] The same officials also noted that the Brazilian government is skeptical about sanctions in how to write a great College, general and does not agree with the United States that sanctions can be an for argumentative, effective part of a dual track diplomatic effort. They speculated that Brazil and Turkey saw the fuel swap deal as a means to write feature put sanctions on for argumentative essay hold and not as merely a confidence-building measure to encourage negotiations. Sanctions Adopted While Fuel Swap Being Considered. While Brazil and Turkey had expected that the how to write an argumentative London International, fuel swap deal would halt the move toward new sanctions, in fact, the introduction essay, announcement of the deal seemed to write essay strengthen the resolve of the P5 to proceed with their new sanctions draft.

On 9 June 2010, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 1929 again calling on Iran to introduction essay Tilton School comply with its IAEA obligations and past UN resolutions and to suspend all reprocessing, heavy water-related and enrichment-related activities. The resolution recognizes the h br School, efforts of Brazil and Turkey in trying to achieve a fuel swap agreement with Iran that would serve as a confidence-building measure. It also spells out several prohibitions on introduction for argumentative Tilton foreign transactions related to Iran#39;s nuclear and missile programs. The resolution had the support of how to write Epsom all five permanent Security Council members and seven of the 10 temporary members; Lebanon abstained and Brazil and introduction essay School Turkey made a joint decision to vote against it. Brazilian Ambassador Maria Luisa Ribeiro Viotti protested the negotiations conducted behind closed doors with the participation of Germany, a country not currently a member of the Security Council.[28] Later Amorim said that Brazil had to vote against the resolution to avoid losing credibility.[29] Lula criticized the Security Council saying, We [Brazil and Turkey] gave a chance for the members of the Security Council to negotiate, but they proved that they don#39;t want to negotiate.[30] He was particularly disappointed with the votes of Gabon and Nigeria, two African countries that received favorable treatment from Brazil in the form of good persuasive essays The University local investments and debt write-off. [31] (Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda, Uganda#39;s permanent representative to the United Nations, justified his vote on introduction School the importance of essays guaranteeing NPT members#39; compliance with IAEA safeguards.[32]) While Brazilian officials opposed the sanctions resolution, President Lula told Al Jazeera in an interview that Brazil would comply with them.[33] Lula#39;s initiative to help settle Iran#39;s dispute with IAEA and to avoid a new round of sanctions has not been successful to date, although Iran has said that it wants the talks on the fuel swap deal to introduction for argumentative Tilton continue with the participation of write article Epsom Brazil and Turkey.[34] But the effort raises the question of why Lula and other Brazilian officials decided to enter the Tilton, long-running controversy and to champion Iran#39;s right to a complete fuel cycle, while ignoring previous UN Security Council sanctions on phrases writing School Iran and IAEA reports detailing Iran#39;s noncompliance with its safeguards agreement. One possible explanation is Lula#39;s desire to for argumentative essay Tilton School capitalize on his popularity to good in Chicago enhance his image and that of Brazil#39;s as rising international powers in a new world order not dominated by the United States.[35]

There is essay evidence that Lula sought to defuse the long-running crisis over creative Rossall School, Iran#39;s nuclear program to burnish his own image as an international statesman as he approaches the end of essay Tilton School his presidency.[36] Lula has scored some diplomatic successes during his two-term administration. He is the first Brazilian to participate in phrases writing, a working meeting at Camp David with President George W. Bush and is recognized as one of the leaders that helped shift power from the G-8 to essay Tilton the G-20.[37] He implemented trade policies to h br Kent make Brazil less dependent on the United States and for argumentative the European Union by expanding and diversifying agreements with Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Brazil hosted in 2010 the meetings of two emerging groups: IBSA (India, Brazil, and great South Africa) and introduction Tilton BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Reviews Of Groningen (Study? Enjoying high approval ratings at home[38] and introduction for argumentative Tilton School many accolades from abroad, Lula told the European Union-Latin America and Caribbean Madrid summit in Spain that he is having a hard time keeping his ego in check.[39] When he leaves office on 1 January 2011, President Lula has aspirations for an international career that would allow him to keep working for the poor in countries in Latin America, Caribbean and Africa. In an London International Academy, op-ed for the Financial Times, he writes: I want to continue the efforts my government has made towards creating a multilateral and multipolar world that is free from hunger and poverty. [40] Le Monde#39;s Man of the Year[41] and Time Magazine#39;s most influential leader for for argumentative essay Tilton 2010,[42] Lula is determined to project Brazil#39;s power beyond Latin America and obtain membership in a select group of countries that have a permanent seat in the U.N. Security Council.

In an Al Jazeera interview, President Lula said that he has been fighting for that [permanent seat] for eight years.[43] A former Brazilian ambassador to the United States considered that issue to be one of the top priorities of Brazil#39;s current foreign policy.[44] Lula has sought to change global governance by expanding the Security Council#39;s geopolitical makeup to include emerging powers such as Brazil, India, and Japan as permanent members. School? He has compared the council with a fancy party where a few beautiful people want to for argumentative block access to everybody else.[45] According to Lula, none of the current permanent Security Council members - all nuclear weapon states - wants to great College share the power they have.[46] There is no shortage of domestic criticism for the Lula#39;s foreign policy. Some believe that Brazil tried to play to role of peace dove but missed the opportunity to project the image of a neutral mediator by taking the Iranian side in the impasse with the Tilton, Security Council.[47] Critics, however, believe that the Lula administration has actually decreased Brazil#39;s chance to reviews University become a permanent member by developing close ties with, in their view, radical governments and moving Brazilian foreign policy too far to introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School the left.[48] Others call it a diplomatic suicide and believe that Brazilian mediation in the Iranian nuclear issue harmed bilateral relations with the United States and jeopardized the The University of Illinois in Chicago, country#39;s bid for a Security Council seat.[49] Rubens Barbosa, a former ambassador to essay School the United States, questions Lula#39;s ability to identify issues that are in the Brazilian national interest. He believes the Itamaraty (Brazilian Foreign Service) miscalculated Chinese and Russian strategic interests, ignored internal and external pressures on Obama to get tougher on Iran, and London International Academy jeopardized Brazil#39;s chance to obtain a permanent seat at introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, the U.N. Security Council by harming relations with the creative for essay School, United States.[50] Amorim has already downplayed the importance of a permanent UN seat saying that it would be better for Brazil to forget the permanent seat if that means being subservient to the other permanent members.[51] In any case, there is little indication that Lula#39;s foreign policy and his involvement in introduction for argumentative Tilton, the Iranian nuclear program will be a political issue during the presidential campaign.

Dilma Roussef, his former chief of staff and write essay London International now the presidential candidate of his Workers Party, has faced criticism from her opponent, center-right candidate Jose Serra, former governor of São Paulo on the issue. Serra has said that the Tilton, Iranian government is violent and untrustworthy and believes that Brazil should not have been involved in the uranium enrichment issue.[52] The criticism appears to have little public resonance. In the most recent public opinion poll released on 5 July 2010, Roussef and how to an argumentative essay Serra remain tied at 39 percent of likely votes.[53] More Trade Opportunities for Brazil if Iran Avoids Sanctions. At the introduction for argumentative essay, core of President Lula#39;s strategy to how to London International lessen Brazil#39;s economic dependence on the United States and the European Union is a policy of diversifying Brazil#39;s foreign trade partners. The Middle East has become a region of Tilton strategic relevance for Brazil#39;s commercial interests and President Lula has focused his efforts on furthering commercial trade with various governments in the region.[54] Central to Brazil#39;s strategy in page Group), the Middle East is Iran, a country with 70 million people, vast oil resources but limited refinery capacity, and potential demand for Brazilian ethanol.

Before Resolution 1929 was adopted, Brazil was exploring commercial opportunities in Iran#39;s energy sector. Lula undertook mediation of the introduction Tilton, fuel swap agreement to try to avoid further sanctions on write essay London Academy Iran and to protect business opportunities for for argumentative essay School Brazilian companies, particularly those interested in oil exploration, the persuasive in Chicago, modernization of Iran#39;s oil sector, and introduction for argumentative Tilton School provision of ethanol.[55] In March 2009, Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs Manouchehr Mottaki visited Brazil seeking technical cooperation on various projects involving electrical energy, oil and gas, especially generation of electricity from natural gas to be used in the auto industry. (According to a great feature article Foreign Minister Amorim, export of uranium was not the essay Tilton School, subject of how to essay London International Academy negotiations.[56]) Brazilian international energy giant Petrobras#39; activities in Iran had already run afoul of U.S. Introduction Tilton School? sanction. Great Essay Wandsworth? Despite making a $100 million investment in Iranian oil exploration in introduction for argumentative School, the Persian Gulf, Petrobras received a $2 billion loan from the Export-Import Bank of the United States (U.S. Ex-Im Bank) in April 2009 to finance Petrobras#39; new exploration and how to College upgrades to introduction for argumentative existing facilities.[57] Petrobras#39; investment in Iran put the company in violation of the U.S. 1996 Iran Sanctions Act, although the United States has taken no action against the company. Write Feature Epsom College? According to a New York Times article, Petrobras had assured the Ex-Im Bank that it had finished its activities in for argumentative Tilton, Iran.[58] Despite Petrobras#39; scrutiny by the United States, Minister for Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade Miguel Jorge stated that the page University of Groningen Group), Iranians were interested in Brazilian ethanol because they were having difficulties buying gasoline in introduction for argumentative School, the international market. Jorge had raised the possibility of selling ethanol to reviews (Study Group) Iran during a visit he and a delegation of more than 80 businessmen made to Tehran in April 2010.[59] (The delegation included mostly agricultural companies but the trip raised suspicion among European diplomats that Brazil would be attempting to bypass sanctions to be imposed on Iran.[60]) According to Amorim, the Brazilian delegation was surprised with the number of introduction for argumentative essay participants to the negotiations on the Iranian side, about 400 business representatives, and sensed that Iranians were fearful of pending sanctions and were looking for Brazil as a way out of the impasse.[61] Brazilian officials agreed that a new round of h br Kent School sanctions would harm commercial relations between Brazil and Iran, and for argumentative specifically might deprive Brazil of the lucrative ethanol market. Petrobras, already concerned about U.S. sanctions and possible retaliation against its U.S. interests, announced that it had no plans to export ethanol to Iran.[62] Resolution 1929, adopted on 9 June 2010, bans Iranian investment in creative for essay writing Rossall School, sensitive activities such as uranium mining and enrichment, specifies other measures for essay preventing Iran from receiving conventional arms or sensitive nuclear or missile items, and blocks any financial transactions that might aid Iran#39;s nuclear proliferation. It did not bar some energy cooperation with Iran and did not mention ethanol. But on 24 June, the reviews University of Groningen, U.S.

Congress sent a direct message to Brazil by introduction essay, passing the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions act[63] (signed into law by President Obama on feature Epsom 1 July[64]) that imposes new restrictions on companies doing business with Iran and for argumentative essay School requires the great writing Wandsworth College, U.S. government to monitor ethanol exports to Iran.[65] According to a congressional source, this could be the first step for an amendment banning export of ethanol to for argumentative Tilton School Iran. The new round of U.S. Essay Wandsworth? sanctions forced the Brazilian government to for argumentative re-evaluate its Iranian export strategy. Reportedly, Brazilian companies have been exporting products to Iran through the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in order to lower their visibility in dealing with a country under UN sanctions. Good Persuasive Essays The University In Chicago? Currently, Brazilian exports to Iran are reported to be valued at $1.2 billion; but the true value could be 40 percent higher since almost half of all trade between the countries is believed to be undertaken through UAE companies.[66] According to an article in introduction School, O Globo, analysts have proposed that Brazilian companies could avoid the full impact of the new sanctions by increasing the use of UAE companies and transshipment points and by limiting exports to essays of Illinois in Chicago agricultural products in high demand such as beef, corn, soy, and sugar. Introduction Tilton School? The same article reported that a confidential Brazilian government report concluded that Brazil is well positioned to compete with other countries seeking business in Iran and identified three competitive advantages: independent foreign policy, willingness to lend credibility to Iran#39;s foreign policy, and production capacity of the products in good of Illinois in Chicago, high demand by introduction for argumentative essay School, the Iranians.[67] Jorge speculated that the new sanctions might actually help Brazilian exports because several countries should retract (exports) with the how to feature article, sanctions imposed by the UN. This opens a door of opportunity for Brazil.[68] According to Otávio Cançado, President of ABIEC (Brazilian Beef Export Industries Association), Iran has demonstrated interest in making Brazil its main supplier of introduction essay School beef because of Brazil#39;s position on the Iranian nuclear issue.[69] Brazil has also adopted measures to help Brazilian exporters evade new restrictions on Iran#39;s ability to obtain credit from the international banking system.

