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bosico resume Las ninas Dilcia Yean y Violeta Bosico, nacieron en la Republica Dominicana, hijas de madres dominicanas y de ascendencia haitiana por parte de sus padres. Is The Best Essay Service Cyprus! Las ninas forman parte de un grupo vulnerable en la Republica Dominicana, toda vez que la mayoria de dominicanos de ascendencia haitiana en dicho Estado viven en condiciones precarias y de extrema pobreza. Steps To Writing An Argumentative George Brown College! Articulos 19 (Derechos del Nino), 20 (Derecho a la Nacionalidad) y 24 (Igualdad ante la Ley), 3 (Derecho a la Personalidad Juridica) y 18 (Derecho al Nombre), de la Convencion Americana, en conexion con el articulo 1.1 (Obligacion de Respetar los Derechos) de la misma, en perjuicio de las ninas Dilcia Yean y Violeta Bosico. What Is The Best Essay Service University! A su vez, los articulos 8 (Garantias Judiciales) y 25 (Proteccion Judicial) de la Convencion Americana, en conexion con el articulo 1.1 (Obligacion de Respetar los Derechos) de la misma, en perjuicio de los familiares de la presunta victima. Write Essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory! No agotamiento de los recursos de la jurisdiccion interna del Estado. Is The Writing European Cyprus! La Corte considero que el Estado, al no indicar expresamente durante el procedimiento de admisibilidad ante la Comision Interamericana cuales serian los recursos idoneos y efectivos que deberian haber sido agotados, renuncio implicitamente a un medio de defensa que la Convencion Americana establece en su favor e incurrio en admision tacita de la inexistencia de dichos recursos o del oportuno agotamiento de estos. Essay Writing Thornton! Por ello, el Estado estaba impedido de alegar el no agotamiento de los recursos jerarquico, de amparo, de inconstitucionalidad, y de reconsideracion ante el Oficial del Estado Civil y ante el juzgado de primera instancia, en el procedimiento ante la Corte.
En consecuencia, la Corte desestimo la primera excepcion preliminar interpuesta por el Estado. Best Essay Service European University Cyprus! No cumplimiento de la Solucion Amistosa presentada por la Comision y acogida por el Estado Luego de infructuosos intentos de solucion, el 24 de agosto de 2001 la Comision realizo una reunion en Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana, en la cual participaron el Estado y los representantes, sin que se lograra un acuerdo amistoso. My Childhood Writing Boston — UMass! No obstante, posteriormente, el 17 de octubre de 2001, los representantes comunicaron a la Comision la entrega de las actas de nacimiento a las presuntas victimas por parte del Estado. What Is The Best Essay Writing Cyprus! Sin embargo, la Corte considero que para alcanzar una solucion amistosa era necesario que exista un consenso basico entre las partes, en el cual se pueda constatar la voluntad de estas de poner fin a la controversia, en lo que respecta al fondo del asunto y las posibles reparaciones, situacion que no ocurrio, por lo que la Corte desestimo esta excepcion preliminar interpuesta por el Estado. Hult International! Falta de competencia ratione temporis El Estado alego que la supuesta violacion a los derechos de las ninas Yean y Bosico ocurrio el 5 de marzo de 1997 y el Estado reconocio la competencia contenciosa de la Corte el 25 de marzo de 1999, es decir, dos anos despues de la presunta violacion. Best Essay Writing European! Por consiguiente, la Corte ha establecido no puede ejercer su competencia contenciosa para aplicar la Convencion cuando los hechos alegados son anteriores al reconocimiento de la competencia del Tribunal. Sample Essay Thornton! Al respecto, la Corte senalo que como todo organo con funciones jurisdiccionales, tiene el poder inherente a sus atribuciones de determinar el alcance de su propia competencia, ya que el reconocimiento de la misma por el Estado presupone la admision del derecho del Tribunal a resolver cualquier controversia relativa a su jurisdiccion, de acuerdo a lo establecido en el articulo 62.1 de la Convencion Americana.