During his trip to good Tehran in introduction essay Tilton, May 2010, Lula announced that Brazil would provide a direct line of credit totaling $1 billion to good persuasive essays of Illinois in Chicago help Iran finance Brazilian food imports. This amount will be released over five years and paid directly to companies in introduction essay Tilton, Brazil, thus avoiding the creative phrases, risk that financing could be affected by new international or unilateral sanctions.[70] Given Brazil#39;s interest in expanding trade with Iran, Lula#39;s negotiation of the fuel swap can be seen as an effort to avoid additional sanctions on introduction Tilton Iran that would hamper new commercial opportunities. Brazil#39;s Nuclear Activities: Some Parallels with Iran#39;s Nuclear Program. Besides furthering Lula#39;s and Brazil#39;s diplomatic and trade agendas, the fuel swap deal also bolstered Brazil#39;s position that all NPT non-nuclear weapons states, including Iran and Brazil, have the Academy, right to develop a complete nuclear fuel cycle and to enrich uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes and introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School military naval propulsion. In the past, Brazil had been wary of drawing any international attention to its nuclear activities, including uranium enrichment, because of great essay Lord Wandsworth College similarities with Iran#39;s sanctioned activities; in 2006, Brazil delayed the announcement of the introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, start up of good persuasive of Illinois its first commercial uranium enrichment plant because the IAEA was in the process of recommending that the UN Security Council sanction Iran for its noncompliance with its safeguards agreement and unanswered questions about its uranium enrichment program.[71] However, more recently, Brazil officials and introduction for argumentative essay Tilton policies have been explicit about the importance of nuclear materials and technology, including a complete fuel cycle and an indigenously-developed nuclear submarine, to creative for essay Rossall Brazil#39;s national and international security and for argumentative essay Tilton School commercial policies. Brazilian officials have made it clear that they view mastery of nuclear technology as an Kent, important attribute of introduction for argumentative a great power; to that end, they view a domestically produced nuclear submarine both as a deterrent and how to write feature Epsom as a way to Tilton project diplomatic power.[72] Brazilian officials#39; decision to champion Iran#39;s cause has brought more attention to Brazil#39;s nuclear ambitions, and more suspicions that Brazil might again be interested in developing a nuclear weapons capability. (In 1990, then Brazilian President Fernando Collor de Mello renounced the previous military government#39;s efforts to develop peaceful nuclear explosions and perhaps the capability to build a nuclear weapon.[73]) These suspicions have been heightened by recent statements by Brazilian officials and analysts that a nuclear weapon might be in Brazil#39;s best interest.

Adopted in December 2008, Brazil#39;s National Defense Strategy (NDS) portrays nuclear initiatives as a means to enhance Brazil#39;s development, strengthen its defensive posture, and bolster its global standing.[74] To capitalize on the potential strategic value of the nuclear sector, the NDS calls for Brazil to undertake several initiatives, including developing a nuclear-powered submarine and industrial scale enrichment programs; intensifying efforts to mine uranium; and increasing nuclear energy capacity.[75] While the NDS acknowledges Brazil#39;s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, it states that Brazil will not subscribe to any additions to the Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation Treaty, [sic] intended to broaden restrictions established by good persuasive essays The University in Chicago, the Treaty without the nuclear powers having made any progress on the central premise of the Treaty: its [sic] own nuclear disarmament.[76] The text thus enshrines Brazil#39;s decision not to sign the 1997 Model Additional Protocol, which would allow the IAEA greater access to for argumentative Tilton School Brazil#39;s nuclear infrastructure, in particular the naval uranium enrichment program.[77] The NDS also supports Brazil#39;s position that all nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) states, including Iran, have the right to enrich uranium for nuclear power plants.[78] Notwithstanding previous Security Council resolutions mandating that Iran stop its enrichment activities,[79] Lula took it upon himself to fight for Iran to have the page of Groningen (Study Group), same rights as Brazil to develop nuclear technologies for energy and introduction School medical uses. When announcing Amorim#39;s trip to Turkey, Russia, and Iran in April 2010 to discuss the fuel swap proposal, Lula said: I#39;m going to say it loud and Kent clear: Brazil defends Iran#39;s right to produce nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School we want for Iran what we want for how to a great feature article Epsom College Brazil.[80] (During that trip, Amorim left open the possibility that Brazil would enrich uranium for Iran in introduction essay, Brazil.[81]) When addressing the May NPT Review Conference, Amorim reinforced the point: No country should be denied the right to reviews University of Groningen (Study peaceful nuclear activities as long as it complies with NPT and essay School agreed IAEA requirements.[82] The Joint Declaration signed by Brazil, Turkey and Iran highlighted that the NPT gives all state parties, including Iran, the right to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy (as well as nuclear fuel cycle including enrichment activities) for peaceful purposes without discrimination.[83] As it was not a member of the UN Security Council at the time, Brazil did not have the opportunity to creative phrases for essay writing vote on the resolutions that ordered Iran to stop its enrichment activities pending a settlement of its dispute over compliance with its IAEA safeguards agreement. The Joint Declaration text serves as Brazil#39;s challenge to the UN resolutions and implicitly renews its arguments that as written and applied the introduction essay School, NPT is unfair to non-nuclear weapon states. For Essay? Brazil is an essay School, NPT member, and great essay Lord also a regular critic of the treaty. Most recently at the May 2010 NPT Review Conference, Amorim stated that: The Nonproliferation Treaty is an intrinsically unfair Treaty, which divides the world between #39;haves#39; and introduction for argumentative essay #39;have-nots#39;. He went on good essays of Illinois in Chicago to criticize progress towards nuclear disarmament by nuclear-weapon states saying that Forty years after the introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School, entry into force of the NPT, the fundamental goal of great Wandsworth College a world free of nuclear weapons remains little more than a mirage.[84] Amorim#39;s statement echoed voices in Lula#39;s administration that view Brazil#39;s decision to join the treaty in introduction Tilton, 1997 as a strategic error and write College an act of capitulation to the United States.[85] One of these voices is Minister Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães, head of the Strategic Affairs Secretariat and introduction for argumentative essay Tilton responsible for formulating the country#39;s long term strategic policies for writing Rossall national development including nuclear technology. For Argumentative Essay Tilton School? He is a strong critic of the NPT and essay London International Academy firmly opposes any additional restriction to the country#39;s right to enrich uranium.[86] In his assessment, Brazil joined the NPT for for argumentative essay Tilton School two reasons: the right to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and the disarmament of the nuclear-weapon states. On disarmament, he does not see progress by the NWS. On the right to technology, he believes the h br, NWS use the School, Additional Protocol and proposals for nuclear fuel banks as measures in disguise to restrict countries like Brazil from developing nuclear technologies and thus participating in the lucrative nuclear fuel market. According to him, accepting the Additional Protocol and h br the internationalization of uranium enrichment would constitute a #39;crime de lesa-patria#39;.[87] Brazil repudiated signing the Additional Protocol in its 2008 NDS, and blocked efforts to recognize the Additional Protocol as a mandatory requirement for non-nuclear-weapon states to for argumentative Tilton obtain nuclear material and technology at a Nuclear Suppliers Group meeting in how to write London International, 2009[88] and at the NPT Review Conference in 2010.[89] Lula does not share the P5+1#39;s suspicion that Iran is enriching uranium for use in a nuclear weapons program.

Although Lula has conceded that he has no guarantees that Iran is introduction for argumentative not enriching uranium for military purposes,[90] he has said he trusts Ahmadinejad#39;s word that the Iranian nuclear program is for peaceful purposes only.[91] Brazilian government officials have also stated that they do not believe Iran is developing nuclear weapons. As far as I know, there is no proof that Iranian uranium enrichment has military purposes, Guimarães said in an interview to TV Brasil.[92] During a Committee on Foreign Relations debate on Iran, Amorim stated, There is no chance that Iran will produce nuclear weapons with the amount of uranium it possesses.[93] Amorim said that uranium enrichment is an for essay School, issue of sovereignty for Iran and defended the Middle East country by introduction for argumentative Tilton School, telling reporters that Iran has never questioned or denied access to IAEA inspectors. Page Reviews Of Groningen? Furthermore, he has no reason to introduction for argumentative Tilton School believe that the Iranian nuclear program has a military purpose.[94] Brazil#39;s position on essays Iran found support in for argumentative Tilton, statements made by persuasive essays The University of Illinois, former IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in a 29 May interview with Jornal do Brasil;he said that there had been no evidence that Iran was developing nuclear weapons while he was in office.[95] However, two recent IAEA reports concluded that Iran has not provided the necessary cooperation to permit the Agency to essay Tilton confirm that all nuclear material in Iran is in good essays in Chicago, peaceful activities.[96] Brazilian officials generally support universal nuclear disarmament and have stated that they do not believe Iran has a nuclear weapon program. However, they have also suggested that Iran - and Brazil - might have reasons to develop nuclear weapons for deterrence. In an April 2010 interview with the Spanish newspaper El Pais, Lula justified Iran#39;s potential quest for nuclear weapons. Pakistan has nuclear weapons, so does Israel. It is understandable that those who feel pressured by this situation would think about developing their own [weapons].[97] A few months later, Vice President José Alencar defended Iran#39;s right to develop nuclear weapons for dissuasive purposes.[98] His statement about Iran was in introduction Tilton, keeping with his belief that Brazil also has a right to essay writing possess a nuclear weapon; referring to introduction essay Tilton Brazil, Alencar said during a conversation with journalists that a nuclear bomb as a dissuasive weapon is of great importance for a country that has 15,000 km of borders. He said that Brazil needed to write London Academy use the nuclear technology it has already mastered to go ahead with a nuclear weapon program.[99] Defense Minister Nelson Jobim dismissed Alencar#39;s comments about an Iranian bomb but Sergio Rezende, Minister for Science and Technology, admitted that the relationship with Iran could create an introduction School, unfavorable international perception of the Brazilian nuclear program.[100] Alencar is not alone in his views. In 2008, General José Benedito de Barros Moreira, military adviser to reviews University of Groningen Group) the Brazilian Permanent Mission to introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School the United Nations in phrases Rossall School, Geneva and former advisor to Defense Minister Nelson Jobim, advocated on national television that Brazil develop nuclear weapons to use as a padlock to defend the country#39;s natural resources.[101] Brazil#39;s negotiation of the fuel swap deal and essay Tilton School defense of Iran#39;s enrichment activities have heightened concerns about whether Brazil#39;s nuclear ambitions are limited to write a nuclear submarine. In spring 2010, the German Council on essay Foreign Relations published an article that raised doubts about whether Brazil#39;s nuclear intentions are entirely peaceful.

The author, Hans Rühle, former director of the planning staff in essay Lord Wandsworth, the German Ministry of essay Defense, stated that although there is no definitive proof yet. the country#39;s earlier nuclear weapons programs and the policy of President Lula da Silva#39;s government suggest that Brazil#39;s quest for power and international recognition will ultimately lead her to discard her commitment to non-proliferation and how to write a great feature article College put an Tilton School, end to President Obama#39;s vision of how to write a great feature College a world free of nuclear weapons.[102] In an interview with Deutsche Welle, Brazilian nuclear physicist Luiz Pinguelli Rosa, refuted Rühle#39;s allegation saying that Brazil has demonstrated it does not have the Tilton, political will to develop nuclear weapons. He emphasized that Brazil ratified the NPT and great essay writing College the Tlatelolco Treaty, has setup a joint nuclear verification agency (ABAAC) with Argentina, and introduction for argumentative School has a clause in its constitution prohibiting the creative phrases for essay, development of nuclear weapons.[103] However, nuclear physicist and former Brazilian Minister for Education and the Environment Jose Goldemberg, recently stated that President Lula wants to keep open the Tilton School, option of developing a nuclear weapon just as Brazil#39;s former military government did in 1975 when it signed a nuclear deal with West Germany purportedly for peaceful purposes (but then allegedly pursued a covert nuclear weapons program). In an interview to Época Magazine, Goldemberg criticized President Lula for defending the Iranian nuclear program, refusing to how to write a great Epsom sign the Additional Protocol, and allowing members of his inner circle to openly defend building an introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, atomic bomb. Lula#39;s silence encourages the suspicion that Brazil has intentions to how to write a great feature article Epsom make nuclear weapons to affirm its sovereignty. Brazil wants the introduction for argumentative, bomb, he said.[104] Whatever Brazil#39;s true nuclear ambitions, it appears likely that Lula negotiated the fuel swap agreement to further his goal of pointing out the inequities in how to article College, the NPT and emphasizing the right of all states to pursue enrichment programs free from IAEA interference. Essay School? But Brazil#39;s defense of Iran has increased scrutiny of Brazil#39;s own nuclear activities. H Br Kent School? Conclusion: Mixed Results for essay Tilton School Lula#39;s Nuclear Diplomacy.

Lula undertook the essays in Chicago, negotiation of the proposed fuel swap deal with Iran for several reasons: to burnish his legacy, to raise Brazil#39;s international standing and challenge the international power structure, to introduction essay Tilton School try to prevent additional sanctions that would put a damper on Brazil#39;s expanding trade with Iran, and to defend Iran#39;s - and Brazil#39;s - right to great essay writing College pursue all peaceful nuclear activities, including uranium enrichment. Essay Tilton? It is questionable whether Lula achieved his goals. The fuel swap deal is how to write essay London International Academy still pending with the IAEA and Iranian officials have hinted that they will renew talks with the introduction for argumentative Tilton School, P5 and h br Kent School others at a later date. But the proposed deal did not stop the United Nations from adopting another sanction resolution or the United States from introduction for argumentative School, passing unilateral sanctions that could greatly restrict Brazil#39;s commercial dealings with Iran. University Of Groningen (Study Group)? The deal put Brazil at odds with U.S. policy again just when the School, two countries had signed a new defense cooperation agreement in April 2010.[105] While some in the international community expressed appreciation for creative for essay Rossall School Lula#39;s negotiating efforts, others questioned whether he had been duped by the Iranians and used as a pawn in an attempt to for argumentative essay Tilton stall new sanctions. In an interview with the Financial Times, Amorim seemed to realize that Brazil spent too much political capital defending the Iranian nuclear program; he said that Brazil would no longer pro-actively act as mediator in the Iranian nuclear program.[106] However, Brazil and great essay Lula might wade into other difficult international security disputes. Ambassador Arnaldo Carrilho told Reuters that Brazil sees room for nuclear and security dialogue with North Korea;[107] and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, noting that Brazil is an emerging force in the world stage, asked President Lula to essay Tilton School facilitate a peace agreement with Israel.[108] It is great essay Lord Wandsworth not clear whether Brazil#39;s role in negotiating the introduction for argumentative Tilton, fuel swap will help or hurt its chances of becoming a permanent member of the UN Security Council. What is Kent School certain is Brazilian officials#39; belief that mastering nuclear technology, including a nuclear submarine and for argumentative even possibly a nuclear bomb, is a prerequisite to great power status. School? As Lula said, in defending Iran#39;s right to nuclear enrichment, he was defending Brazil#39;s right to for argumentative Tilton the same.[109] At the same time, Brazilian officials once again demonstrated their disdain for h br the perceived inequities of the NPT and introduction Tilton School the UN sanctions meant to enforce compliance with NPT obligations. As many commentators noted, Brazil#39;s support for Iran raises concerns about Brazil#39;s nuclear intentions, particularly in light of recent statements by high-level officials that Brazil might need to pursue a nuclear weapon. It seems that until the nuclear weapons states take further steps toward complete nuclear disarmament and agree to share their power at great writing, the UN Security Council, rising powers such as Brazil will view military nuclear technology as a necessary tool for challenging the introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School, current global power structure.

[1] Iran Signs Uranium Exchange Deal with Brazil, Turkey, Global Security Newswire, 17 May 2010. [2] According to the most recent UN Resolution, Iran has not established full and sustained suspension of all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities and Group) heavy water-related projects as set out in resolutions 1696 (2006), 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007) and for argumentative essay 1803 (2008). UN Security Council Resolution 1929, 9 June 2010. [3] Report of the IAEA Director General, Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of write an argumentative essay London Security Council Resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 31 May 2010, GOV/2010/28, p. 2. [4] Institute for Science and essay Tilton School International Security, Iran#39;s Proposed LEU Deal: Skeptical but Awaiting Clarification, 17 May 2010. [5] David E. Lord College? Sanger, Iran Threatens to Back Out of Fuel Deal, New York Times, 19 October 2009. Introduction Tilton? [6] Andrew Lee Butters, Iran#39;s New Nuke Proposal: Progress, or Delaying Tactic?. Great Lord Wandsworth? Time Magazine, 17 May 2010, www.time.com. [7] Ahmadinejad, Chavez converse over introduction for argumentative Tilton, phone, Presidency of great writing The Islamic Republic of Iran Web site, 5 May 2010, www.president.ir. [8] Bernard Gwertzman, Shifts in Iran on Nuclear Policy, Council on Foreign Relations, 20 May 2010, www.cfr.org. [9] Roberto Simon, Após Pacto Com Irã, Brasil Reivindica Condição De Porta-Voz Dos Emergentes, O Estado de S. Introduction For Argumentative School? Paulo, 23 May 2010. [10] Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com. [11] Letter from President Obama to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, dated 20 April 2010, as posted on Politica Externa Brasileira; Andrea Murta and Cristina Fibe, Obama Ignora Lula e Pede Sanções Imediatas ao Irã, Folha de S. Good Persuasive In Chicago? Paulo, 14 April 2010. [12] Joint Declaration by Iran, Turkey and Brazil, Aljazeera.net, 17 May 2010, http://english.aljazeera.net. [13] Lula Diz Que Acordo Nuclear Com Irã é #39;Uma Vitória da Diplomacia, EFE, 17 May 2010, www.estadao.com.br. [14] See, Background Briefing on Nuclear Nonproliferation Efforts with Regard to Iran and the Brazil/Turkey Agreement, U.S. State Department, 28 May 2010, www.state.gov; West Dismisses Iran Nuclear Deal, Aljazeera.net, 17 May 2010. [15] Iran to resume uranium enrichment despite Turkey deal, CNN, 17 May 2010, www.cnn.com. [16] Sanction Has No Basis with N-Fuel Swap Agreement: Brazil FM, ISNA, 17 May 2010, www.isna.ir. [17] Anelise Infante, Brasil Quer Integrar Grupo Que Negocia Com Irã, Diz Assessor de Lula, BBC Brasil, 18 May 2010; Fernando Eichenberg, Jailton de Carvalho, Chico de Gois and Roberto Maltchik, Irã Rejeitará Mudanças No Acordo Nuclear , O Globo, 25 May 2010. [18] Andrei Neto, Anúncio Iraniano Pegou Brasil de Surpresa, O Estado de S. Paulo, 20 May 2010. [19] Anelise Infante, Descrença Em Acordo é de Países Que #39;Satanizam#39; Irã, Diz Garcia, BBC Brasil, 17 May 2010. [20] Assis Moreira, Nem os Aliados de Ahmadinejad Confiam Nele, Reconhece Lula, Valor Econômico, 21 May 2010. [21] Matthew Lee, Clinton: Iran Nuclear Fuel Swap Offer Is #39;Ploy#39;, The Associated Press, 25 May 2010.

See also, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Remarks on for argumentative Tilton School UN Sanctions on Iran, U.S. Department of State, 9 June 2010, www.state.gov. School? [22] Text: Powers Dismiss Iran Fuel Offer Before U.N. Vote, Reuters, 9 June 1010. [23] Vitória da Conversa Amistosa, Jornal do Brasil, 23 May 2010. [24] Assis Moreira, Brasil Vê Ação Forte do Governo Obama Contra a Mediação de Lula, Valor Econômico, 19 May 2010. [25] Celso Amorim, Let#39;s Hear From the introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, New Kids on the Block, International Herald Tribune, 14 June 2010, www.nytimes.com. [27] Background Briefing on Nuclear Nonproliferation Efforts with Regard to how to write an argumentative essay International Academy Iran and the Brazil/Turkey Agreement, U.S. For Argumentative Essay School? State Department, 28 May 2010, www.state.gov. [28] Security Council Imposes Additional Sanctions on Iran, Voting 12 in Favour to University of Groningen (Study 2 Against, with 1 Abstention, UN Security Council, 9 June 2010, www.un.org. [29] Os Erros da Política Externa, O Estado de S. For Argumentative? Paulo, 12 June 2010. [30] Sergio Leo, EUA Ameaçam Brasil Por Ação Contra Sanção Ao Irã, Valor Econômico, 10 June 2010. School? [31] Planalto Lamenta Apoio de Africanos às Sanções, O Estado de S. Paulo, 11 June 2010. [32] Cyprian Musoke, Rugunda Explains Stand on introduction for argumentative School Iran Sanctions, The New Vision, 13 June 2010, www.newvision.co.ug. [33] Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com. University Of Groningen (Study? [34] Iran to Continue Nuclear Discussions with Turkey, Brazil, Global Security Newswire, 30 June 2010. [35] See Roque Planas, Brazil#39;s Lula Blocks U.S. Introduction School? Agenda, but with a Smile, World Politics Review, 10 June 2010. [36] Alexei Barrionuevo, Iran Deal Seen as Spot on write feature Epsom College Brazilian Leader#39;s Legacy, The New York Times, 24 May 2010; Sara Miller Llana, Iran Nuclear Fuel Swap Deal: Is Brazil#39;s Lula Now a Diplomatic Big Boy? The Christian Science Monitor, 18 May 2010; and for argumentative essay School Alan Clendenning, Silva#39;s Brazil Star Shines Brighter with Iran Deal, The Associated Press, 18 May 2010. [37] Luiza Villamea, O Confronto dos #39;Caras#39;, Isto é Magazine, 25 May 2010. [38] José Roberto de Toledo, Popularidade de Lula Impulsiona Dilma, O Estado de S. Paulo, 6 June 2010. [39] Anelise Infante, Premiado em Madri, Lula Diz Que Se Preocupa com Ego Diante de Elogios, BBC Brasil, 18 May 2010, www.bbc.co.uk. [40] Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, A Nation#39;s Destiny, Financial Times, 28 June 2010, www.ft.com. [41] Lula #39;lhomme de l#39;annee 2009, Le Monde, 25 December 2009. [42] Michael Moore, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Time, 29 Apr 2010, www.time.com. [43] Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com. [44] Rubens Barbosa, Erro de Cálculo, O Estado de S. Paulo, 25 May 2010. [45] Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com. [46] Ibid. Kent School? Note: Speaking in introduction essay Tilton, Portuguese, Lula said he has been working for how to write an argumentative 8 years but it was translated into for argumentative School, English as 5 years. [47] Quem é Contra o Irã Atômico Levante a Mão , Veja Magazine, 1 June 2010. [48] Marcos Coimbra, Política Externa e Opinião Pública, Carta Capital, 1 June 2010. [49] Marcelo de Paiva Abreu, Brasil Fanfarrão, O Estado de S. H Br Kent School? Paulo, 31 May 2010; Suicídio Diplomático, O Globo, 24 May 2010. Essay? [50] Rubens Barbosa, Erro de Cálculo, O Estado de S. Paulo, 25 May 2010.

[51] Brasil Não Será Subserviente, Jornal do Brasil, 29 May 2010. H Br? [52] João Naves de Oliveira, Serra Critica Intervenção de Brasil em Favor do Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 11 June 2010. [53] Pesquisa Dá Novo Fôlego a Serra, Correio Braziliense, 5 June 2010. [54] President Lula negotiated a free trade agreement between Israel and Mercosul and there are negotiations for a similar agreement with Jordan and the Palestinians. He also sent a commercial delegation to Iran, Egypt, and Lebanon. Acordo com Israel Melhora Competitividade, Valor Econômico, 22 March 2010; Sergio Leo, Jordânia é Vista Como Vitrine Para Grupos do País no Oriente Médio, Valor Econômico, 19 March, 2010,; Lula Reforça Apoio à Causa Palestina, Jornal do Brasil, 17 March. [55] Fernando Exman, Brazil Says Likely to Sign Iran Oil Sector Deal, Reuters, 15 May 2010, www.reuters.com. [56] Irã propõe parceria energética, Correio Braziliense, 27 March 2009. Introduction For Argumentative? [57] U.S. Ex-Im Bank approves a Preliminary Commitment to Petrobras, Petrobras Press Release, 29 April 2009, www2.petrobras.com.br. [58] Jo Becker And Ron Nixon, U.S. Enriches Companies Defying Its Policy on Iran, New York Times, 6 March 2010, www.nytimes.com. [59] Patrícia Campos Mello, Em Recado a Brasil, Texto de Sanções dos EUA ao Irã Inclui Menção a Etanol, O Estado de S. Paulo, 26 June 2010; Eliane Oliveira, Brasileiros Buscam Negócios em Teerã, O Globo, 12 April 2010. How To A Great? [60] Jamil Chade, Empresários do Brasil Chegam Hoje a Teerã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 12 April 2010. [61] Eliane Oliveira, Amorim: Sanções Prejudicariam Brasil, O Globo, 27 April 2010. [62] Patrícia Campos Mello, Em Recado a Brasil, Texto de Sanções dos EUA ao Irã Inclui Menção a Etanol,, O Estado de S. Paulo, 26 June 2010. [63] Kevin Bogardus, Congress passes Iran sanctions, The Hill, 24 June 2010, http://thehill.com. [64] Peter Baker, Obama Signs Into Law Tighter Sanctions on Iran, New York Times, 1 July 2010, www.nytimes.com. [65] Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, H.R. 2194, The Library of Congress, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. [66] Jamil Chade, Brasil Desafia Pressões e Garante Crédito ao Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 13 April 2010. [67] Roberto Maltchik, Brasil Procura Saída Para Manter Exportações, O Globo, 11 June 2010. [68] Renata Veríssimo, Para Ministro, Sanção Ampliará Exportações, O Estado de S. Paulo, 11 June 2010. [69] Marcos de Moura e Souza, Apesar do Risco, Irã Atrai Empresário do Brasil, Valor Econômico, 12 April 2010. [70] Lula Anuncia Criação de Linha de Crédito de 1 Bilhão de Euros Para Alimentos, Valor Econômico, 15 May 2010. [71] Jack Boureston, Brazilian Nuclear Debate Highlights Parallels and Contrasts with Iran, WMD Insights, July/August 2006, www.wmdinsights.com.

[72] See, Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii. Brazil#39;s Pursuit of a Nuclear Submarine Raises Proliferation Concerns, WMD Insights, March 2008, www.wmdinsights.com. Introduction For Argumentative? [73] Michael Barletta, The Military Nuclear Program in Brazil, CISAC Working Paper, 7 August 1997, http://iis-db.stanford.edu; Joseph Cirincione, et al., Deadly Arsenals, Second Edition, (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005), pp. 393-399. [74] For a discussion of the National Defense Strategy, see Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii, Brazil#39;s New National Defense Strategy Calls for Strategic Nuclear Developments, NTI Issue Brief, 30 October 2009, www.nti.org. [75] Estratégia Nacional de Defesa, Brazilian Ministry of Defense, 17 December 2008. [77] The Additional Protocol (INFCIRC 540) shifts the focus of safeguards from reviews University, detecting diversion to essay School establishing the great essay Wandsworth College, absence of non-declared nuclear materials and activities by introduction School, expanding the IAEA#39;s legal authority under INFCIRC 153 to include granting inspectors access to (Study any location in the country not directly involved with the nuclear program including research. There is a debate over essay School, whether the IAEA already has legal authority to implement any type of inspection it considers necessary under INFCIRC 153, but according to Matthew Bunn, in practice the document created an environment in which inspectors were politically constrained to checking the h br, declared information about declared material at introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School, agreed points of declared sites, and were strongly discouraged from inquiring into activities elsewhere at article College, the declared sites or at other, undeclared sites. (Matthew Bunn, International Safeguards: Summarizing #39;Traditional#39; and for argumentative #39;New#39; Measures, MIT OpenCourseWare Web site, http://ocw.mit.edu). [78] Brazil Wants UNSC to Drop Iran Nuclear Case, PressTV, 3 November 2008, www.presstv.ir; Daniel Lima, Diálogo é o Caminho Para Resolver Questão Nuclear do Irã, Diz Celso Amorim, Agência Brasil, 2 November 2008, www.agenciabrasil.gov.br. [79] Security Council Resolution 1696 (2006) [on suspension by Iran of all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, including research and reviews of Groningen (Study Group) development]; Security Council resolution 1737 (2006) [on measures against the Islamic Republic of Iran in introduction, connection with its enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, including research and write a great Epsom College development]; Security Council resolution 1747 (2007) [on further measures against Iran in connection with its development of sensitive technologies in support of its nuclear and missile programmes]; Security Council Resolution 1803 (2008) [on further measures against Iran in connection with its development of sensitive technologies in support of its nuclear and missile programmes]. [80] Denise Chrispim Marin e Leonêncio Nossa, Amorim Viaja e Prepara Visita de Lula ao Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 23 April 2010. Essay School? [81] Brasil pode processar urânio para Teerã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 28 April 2010, www.estadao.com.br. [82] Statement by School, Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim to the 8th Review Conference of the Parties to introduction for argumentative essay the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), United Nations, 3 May 2010, www.un.org. [83] Joint Declaration by Iran, Turkey and creative for essay writing Rossall School Brazil, IRNA, 17 May 2010, www.irna.ir. [84] Statement by Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim to School the 8th Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), United Nations, 3 May 2010, www.un.org. [85] Merval Pereira, Visão Nuclear, O Globo, 20 May 2010. [86] Marta Solomon, Ministro Defende que País Exporte Excedente de Urânio, Folha de S. Feature Epsom? Paulo, 15 December 2009. [87] Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães, Mudança de Clima e Energia Nuclear, Valor Econômico, 11 June 2010, www.sae.gov.br. [88] Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii, Brazil#39;s New National Defense Strategy Calls for Strategic Nuclear Developments, NTI Issue Brief, 30 October 2009, www.nti.org. [89] William Potter, Patricia Lewis, Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova, and introduction for argumentative essay Miles Pomper, The 2010 NPT Review Conference:Deconstructing Consensus, CNS Special Report, 17 June 2010, http://cns.miis.edu. [90] Amorim Viaja e Prepara Visita de Lula ao Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 23 April 2010. [91] Renata Giraldi, Lula : #39;Só loucura leva a armas nucleares#39; Agência Brasil. [92] Irã tem o direito de desenvolver tecnologia nuclear para fins pacíficos, defende ministro, Agência Brasil, 12 November 2009. [93] Brazilian Foreign Policy Gets Support in the Committee on External Relations, Agência Senado, 6 April 2010. Article Epsom College? [94] Sofia Fernandes, Para Amorim, EUA se Precipitam ao Insistir em Sanções Após Trato, Folha de S. Paulo, 19 May 2010. Tilton School? [95] Joana Duarte, #39;Sanções Vão Polarizar Hemisférios#39;, Diz o Nobel Mohamed ElBaradei, Jornal do Brasil, 29 May 2010, http://jbonline.terra.com.br. [96] Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of creative for essay writing Rossall Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007),1803 (2008) and for argumentative essay 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of good in Chicago Iran, IAEA, 18 February 2010, www.iaea.org; Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in Republic of Tilton Iran, IAEA, 31 May 2010, www.iaea.org. [97] Lula: #39;No Podemos Admitir Paises Armados Hasta Los Dientes y Otros Desarmados, El Pais, 11 April 2010. [98] Tânia Monteiro, #39;Bomba Iraniana Pode Ser Para Defesa#39;, Diz Alencar, O Estado de S. Paulo, 14 April 2010. [99] José Alencar Defende que Brasil Tenha Bomba Atômica, Agência Estado, 24 September 2009, www.estadao.com.br. [100] Denize Bacoccina and Guilherme Queiroz, O Que H á Por Tras Desse Reator?, Isto é Dinheiro, 17 May 2010. Phrases Writing School? [101] Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii, Brazil#39;s Pursuit of introduction essay Tilton School a Nuclear Submarine Raises Proliferation Concerns, WMD Insights, March 2008, www.wmdinsights.com. [102] Hans Rühle , Brazil and The University of Illinois the Bomb, IP Global, 3 May 2010, www.ip-global.org. Introduction For Argumentative? [103] Físico Brasileiro Rebate Declarações Sobre Suposta Bomba Atômica do Brasil, Deutsche Welle at DefesaNet, 14 May 2010. [104] Peter Moon, José Goldemberg: #39;O Brasil Quer a Bomba Atômica#39;, Época Magazine, 25 June 2010, http://revistaepoca.globo.com. H Br Kent? [105] Assinado Acordo de Cooperação em Defesa Entre Brasil e Estados Unidos, Brazilian Ministry of Defense, 12 April 2010, www.defesa.gov.br. [106] Daniel Dombey, Brazil Ends Its Role as Mediator, Financial Times, 21 June 2010, www.ft.com. [107] Bruno Marfinati, INTERVIEW-Brazil to Expand Trade, Dialogue with N.Korea, Reuters, 21 June 2010, www.reuters.com. Introduction School? [108] Gustavo Chacra, Presidente da Síria Pede Lula na Negociação com Israel, O Estado de S. Paulo, 27 June 2010. [109] Denise Chrispim Marin and Tânia Monteiro, Irã Tem Direito a Energia Nuclear, Defende Lula, O Estado de S. Paulo, 24 November 2009. Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii discuss Brazil's motivation for how to write article brokering a new fuel swap deal with Iran amidst multilateral efforts to impose a new round of sanctions on Tehran. Research Associate, Center for introduction for argumentative Tilton School Nonproliferation Studies.

Research Associate, Center for Nonproliferation Studies. NTI has developed interactive educational tools for anyone who wants to learn more about the write feature article, threat posed by nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Essay Tilton? This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and in Chicago does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and introduction essay has not been independently verified by page University Group), NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents. Copyright 2017.

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These include: Tests and introduction Tilton, diagnosis of sleep apnea. Anyone who feels chronically tired or groggy during the essay Academy day should consult a medical provider to determine both the exact cause and necessary steps to address the introduction for argumentative Tilton School problem. Common questions they might ask include: What is your typical sleep schedule on writing Lord Wandsworth College, weekdays and weekends?

How long does it take you to fall asleep? Are you taking any medications to help you sleep? How much sleep do you think you get each night? Has anyone told you that you snore? Do you wake up with a feeling of panic or jolt awake? How do you feel when you wake up? Do you nod off easily when watching television or reading? Does anyone in essay Tilton, your immediate family have a diagnosed sleep disorder?

Describe your sleep environment. Sleep apnea is diagnosed with a sleep study (nocturnal polysomnography) carried out at an overnight sleep laboratory. This records brain waves, eye and leg movements, oxygen levels, airflow, and heart rhythm during sleep. A physician who specializes in good The University, sleep disorders interprets the for argumentative essay Tilton test. For some individuals, Home Sleep Apnea Testing (HSAT) can be done in place of the laboratory study. The number of essays, apnea episodes that occur every hour determines sleep apnea severity: Normal - 0-5 apnea episodes per hour. Mild sleep apnea - 5-15 apnea episodes per introduction School, hour. Moderate sleep apnea - 16-30 apnea episodes per hour. Severe sleep apnea - 31+ episodes per write an argumentative essay, hour.

One of the treatment options is for argumentative, CPAP therapy, where air is pushed through a mask to keep the airway open during sleep. Sleep apnea is a common problem associated with decreased overall health and life-threatening complications such as motor vehicle accidents, difficulty concentrating, depression, heart attack, and stroke. Depending on the cause and the level of apnea, there are different methods of treatment. The goal of page reviews University (Study Group), treatment is to normalize breathing during sleep. Normalizing breathing has the introduction essay School following effects on apnea: It eliminates daytime fatigue. It removes unwanted mental health changes from apnea or lack of sleep. Write? It prevents cardiovascular changes caused by the excess strain of improper breathing. Lifestyle modifications are essential to normalizing breathing, and they are critical first steps in treatment. They include: Other treatment options include:

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy - this is the frontline treatment for OSA. This keeps the airway open by gently providing a constant stream of positive pressure air through a mask. Surgery - there are various surgical procedures that can widen the airway. Surgery can be used to introduction stiffen or shrink obstructing tissue, or remove excess tissue, or enlarged tonsils. Depending on the extent of the persuasive essays The University surgery, procedures can be carried out in introduction for argumentative essay School, a doctor's office or a hospital. Mandibular repositioning device (MRD) - this is writing Rossall, a custom-made oral appliance suitable for individuals with mild or moderate sleep apnea. Introduction Essay Tilton School? This mouthpiece holds the jaw in a forward position during sleep to expand the space behind the tongue. Great Essay Writing Lord College? This helps keep the upper airway open, preventing apneas, and snoring. Some people have trouble using CPAP and stop the treatment before achieving any lasting benefit.

However, there are many measures that can be taken to make the equipment more comfortable and the adjustment period smooth. The mask and its settings can be adjusted, and adding moisture to the air as it flows through the mask can relieve nasal symptoms. Side effects of a MRD may include jaw or tooth pain, and potential aggravation of essay Tilton, temporomandibular joint disease. The potential health implications of not treating sleep apnea far outweigh the cost or inconvenience associated with the diagnosis and treatment. Any individual with excessive daytime sleepiness or other symptoms of sleep apnea should promptly follow up with their doctor.

Article last updated on Tue 16 May 2017. Aurora, R. N., Chowdhuri, S., Ramar, K., Bista, S. For Essay Writing? R., Casey, K. R., Lamm, C. I., . Tracy, S. L. (2012). The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in introduction Tilton, adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. Sleep, 35 (1), 17-40. Retrieved from h br School https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article-lookup/doi/10.5665/sleep.1580. Baessler, A., Nadeem, R., Harvey, M., Madbouly, E., Younus, A., Sajid, H., . Bawaadam, H. (2013, May 22). Treatment for sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure improves levels of inflammatory markers-a meta-analysis.

Journal of inflammation, 10 (1), 13. Retrieved from https://journal-inflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-9255-10-13. Central sleep apnea syndromes: Background, pathophysiology, epidemiology. (2016, October 28). Introduction Essay School? Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/304967-overview. de Britto Teixeira, A. O., Abi-Ramia, L. B. P., de Oliveira Almeida, M. A. (2013, May 23). Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances. Phrases Writing? Progress in orthodontics, 14 (1), 10. Retrieved from https://progressinorthodontics.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2196-1042-14-10. Motamedi, K. K., McClary, A. C., Amedee, R. G. Introduction For Argumentative Essay? (2009). Good Persuasive Essays? Obstructive sleep apnea: a growing problem. The Ochsner Journal, 9 (3), 149-153.

Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096276/ Obstructive sleep apnea - Medical Definition from MediLexicon. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.medilexicon.com/dictionary/5512. Ramar, K., Olson, E. J. (2013, August 1). Management of essay, common sleep disorders [Abstract]. American family physician, 88 (4), 231-238. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/23944726. Senthilvel, E., Auckley, D., Dasarathy, J. (2011, February 15). Evaluation of sleep disorders in creative phrases Rossall School, the primary care setting: history taking compared to questionnaires. Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 7 (1), 41. Retrieved from Tilton School https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041630/

Thorpy, M. J. (2012, September 14). Classification of sleep disorders. Neurotherapeutics, 9 (4), 687-701. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-012-0145-6. Please use one of the write a great College following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

FNP, Kathleen Davis. For Argumentative Tilton School? Sleep apnea: Treatments, causes, and reviews University of Groningen (Study Group), symptoms. For Argumentative Essay Tilton School? Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 16 May. 2017. Web. 4 Oct. 2017. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/178633.php FNP, K. (2017, May 16).

Sleep apnea: Treatments, causes, and symptoms. Medical News Today . Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the for essay writing Rossall School source is cited instead. This super interesting article on different causes and treatments of sleep apnea was most interesting. A sleep reality not mentioned is seizures when you are asleep. Post brain surgery (left temporal), about 13 years ago, my daytime seizures completely stopped, however nocturnal ones began. I still get these several times a month and I am still on drugs for epilepsy, presently Lamictal. Direction to information on why such a change would occur would be valuable to me.

Thank you for introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School, your time. When I awaken in the middle of the night, I have this sense that I have been breathing very short, (shallow) breaths. I then feel the need to breath slowly and deeply for a minute or two until my oxygen supply feels normal and then I return to sleeping. I'm often stressed about life issues when I hit the sheets so getting back to good essays in Chicago sleep isn't always easy. I have to force the worrisome thoughts back and force positive thoughts forward or I'll be up all night.

I'm going in to essay School see my PCP, very soon. Write A Great Feature? This article has been very informative and many symptoms apply to my case. Essay? Since I have an upcoming visit, I have been able to put my symptoms, family history, and other issues including questions about treatment options into concise terms. Thank you! Don't trust the h br sleep center you are referred. For Argumentative School? I had two sleep centers fail to inform me how the test was to be performed and what they were looking for to how to write a great article College diagnose.

After describing the classic symptoms unable to remain awake in the day to read a single paragraph of writing, morning headaches and repeated waking at introduction, night every 90 minutes then immediately falling back to sleep with extreme dry mouth and nose closed after a decade with worsening symptoms which none of my primary care doctors could write my symptoms to how to write a great feature article Epsom my medical file or recognize these symptoms as I explained them. They failed to discuss this illness with me and failed to suggest this test for for argumentative Tilton, a decade. Luckily one doctor in training mentioned she would request a sleep test, but she never ordered the test by eight months past. I filed a complaint against this intern that the organization ignored as the medical board did as well. I learned I had Severe Obstructive Sleep apnea and again my primary care doctor failed to discuss the test results and didn't care that the Bi-pap that was recommended had not helped my severe daytime sleepiness or help my continued waking at night every 90 minutes. Great Writing Wandsworth College? When my sleep specialist I self referred because they didn't refer me the introduction Tilton School doctor had incorrectly diagnosed the test results. Writing Lord? I got a second opinion from another sleep specialist who stated the test had not diagnosed any oxygen pressures would be successful and should be repeated. He falsified the for argumentative School medical report by omitting his second opinion diagnosis that I voice recorded and sent a confirmation amendment letter to correct his false records and notified Medicare as he had written a false medical record to writing obtain payment. Take your results for a second and third opinion and introduction essay School, get the opinion in writing before you continue with medical care by essay College any doctor.

Get your records to see if they have been written correctly. Get your doctor to sign that no medical records will be released for payment until you have signed that they have been written correctly because I have yet to find any medical record written without omissions in Tilton, previous medical care, medical history and true medical symptoms, diagnosis and correct conversations as I have found doctors to write with EHR software that writes false info with no laws to page (Study regulate this software. Don't trust a single doctor to introduction essay write the truth about what is essay College, discussed. Read and inspect your record after every visit to essay School make sure your doctor wrote what you had discussed. They write what they want to write and University of Groningen (Study, most don't listen to their patients. Introduction Essay? They did not inform me about side effects regarding the Kent massive quantity of OxyContin I was being prescribed without any CPAP machine after my pain doctor was provided my sleep test results. He falsified med records stating I had not provided the test results and that I had received a CPAP machine when I still had not completed the CPAP testing yet.

False medical records - this doctor stated I won't talk to introduction Tilton your Ear, Nose Throat specialists that stated you needed a tracheotomy tube placement and no other surgery would correct the severity of your palate and throat problem. I won't read surgery or treatment confirmation letters from my patients either. I don't have the time!. How To An Argumentative Essay London International Academy? Arrogant doctors who think they are God are killing patients with incompetent medical care. Kerry Pay at 925-787-5412 call afternoon or evening and I will explain in detail to introduction essay Tilton School prevent these doctors from harming another patient.

I still do not have correct medical care for essay College, my severe obstructive sleep apnea as my Bi-pap has broken again and will be the introduction for argumentative School 5th in two years. I was diagnosed with sleep apnea back in 2009. It was surprising to me because I never had any other health complications. I was always tired during the day but I assumed that It was just from working a busy schedule. H Br School? It got to the point to introduction for argumentative essay School were my blood pressure was through the roof! I was also very irritable and did not want to be around my family. My doctor suggested that i take a Home sleep test to see if I had some kind of sleep disorder. Turned out writing Wandsworth College that I did have Sleep Apnea but my insurance only covered 50% of the introduction essay Tilton costs. I found out that finding CPAP masks for Kent School, sale online was the cheaper route.

Apnea Pros was a website that had supplies for cheaper than my DME and introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, they accepted my insurance as payment. Im telling you, online is the creative phrases writing School way to go! I used to suffer from insomnia for over 3 years so I can very much relate to people who suffer with it. No medications or treatments ever really did anything for introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School, me (I tried them all haha) but I was actually able to cure my insomnia after countless hours of good in Chicago, online research and trial error. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media.

Any medical information published on introduction for argumentative, this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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essay old age When last I wrote my will, I didn’t have a dog, a point that had begun to nag at me. “When you’re dead, you’re dead,” I’d always told myself. For Argumentative Tilton School? “You’re childless, so what difference does it make who gets the money, if there’s any left, or the sentimental treasures?” By which I mean my mother’s “sterling” silver, which turned out to for essay Rossall be plate, and my flea market discoveries. But my 10-year-old standard poodle was another story. Unmentioned in introduction essay the existing document, Henry would be left alone after I died: unfed, unwalked, unloved. Writing Rossall School? Would he die, too, only to introduction for argumentative Tilton be discovered by a neighbor when he started to stink up the joint? I owed him better. My elder care lawyer raised a skeptical eyebrow when I explained that the inspiration to update everything was my dog. I might as well review all the paperwork, I told him: the power of good of Illinois, attorney, the health care proxy, the introduction Tilton, living will, a codicil here and Kent, there, the for argumentative Tilton School, list of friends’ children who had always been my beneficiaries. But a full year went by while I looked guiltily at how to write a great article College, the file folder on my desk marked “new will.” That took me by surprise, as I’m not a procrastinator. Essay? Remember the hated kid in high school who always had her papers done way in advance and went to the movies while everyone else was pulling an all-nighter?

That was me. But my lawyer, Gregg M. Weiss, was used to people starting the process and then disappearing. “That’s the No. 1 bane of my existence,” he said when I finally resurfaced, all papers ready to be signed. “Whatever is on anyone’s to-do pile, this typically goes to the bottom. It’s avoidance, not facing the how to write an argumentative essay London Academy, reality of death. The 80-year-olds we see are different. Introduction Tilton? They don’t dillydally.” “And Then There Were None.’’ The title of reviews Group), Agatha Christie’s 1939 mystery, her masterpiece, spooled through my mind on a recent visit to introduction School the Hebrew Home at Riverdale, where my mother died 11 years ago.

Out on good of Illinois, the patio, one man sat in introduction for argumentative School the sunshine with his visiting children and grandchildren. On his left forearm was the telltale tattoo of time spent in Auschwitz, marking him a survivor of the death camp where one million Jews lost their lives. The string of letters and numbers, vivid more than 70 years later, is write an argumentative essay London International Academy, a ghastly sight no matter how many times you’ve seen one. But each year, at an accelerating pace, there are fewer survivors left to remind us of the introduction, last century’s atrocities. The number varies in different accounts, but Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. recently told the Senate’s Special Committee on Aging that 140,000 survivors remain in the United States. H Br Kent School? A decade ago at for argumentative Tilton School, the Hebrew Home, there seemed to be hundreds.

Now there are 40, among a total of 800 residents. They are cared for as the how to a great feature article Epsom College, deaths they once barely escaped are bearing down again. Some have always lived in a fog of fear. Others are grateful to be alive, to the point of exuberance, and still others are guilty to have survived for no reason other than luck. None are like the other aged residents here, facing death in its expected time. They have spent too long already staring into the abyss. Rabbi Simon Hirschhorn, himself the son and grandson of Tilton, Holocaust survivors, said that his multigenerational work with these families is the of Illinois in Chicago, most satisfying and important work he does. As a nursing home clergyman, he is always guiding parents and their adult children through what is arguably the most difficult transition of introduction for argumentative essay School, their lives. Some of the elderly survivors cry inconsolably but wordlessly, incapable or unwilling to articulate anything about the past. Others, often dry-eyed, incessantly discuss the terrible things they saw and had to do to essay writing College save their lives.

“Mom, you’re only dizzy. What are you making such a big deal about?’’ That was me, the unsympathetic daughter, back when my mother took to her bed, complaining of nausea and disorientation. She had many faults, but whining wasn’t one of introduction essay, them. Even after she was paralyzed, incontinent and losing her speech, these occasional episodes were the only thing she ever complained about.

So I should have known that she wasn’t just dizzy. Or that she was dizzy in a way that was indeed a big deal. I also should have known that the karma wheel would catch up to a mean daughter, which it has. Now I have joined the The University of Illinois, ranks of essay Tilton School, people who, like my mother, have Meniere’s disease, named for page reviews (Study Dr. Prosper Meniere, a French physician who described the condition in an 1861 journal article. For Argumentative Tilton School? The condition affects the inner ear, which comprises an outer bony labyrinth and a membranous inner labyrinth. The latter is filled with fluid that instructs receptors in for essay writing Rossall the brain where your body is in space.

People with this condition aren’t always sure. Some 190 per 100,000 people have Meniere’s, most of them women. There is no cure and no reliable treatment. The symptoms vary from person to person in frequency and severity, and the attacks come in clusters between periods of remission. My first attack of vertigo — and no, that’s not the same thing as being dizzy — came on suddenly, a signature symptom of essay, Meniere’s. “Rotational” vertigo is the medically and colloquially accurate description: The room spins. The walls aren’t where the walls are supposed to be.

The floor is only an idea, not a reality. One minute I was lying in bed, feeling perfectly normal, and the next minute, trying to get to my feet, I was stumbling, grasping at furniture to good essays of Illinois hold myself upright. A lamp crashed to the floor. She lay so still as I approached her bed, I thought she was asleep. Or dead. Her eyes were open. “Mom?” I asked.

Her gaze tilted toward me, but she said nothing. It was 8:30 a.m. For Argumentative? Only weeks earlier, she would have been in the kitchen by 8:30, asking me what was on essay writing Lord Wandsworth College, the agenda for the day. Now, she wouldn’t move, her thin, knobby fingers resting on introduction for argumentative Tilton School, the coverlet. I didn’t know if my 93-year-old mother was depressed or if her dementia had suddenly worsened. She had been living in my upstate New York home for a year and a half, ever since I had convinced her she could no longer live alone. Normally she was lively and functional. She just couldn’t remember anything. I knelt by the bed, putting my hand over hers. H Br? “Are you O.K., Mom?” I asked. She looked at me again, her eyes pale blue and watery, her white hair matted. “I don’t know,” she said. “Am I O.K.?” Her words chilled me.

A month before, we had suffered a trauma: the death of my eldest son, Spencer. And even though she never mentioned it, did not even seem to remember it, she had been declining ever since. Pushing her pillows together, I helped her sit upright and essay Tilton School, gave her water to sip. Ten days earlier, we had been to see Mom’s doctor. Together, we decided to start Mom on a low dose of Zoloft, an antidepressant medication. Usually animated and cheerful, Mom had become increasingly quiet and vague ever since the dreadful news of Spencer’s suicide. “Mom,” I asked her, “are you thinking about Spencer?” “Spencer?” she echoed. “Do you remember Spencer?”

She looked away. “I don’t know.” Dementia is really weird. It’s not like memories get permanently erased; sometimes they are there, and write an argumentative essay London Academy, sometimes they’re not. Caregiving is a delicate dance, with a gradual shift in who is leading and who is for argumentative Tilton School, following. One partner is, often, a frail, widowed mother, upended by the loss of her husband and living in the family home, too big, costly and difficult to maintain. A dear old friend fits that profile: Stooped and finally reconciled to for essay Rossall School a walker, she grieves a husband lost to Alzheimer’s disease while ensconced in a dated four-bedroom house atop a canyon in the Bel Air section of introduction Tilton School, Los Angeles. I’ve begged her to move more times than I can count, and surely more times than she wanted to creative phrases for essay Rossall School hear. She has tolerated my entreaties with probably more forbearance than if she were my “real’’ mother, not a beloved surrogate. Introduction School? Her mind is clear, her will strong, and her way of page reviews University, making decisions — slow and for argumentative Tilton, steady — has always worked for her.

So she’s held her ground. Along the way, she has taught me two lessons. — Know when to butt out, because you’re not always right. — Move the furniture. The latter is useful shorthand, like “shift your weight’’ when you get stuck in life. But it’s literal advice, too. Some will argue that rearranging the write Epsom College, chairs is a superficial response to a deep problem.

Lately I’m not so sure. Up in the hills of Los Angeles, my elderly friend (I’m not going to name her, as I suspect her children might object) has succeeded in making changes to her home that have nothing to do with handicap accessibility (long ago done) and everything to introduction for argumentative do with emotional well-being. She Wasn’t So Ungrateful After All. Last November, the week of my mother’s 86th birthday, her essay ran in great essay College this blog under the headline, “A Very Ungrateful Old Lady.” She explained — somewhat humorously, more than a little bitterly — that because of her very limited vision and her weakening, aging body, she was increasingly dependent on her children, and that it made her feel like a burden to be cared for Tilton and tended, even when the care came with love. I am the oldest child, the doctor daughter. My part of caring for her included a disproportionate amount of the how to an argumentative essay London Academy, medical stuff, from for argumentative essay going with her on medical visits to sorting her daily medications into writing pill boxes, doling out the blood pressure medicine and for argumentative essay Tilton, the vitamins that she hoped would preserve what was left of her vision. When I last looked, there were more than 500 comments on my mother’s post. Page University Of Groningen (Study Group)? They started coming in as soon as the essay was published, and they have continued to introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School appear, more sporadically, over the six months since it appeared — six months that, unfortunately, also encompassed the death of the author. My mother’s essay resonated with many readers, reminded them of their aging parents or of themselves. The piece also made a lot of readers kind of write a great feature Epsom, angry, and introduction Tilton School, they wrote in to write a great feature article Epsom College scold her, to tell her she needed psychotherapy or medication. I’m not sure that everyone is ready for introduction essay School certain kinds of honesty from people toward the an argumentative essay London International, end of life, trapped in bodies that are progressively betraying them after decades of service, facing the for argumentative essay Tilton School, future with the daily reminders that come from losing friends and contemporaries, perhaps picking up messages in the air on special frequencies not audible to the rest of us.

The thing is, my mother loved those comments. I think it’s possible she enjoyed the most negative and School, hostile comments the most. How often is a legally blind, 86-year-old writer told she deserves a spanking? Or reminded to be thankful because she could be legless in for argumentative School Calcutta? Twenty-five years ago, when the twin daughters of a childhood friend were 7 and I was 41, I told them that someday, when they were grown, I’d babysit for h br Kent School their children.

“When I’m old enough to have a baby, you’ll be old as a bone,” one of the girls said. Now they’re 32, and I’m 66. Neither woman has children, so I’m not babysitting, sad to introduction for argumentative essay say. Still, it never occurred to me then, or now, that 66 could be “old as a bone.’’ I don’t feel that way or look that way. (New Old Age commenters who may have seen my photo and disagree: I’m ready for you. School? Was it a mistake not to “fix’’ my face while there was still time? Bring it on.) So how to explain the deference of introduction School, total strangers lately to Kent what they apparently perceive to be my doddering old age? The very title of this blog suggests the continual shifting of for argumentative, ground underneath all of us of a certain age. Whatever we thought old age meant yesterday, it means something different today. Sixty when the blog began, I’m now 66.

That’s not a complaint but an indisputable fact, and with the years come my own idiosyncratic observations. Hard-wired for pessimism, one would think they would be gloomy. How To Write Academy? Mostly they aren’t. I love Medicare, Social Security, a fixed-benefit pension, senior movie tickets and even the Tilton, occasional person who offers me a seat on the bus. Persuasive The University In Chicago? I love caring less about what other people think of me and more about what I think of myself. I’m hoping all that eventually balances the hard reality that goals and dreams from introduction for argumentative essay School my 20s and good persuasive of Illinois in Chicago, 30s that haven’t happened yet aren’t going to (Pulitzer Prizes, children and for argumentative Tilton, grandchildren, running a marathon). I particularly love (pleasure and pain not being mutually exclusive) how the great Lord College, rooms where I live, even my nightly dreams and the conversations in my head, are more and more populated by ghosts — loved ones now dead but blessedly not “gone.” They are always welcome here, and why would I want it otherwise?

“Gone” is too final. Introduction? To me, it means six feet under, a memorial yahrzeit candle on the anniversary of a death, the prayer for the dead chanted in Hebrew during the period of mourning and on certain religious holidays. Page Of Groningen (Study Group)? “Gone” doesn’t mean that life goes on in a better place. To chase my ghosts away, to silence their voices — and for argumentative Tilton, I’m not sure I could — would be in h br School effect a second death. School? I don’t want them gone. The very day I turned 66, 177 of you wished me well on a decision to write a great feature article Epsom College take the advice I’d been giving others: To leave a house I loved as one loves something animate, not merely a construction of clapboard and introduction School, stone, before the inevitable crisis that would make it too hard to live there and creative writing School, also too hard to leave under my own steam.

My darling house belongs to somebody else now, and a bit more than a month has passed since I bought an essay School apartment that’s nice enough – better than I expected, really, given the price I could afford. With the new year here, the creative for essay Rossall, days at their shortest and a couple of snowfalls behind me, the time seems ripe to essay Tilton revisit this move. Did I do the right thing? You betcha. At the a great article Epsom College, right moment? Sure I did. Introduction For Argumentative Essay Tilton? There are pluses and minuses, upsides and downsides. But I’d still argue that anyone who waits much longer than I did to align her living circumstances to creative for essay writing School the inexorable march of time is kidding herself. For Argumentative Essay Tilton? “Anything is possible” and how to write a great feature College, “you never know’’ apply to much of life.

But I’ve yet to meet anyone, except on a movie screen (or in a state of denial), who doesn’t get older every day. Absent a guarantee I’d have died in for argumentative essay Tilton School my sleep while still able to walk up and down the stairs, use a chain saw, shovel snow and drive a car – to name just a few of the realities of suburban homeownership – waiting even a few years longer would have been folly. What has been taxing now, both physically and h br School, emotionally, would have become geometrically harder with each year and impossible, perhaps in an eye blink, with one stroke of bad luck. Tracking a Thief, Once You Know There Is One. The first time my father was ever robbed, decades ago, he was vacationing in England with my mom. A certified public accountant, he had certain fiscal habits, one of which was to count and order his money, highest denomination bill to introduction for argumentative Tilton lowest, all facing the same way in his wallet. He did this constantly, usually at page reviews (Study Group), home after work. Introduction Tilton School? In England, though, he performed the essay writing Lord Wandsworth, rite in the hotel pub.

My mother was furious. Tilton School? For good reason. That night, while they slept, someone broke into their room and stole his wallet. The second time he was robbed, earlier this year, there was no break-in. How To? The thief, according to the police, was a staff member at my father’s assisted living facility on introduction for argumentative Tilton School, the Jersey Shore, a regular presence in his room.

Financial elder abuse statistics are not easy to how to an argumentative London International Academy pin down. Estimates have run as high as five million incidents annually, but no one knows for for argumentative essay Tilton School sure. Write Feature Article Epsom? Experts consider financial elder abuse grossly underreported, in large part because the introduction for argumentative, criminals are often also family members. It took some time to recognize that someone was actually stealing from my father. In fact, the hardest part of nabbing this crook was ascertaining whether my dad was telling the truth. Updated, 9:33 a.m. How To Write An Argumentative Essay London International Academy? | Sheila Solomon Klass died on March 26, 2014. She was 86. I am a legally blind octogenarian.

I have wonderful adult children who often help me, but I can never accept their help gracefully. It is a terrible thing to essay Tilton be a burden. They say I am not, but I know better. Perhaps many of you have parents like me. My own parents, working class Orthodox Jews in great essay Lord Wandsworth College Brooklyn, were ordinary people trying hard, but beset by the Depression and bad luck. And I was their burden: a second daughter when they needed a son. My parents were survivors and their fears were real, and I do not mean to belittle them.

But they left me with a lifelong fear and loathing of introduction Tilton School, dependence. One day while playing kick-the-can on the street, a boy knocked the sharp edge of the open lid right into my knee. My weeping mother carried me to the doctor, who sewed it up for fifty cents, and for good persuasive The University of Illinois years afterwards my mother upbraided me for playing rough boys’ games and School, costing so much money. I was determined never again to be a burden. Now I am 86 and creative phrases for essay writing Rossall School, almost blind. I cannot read the bills that come in the mail nor sign my own checks. I must be escorted to medical appointments. My busy children are kind beyond measure, but I am uncomfortable in these situations. And being uncomfortable makes me sharp and unpleasant.

When my children run my errands, sort my medications, buy me delicacies, accompany me on medical trips — even do my laundry! — I am somehow reduced to that Brooklyn girl whose struggling parents just couldn’t cope — and it was her fault. My children point out that this thinking makes no sense. But that there’s no logic to introduction for argumentative essay this is irrelevant. We are the sum of our years and experiences, and I never could add properly. My daughter the doctor is constantly on call for me, and I am unable to accept it with any grace.

She takes me every two months for a shot in great Wandsworth my eye that controls my macular degeneration. Introduction Essay Tilton School? The shot always scares me. With the open enrollment period for switching Medicare Part D drug plans upon us, the Kaiser Family Foundation has released two reports that both question the design of the plans and the inattention of 23 million of reviews University (Study, us who have them. Signing up for all the Tilton School, other parts of Medicare — hospitalization, out-patient physician visits — requires one effortless phone call. But Part D is a far more complicated hybrid, administered by private insurance companies on behalf of the government. In 2013, my first year of eligibility, I had 1,031 plans to choose from, offered in various iterations by Humana, Caremark, AARP, Aetna and page Group), the like. Each year Part D enrollees are asked to essay Tilton reconsider their plan’s monthly premium, its annual deductible, its authorized pharmacies and its formulary of drugs. Branded or generic? In what dosages? How many tablets per month? Which drugs are in which price tier?

Almost nine in writing Lord College 10 of us don’t bother to switch, Kaiser has found. As one of the wide majority who chose inertia, this comes as no surprise. I had assumed that during this window of opportunity, I would revisit my Part D choices and decide whether to switch. Introduction Essay? Picking a plan is more onerous than filing income taxes every year, but I am the sort of person who is h br School, diligent about such things. Tilton? Except, it turns out, I’m not. I’m staying put. I’d get in big trouble if I failed to file tax returns.

But within months of great essay Lord Wandsworth, doing the Part D dance, I knew I’d never do it again. Being lazy wasn’t a crime. If the prices went up, so be it; the price of introduction, everything goes up. The Aetna CVS/Pharmacy drug plan includes all my medications, allows me to pay extra to use my neighborhood pharmacy and, to my surprise, always has been accommodating when I need special permission to how to write International cover a drug not normally on the formulary. Introduction Essay? Aetna was likely to be my dance partner for life. “Mrs. Feld, you were confused!” Loudly, theatrically — and for the umpteenth time — my mother mimics the doctor’s accusation. I’ve already heard the story.

My mother awoke at 3 a.m. Page Reviews University (Study? asking for coffee, which no one would bring. “How hard could it be to bring her some decaf?” the nurses’ aide says to me, shaking her head. For Argumentative Essay School? My mother apparently was awake for a quite while, fussing, repeatedly requesting coffee. Then, on morning rounds, the page reviews University of Groningen, phalanx of doctors trooped in and told her she’d been confused during the night. “They come in early, waking patients up, towering over them with a million questions, and they wonder why patients are confused?” the introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, aide says. My mother undoubtedly was confused. Admitted two days earlier with pneumonia and brain masses (which would turn out to be the result of metastatic lung cancer), it was only her second night in the hospital, and her first there alone. I’d flown up and slept in her hospital room that first night.

But the following evening she had seemed stable, so I’d left to phrases writing Rossall School shower and introduction essay Tilton School, sleep at her house. “Oh Ma, what a terrible night!” I say. “I’m so sorry I left you.” As my parents aged, I often thought that the great essay writing Wandsworth, main reason I went to medical school was to help them negotiate the health care morass. For Argumentative Essay Tilton School? To explain, translate and advise. But most importantly, to essay protect. For Argumentative Tilton? While I could not shield them from h br Kent School disease or eventual death, I could protect them from essay School abuse, from overzealousness, from how to a great feature article Epsom College drowning in a sea of invasive procedures and brusque, pushy strangers. Having just failed miserably at for argumentative essay, that task, I seek out my mother’s nurse. Creative Phrases Writing? I tell her I want to introduction Tilton be called if ever my mom has a problem or feels confused. “My cellphone is reviews of Groningen, always on,” I say, “and I don’t mind being woken up.” Together we make a sign that we post above my mother’s bed: Please call for any reason, any time . Introduction Tilton School? My phone number is in oversized numerals. My mother lives in Scottsdale, Ariz., so packing for a summer 90th birthday visit was easy: Loose linen clothes, a sheet of baking parchment, and a three-ounce bar of Scharffen Berger bittersweet chocolate because my sister wasn’t sure she’d bought enough.

I was going to phrases for essay writing bake my mom a birthday cake — the chocolate cake her mother-in-law was known for, called “bachelor bait cake” on the little index card I inherited in a box of family memorabilia. Essay Tilton School? I tormented myself, a little bit, over how to write an argumentative essay London International, which cake in my repertoire was the right one; I liked this one because it had history. My mother’s response, in the particular dry tone with which she addresses any kind of excess: “Why would you go to for argumentative Tilton all that trouble?” Given that the question came after she considered my hair (“You’re going to do something with it, aren’t you?”) and my dress (“You’re wearing something else to dinner”), I had started to wonder, too. Still, I drove my little rental car over to my sister’s the day before mom’s birthday, while she was napping, to make the chocolate and espresso ganache that’s so much nicer than regular buttercream. And I was up early on the day itself so I could bake the creative phrases for essay writing Rossall, cake before my mom was ready to introduction essay Tilton go to h br the beauty salon.

Working in an unfamiliar kitchen is hard, even if it belongs to someone whose first notion of “kitchen” was the same as mine. The oven mitts and introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School, measuring spoons and measuring cups aren’t where I first look; the mitts take five tries before I find them. My aspirations spike, well, into the crazy range: This cake doesn’t just have to be tasty. It has to page reviews of Groningen be good enough to introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School retire the question of why I’d go to all this trouble. It has to writing Lord be better than store-bought. It has to compensate for School the fact that as far as my mom is concerned, we can’t do anything at all, not really. Oh sure, everybody pitches in. My sister, who lives 20 minutes from mom, does a ton of stuff, from the Kent, weekly dinner to shopping and the organizing of the introduction for argumentative Tilton, closet and calendar and doctors’ visits, along with a daily phone call. Since I live farther away, I go for University Group) phone calls and increasingly frequent visits. Getting While the Getting Is Good.

“Don’t wait for a crisis,” I told a friend whose elderly parents were struggling to introduction for argumentative School care for themselves and a big Connecticut home. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I told another friend, his mother recently widowed, lonely and overwhelmed, rattling around in a family house that was now her solo responsibility. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I told a third friend, whose widowed father-in-law dropped his daily insulin regimen after his live-in girlfriend left him. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I’ve told readers of “The New Old Age,” no doubt ad nauseam. As just about everyone who has cared for an aging parent knows, getting old is how to write International, both an inexorable and maddeningly unpredictable forward march. Everything is OK.

Then it’s not. Introduction Essay School? Then it is again. Essay Writing Lord College? What felt early on Tilton, like a roller coaster becomes the new normal. In between swerves and plummets, it is almost possible to doze off. And planning for all possible eventualities is useless — after the essential documents are in place, the family has talked openly and often about good persuasive essays The University of Illinois, end-of-life wishes, they understand the introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, difference between Medicare and Medicaid, they know how much money is available and that it is probably not going to be enough. Caregivers and their elderly charges both know, in a spoken or unspoken way, that on the horizon is The Crisis. That’s the one that demarcates “before” and “after.” Your parents are at home, say, when they really shouldn’t be, and don’t want to leave. The Crisis, when it appears, will be an awful milestone for them and persuasive essays The University in Chicago, probably so for you, the adult child.

Then one day the roles shift and the crisis on the horizon could be yours. Maybe your parents are dead or maybe not, but you’re now an old person. It happens even if you’re diligent about antioxidants and fish oil, exercise both body and mind, have a cheery attitude, good genes and essay Tilton School, a wide social network. If you’re not there yet, you’ll have to take my word for it. The blog is h br Kent School, ending, but our coverage of caregiving and aging is not.

The New Old Age will run as a twice-monthly column by Paula Span on nytimes.com and introduction for argumentative essay, frequently in Science Times. Readmore… At many nursing homes and assisted living places, a resident’s passing may be hardly noted.Readmore… Circumstances had changed, and all these documents needed to change, too. Readmore…

Lifestyle modification prevents Type 2 diabetes even more effectively in the elderly than in good essays The University middle-aged patients.Readmore… Julianne Moore gives a wonderful performance in “Still Alice,” but the film skirts the truth about introduction essay School, dementia.Readmore… Thanks to the marvels of how to write feature, medical science, our parents are living longer than ever before. School? Most will spend years dependent on The University, others for the most basic needs. That burden falls to their baby boomer children. Essay? The New Old Age blog explored this unprecedented intergenerational challenge. An Argumentative Essay London? Paula Span will continue to write New Old Age columns twice monthly at nytimes.com/health and the conversation will continue on Twitter (@paula_span) and introduction School, Facebook. A few medical institutions have opened their doors to patients’ own dogs and cats. Scheduling and medication errors plague patients with Parkinson's. Dementia doesn't respect public stature. Is there life after caregiving, and if so what it is like?

Useful information, tools, and links to page reviews of Groningen (Study Group) organizations around the Web. Comprehensive reference and special reports about diseases, conditions, tests, injuries and for argumentative Tilton, surgeries.

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late homework How Does Your School Handle the introduction for argumentative School Homework Dilemma? How do your teachers handle homework? Do you have a school-wide policy? Do students earn a homework grade? What about late homework? Or the effects of reviews, homework zeros on student grades? Included: Education World's Principal Files team shares their thoughts on those questions and others. Does your school have a homework policy? How much homework is the for argumentative Tilton School right amount for each grade level? Do you have systems in place to how to an argumentative essay London International, help students and parents keep track of homework assignments?

Is homework graded? What about homework that is submitted late? And how about zeroes? Zeroes on introduction for argumentative essay Tilton School homework can quickly affect a students' grade. Education World wanted to learn more about how schools and school districts handle the homework dilemma, so we posed those questions to our Principal Files team. Their responses might offer some guidance to others who are grappling with defining and writing policing homework. WHAT IS HOMEWORK? For many schools and school districts, defining homework and its purpose is a first step in creating a homework policy.

Is homework a dilemma for teachers, students, and for argumentative essay Tilton School parents at your school? Are you frustrated because you get more excuses than completed assignments? Education World has published many articles and how to an argumentative London Academy resources about the issue of essay Tilton, homework. Be sure to good persuasive of Illinois in Chicago, scroll through our Homework Archive for these articles and introduction for argumentative School more Homework Club Memberships Grow Homework Study Hall: Mandatory Make Up for Missed Work Put an how to Academy End to introduction, Homework Horror! Classroom Rewards Reap Dividends for how to London Academy, Teachers and Students And don't miss our newest series of homework tips -- 30 volumes of teacher-tested ideas -- Help for essay, Homework Hassles. In Arlington, Virginia, district policy defines the purpose of page University (Study, homework as preparing for, building on, or reinforcing classroom learning.

The policy goes on to add that homework encourages responsibility and accountability and strengthens home-school communication about introduction Tilton student learning, said Lolli Haws, principal at Arlington's Oakridge Elementary School. According to the policy, homework must also acknowledge students' individual differences through differentiation, added Haws. It must be designed to essays The University of Illinois, be achievable by introduction Tilton all students independent of school staff, access to technology, or materials only available at school; in other words, a child must be able to for essay writing School, complete homework using resources available in the home. The policy also emphasizes that homework is primarily a teacher-student interaction, added Haws. That means that. parents shouldn't have to spend a lot of their time on homework with their child, and teachers should provide timely, consistent, and understandable feedback to students about their homework.

Just like it is in Arlington, homework is student -- not parent -- responsibility at St. Martin's Episcopal School in Atlanta. Homework is an for argumentative School important part of our school's developmental study-skills curriculum, said principal Sue Astley. Parents should consider homework as a contract between the school and the student. It is the for essay writing School student's responsibility to complete homework. Introduction School! Parents can best assist the process of learning by providing a consistent time and a quiet place for students to complete their homework and by showing a positive interest in persuasive, it.

At the Edenrose Public School in Mississauga, Ontario (Canada), representatives of each grade, and the school's ESL and special education staffs, drafted a school-wide policy that was shared with all staff and the school council. The policy was recently reviewed and minor revisions were made, said principal Deepi Kang-Weisz. Each year, the policy is sent home to all families in our back-to-school information package. In addition, each teacher reviews the policy with students. The policy defines what homework is and provides examples of what homework might look like at each grade level. At Doctors Inlet Elementary School in Middleburg, Florida, homework is defined as assignments that support specific concepts taught during the introduction essay School school day, said principal Larry Davis.

Incomplete class work that must be completed at home is not considered homework; rather it is considered a continuation of the great writing Lord student's daily classroom responsibilities. HOW MUCH HOMEWORK? We were surprised to introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, find quite a bit of consistency across schools and districts when it comes to answering the question How much homework should students have? The norm seems to be 10 to Kent, 15 minutes of homework per night by grade level. In other words, grade one students might have 10 minutes of Tilton School, homework each night; grade two students would have 20 minutes of homework; grade three students would have 30 minutes of homework, and so on. Other schools might spell out specific amounts of homework. For example, at Transfiguration School in creative phrases for essay School, West Hazelton, Pennsylvania, principal Sherry Ambrose says the for argumentative essay School following homework guidelines are in effect: Pre-K, Kindergarten -- as assigned Grade 1 -- 20 minutes Grade 2 -- 30 minutes Grade 3 -- 30-45 minutes Grade 4 -- 45 minutes to article College, 1 hour Grades 5 to 8 -- 1 to 1-1/2 hours.

At Doctors Inlet Elementary, homework should never exceed 60 minutes per night, said principal Larry Davis, adding, If homework is for argumentative Tilton School, given, it must be graded for great essay Lord, completeness and accuracy. Some schools spell out introduction Tilton, that homework time does not include time students are expected to spend each night reading to an adult or on their own. Many schools specify that students spend 15-30 minutes reading each day, more on reviews University (Study Group) days when they have no other assigned homework. KEEPING TRACK OF ASSIGNMENTS. Among the often-stated purposes of homework is for argumentative essay, that it helps students develop study skills, time management skills, and page reviews University of Groningen responsibility. Introduction For Argumentative Essay Tilton School! In an a great feature effort to help students develop those skills, many schools support student learning by using homework assignment books, sometimes called agendas, and by Tilton School providing resources that help students when they slip up by persuasive essays The University in Chicago not carefully recording their assignments.

A school-wide policy at St. For Argumentative Tilton School! Vincent DePaul Academy recognizes homework as an integral part of its effort to College, develop student responsibility. According to principal Heather Hamtil, the Tilton school's AAA card offers positive recognition to students who make consistent efforts in three areas: A cademics, A ttendance, and A ttitude. Each week, students are awarded an Rossall AAA card if they have not missed an assignment in the 5-day period (Academics); been present at introduction Tilton School least 4 days out of the 5 (Attendance); and not had any marks against behavior or uniform (Attitude). At the end of each quarter, students may trade their collected cards for special rewards. Our students must use the school-designed homework notebook in which teachers initial each assignment given (as a means of for essay writing School, checking that students have properly recorded the assignment) and that parents initial to indicate that they have looked at the completed assignments, said principal Heather Hamtil of St. Vincent DePaul Academy in for argumentative Tilton School, Kansas City, Missouri. For each assignment, the date given and how to a great Epsom College the date due are recorded.

Doing that helps students get organized, but it also aids teachers; they can see if students are getting 'loaded up with homework.' If parents complain about introduction for argumentative Tilton that, a teacher can often explain that some assignments were given several days before and that part of the education of the student is learning to prioritize assignments based on his or her evening activities and availability. Kent School! We even have a section of the notebook where we can help students prioritize those longer-term assignments. The homework notebook is a tool that aids us in for argumentative Tilton, regular, usually daily, communication with parents, noted Hamtil. Students must write their assignments in ink, she added. That prevents them from changing an page University (Study Group) assignment before going home. At Oakridge Elementary, agenda planners are used by students in grades 3 to 5. Parents sign the agendas each night to verify completion of homework assignments. To cover students who might not get their assignments written down correctly, most teachers in grades 2-up have ongoing email communication with parents who wish to receive daily homework updates. Homework is assigned in weekly chunks at Transfiguration School.

Homework for the upcoming week is posted on our school Web site each Sunday night, said Sherry Ambrose. For those who do not have Internet access at home, hard copies of weekly homework assignments are available in classrooms, or students can print them out in the computer lab. In addition, all students have homework assignment tablets, added Ambrose. Homework tablets are signed by teachers and parents of students up to grade 3. DOES HOMEWORK GET GRADED? Should homework be graded? If so, how much should it count? Ah, those are the questions that often plague school staffs as they debate the homework issue. Essay Tilton School! Most schools have determined the grading of homework to be a teacher-level decision while some districts or principals offer guidelines. In Edenrose, Ontario (Canada), for example, we have a school-wide homework policy that was developed following the school board's policy and guidelines, said Deepi Kang-Weisz.

Homework completion is considered an essential learning skill and is included on school report cards. Set criteria are used to School, determine whether a child's homework-completion skills/responsibilities will earn a grade of introduction for argumentative Tilton, needs improvement, satisfactory, good, or excellent. Among the criteria used to creative for essay, determine the grade are. Does the student complete homework on time and with care? Does the student put forth consistent effort? Does the student follow directions and School complete all homework tasks? Does the student show attention to detail? Does the student demonstrate interest and enthusiasm in homework assignments?

At Gonic Elementary School in Rochester, New Hampshire, principal Martha Wingate offers helpful guidelines to for essay Rossall School, teachers as they wrestle the introduction for argumentative School homework beast. Great Essay Writing Lord College! Some of introduction essay Tilton, her guidelines are ones she used when she was in h br Kent School, the classroom. Those guidelines include a check system and several other rubrics. The check-system rubric is pretty straight forward, said Wingate. Students earn a.

if work is introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, complete, neatly done, and directions are followed; + if work includes any amount of essay, extra credit; ++ if work includes above-and-beyond extra credit; - if work is incomplete, messy, or directions are not followed; or 0 if work is not passed in. It is important that the check-system rubric is essay, carefully explained to students and how to write a great feature College that what qualifies as extra-credit work is explained in introduction for argumentative essay, advance, Wingate explained. I include an extra-credit assignment almost every night. For example, in math, extra credit might require doing four more problems than assigned, or, in how to an argumentative essay Academy, spelling, it might require sentences that are 10 words or longer. In addition, all homework is checked first thing in the morning as students work on independent or bell-ringer activities. At that point, I am not checking for correctness; I am only checking for introduction essay, completed work, said Wingate. Another grade might be given later for accuracy of the work.

When I used this system I included a reward component too. Students who averaged a grade of or higher for the week earned a 'No Homework Pass' that they could use on the last day of each month. Students might earn up to essay Lord Wandsworth College, three passes in any month and for argumentative essay 'cash them in' working backward from the last day of the month. I adopted that system because it enabled me to plan the homework assignments that students might miss. I should add that I am pretty generous with the s. I want as many students as possible to feel success. A Great Epsom! The extra-credit assignments I offer make it easier for a student who might have slipped and earned a grade of - on an assignment to still earn a for the week. Wingate's check system is an easy one for teachers to adapt.

The system can work to improve students' homework skills and for argumentative essay School attention because. the teacher gives each student daily attention about their homework; students see how important homework is to the teacher; students can see the opportunities to make up for work they didn't complete; and the teacher has the h br data required to give a pure homework grade for introduction essay, homework completion. Wingate also offers her staff other rubrics for writing Lord Wandsworth College, homework grading. (See the for argumentative School sidebar for great writing Wandsworth College, sample homework rubrics.) One of the biggest dilemmas surrounding homework is introduction essay School, how to handle the student who earns a zero for how to write London International Academy, assignments not turned in. Zeros can ruin a child's grade, said principal Lolli Haws, adding, This is an issue our staff is debating right now in our Teacher Advisory Council. Introduction Tilton School! Teachers have varied feelings about this. Students who don't turn in homework typically stay in from recess to complete it, but that does not seem to a great article College, be effective in bringing about essay School a change in behavior, so we're looking for in Chicago, other approaches. WHAT ABOUT LATE WORK? ABSENCES?

ZEROES? Most teachers accept late homework, though many deduct a grade for it. For example, a teacher's policy might deduct 10 percent for each day an assignment is late or it might state that the highest grade a late assignment can earn is a 70. And when it comes to absences, many schools set a policy about making up work; for example, students might be given three calendar days to make up missed work. But what about zeros? That question comes up often in teachers' rooms and staff meetings. If a student doesn't do the assignment, he earns a zero. School! He gets what he deserves, right? But what about the student who passes all tests but earns a zero for homework? A teacher who averages a zero homework grade into a C-student's final grade, might end up failing that student.

But does that grade really reflect what the great writing College students knows? (Shouldn't a grade reflect what a student knows?) More and more schools are revisiting those questions. Many principals have taken the for argumentative Tilton view that educators fail students by failing students. H Br School! A few homework zeros are bound to frustrate a student, even to the point of forcing him to introduction for argumentative essay Tilton, give up. To prevent that from page (Study happening, some schools have set a grading scale of 50 to introduction Tilton School, 100 percent. Missing assignments are given a grade of 50.

In that way, it is good essays The University of Illinois in Chicago, still possible for a student who misses homework but passes all tests to earn a passing grade. In the case of quizzes and tests, many schools' policies require re-teaching and for argumentative School re-testing until a student earns a passing grade. In that way, teachers are certain that students have learned the important concepts that are documented in their state's standards and that students have the building blocks necessary, especially in the maths, to move on to the next skill. Alas, the grading debate is a sticky and complex one -- especially when it comes to the effects of The University of Illinois in Chicago, zeros on students' grades. The important thing is to introduction for argumentative Tilton, have a policy, principal Sue Astley told Education World.

I encourage each of my school's grade-level teams to page reviews University of Groningen Group), establish a written policy. That policy might include a statement of whose responsibility it is to handle missed homework; for for argumentative Tilton, young students, parents might request missed assignments, but older students might handle that responsibility on page of Groningen Group) their own. Introduction! Also, the policy might include a statement of how much advance notice is great Lord Wandsworth, required for teachers to gather homework for a student who will be out of school for a period of time. That way, parents can't notify us the night before about a student who will be gone and expect us to have work ready that day. Does your school have a homework policy?

Is that policy in writing? If not, it might be time to make the commitment to review the homework issue, to come to a consensus about introduction essay Tilton it and then commit your staff's agreement or consensus to writing. Education World's Great Meetings series offers some tools for coming to consensus. You might take a look at some of those tools in School, the practical Great Meetings entries listed here. Having a homework policy in writing can help teachers avoid having to deal with complaints from introduction parents, added Astley. Principal Deepi Kang-Weisz agreed.

Our policy is often referred to for essay Rossall School, when responding to parents' concerns or questions. Having a written policy can be a big help throughout the school year. Education World has published many articles and introduction for argumentative essay School resources about the issue of homework. Be sure to scroll through our Homework Archive for a wide range of articles. Principal Contributors to write London International Academy, This Article. The following members of Education World's Principal Files Team contributed to this article.

Click here to introduction essay Tilton, view an archive of practical Principal Files articles from recent months. Sherry Ambrose, principal, Transfiguration School, West Hazleton, Pennsylvania Sue W. Astley, assistant headmaster and elementary principal, St. Martin's Episcopal School, Atlanta, Georgia Larry Davis, principal, Doctors Inlet Elementary School, Middleburg, Florida Heather Nicole Hamtil, assistant principal, St. Vincent de Paul Academy, Kansas City, Missouri Dr. Creative Writing Rossall School! Lolli Haws, principal, Oakridge Elementary School, Arlington Virginia Deepi Kang-Weisz, principal, Edenrose Public School, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Martha Wingate, principal, Gonic Elementary School, Rochester, New Hampshire. Article by Gary Hopkins. Copyright © Education World. Last updated 06/11/2012. Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips. Sign up for our free weekly newsletter and essay Tilton School receive.

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