En consecuencia, la Corte tomara en consideracion tanto la fecha de reconocimiento de su competencia contenciosa por parte de la Republica Dominicana, como el principio de irrectroactividad, establecido en el articulo 28 de la Convencion de Viena sobre el Derecho de los Tratados de 1969, para determinar el alcance de su competencia en el presente caso, razon por la cual la Corte desestimo esta excepcion preliminar interpuesta por el Estado. Best European! Articulo 19 (Derechos del Nino). La Corte afirmo que revisten especial gravedad los casos en que las victimas de violaciones a los derechos humanos son ninos, mas aun cuando se trata de presuntas victimas en su condicion de ninas, como mujeres que pertenecen a un grupo en una situacion vulnerable. Essay Topics Academy! En tal sentido, la Corte decidio no pronunciarse sobre la presunta violacion aislada del articulo 19 de la Convencion Americana, sino que incluyo su decision al respecto junto al analisis de los demas articulos pertinentes al caso. Is The Best Essay Writing Service Cyprus! Se concluyo que el Estado adopto diferentes posturas durante el tramite del caso ante el sistema interamericano de proteccion de los derechos humanos, en relacion con los requisitos que las ninas debieron cumplir. Write A Convincing Chaminade Preparatory! No existiendo un criterio uniforme para la exigencia y aplicacion de los requisitos para la inscripcion tardia de nacimiento de los menores de 13 anos de edad, mas aun, cuando el Estado exigio a las menores afectadas requisitos para la inscripcion tardia de nacimiento para personas mayores de 13 anos. What Is The Writing European University Cyprus! Existio un tratamiento discriminatorio impuesto por el Estado a las ninas Yean y Bosico, ya que, en el contexto de su condicion de grupo vulnerable, por razones discriminatorias y contrarias a la normativa interna pertinente, el Estado dejo de otorgar la nacionalidad a las ninas.
Asimismo, preciso que el deber de respetar y garantizar el principio de la igualdad ante la ley y no discriminacion es independiente del estatus migratorio de una persona en un Estado, siendo obligacion de los Estados de garantizar este principio sin discriminacion alguna por su estancia regular o irregular, su nacionalidad, raza, genero o cualquier otra causa. Essay Writing Of Massachusetts — UMass! La Corte senalo que una persona apatrida no tiene personalidad juridica reconocida, ya que no ha establecido un vinculo juridico-politico con ningun Estado, por lo que la nacionalidad es un prerrequisito del reconocimiento de la personalidad juridica. Best Essay Writing Service European Cyprus! Por ello, afirmo que los Estados deben garantizar que la persona sea registrada con el nombre elegido por ella o por sus padres, segun sea el momento del registro, sin ningun tipo de restriccion al derecho ni interferencia en la decision de escoger el nombre. Writing Tasks Business School! Una vez registrada la persona, se debe garantizar la posibilidad de preservar y reestablecer su nombre y su apellido. La Corte no se refirio a las alegadas violaciones de los articulos 8 y 25 de la Convencion Americana, debido a que carece de competencia para pronunciarse sobre posibles violaciones concretadas en hechos o actos sucedidos antes del 25 de marzo de 1999, fecha en la cual la Republica Dominicana reconocio la competencia contenciosa de la Corte Interamericana. Writing! Tomando en cuenta el alegato de la Comision, respecto de la amenaza de una separacion real entre la menores y sus familiares dado que el estado realiza expulsiones colectivas de haitianos y de dominicanos de ascendencia haitiana, La Corte considero que ya se hubo referido a este punto, cuando determino la existencia de vulnerabilidad de las menores en su condicion de apatridas. To Writing An Argumentative Brown College! La Corte determino que se violo el derecho a la integridad personal de las menores, puesto que su situacion de vulnerabilidad produjo en ellas sufrimiento e inseguridad, decidiendo valorar dichas circunstancias a la hora de fijar las reparaciones correspondientes. Writing European! Por otro lado, en lo referido al articulo 12 de la Convencion considero que los hechos del presente caso no se encuadran bajo el mismo. My Childhood Essay University Boston! Se decidio desestimar las excepciones preliminares y declarar la violacion, por parte de Republica Dominicana, de los articulos 20 y 24 de la Convencion Americana, en relacion con el articulo 19 de la misma, y tambien en relacion con el articulo 1.1 de este instrumento, en perjuicio de las ninas Dilcia Yean y Violeta Bosico. Asimismo, la vulneracion de los derechos al nombre y al reconocimiento de la personalidad juridica en relacion al articulo 19 de la Convencion Americana (Derechos del Nino) y del derecho a la integridad personal en perjuicio de las madres de la menores. Essay European! 1. To Writing An Argumentative Essay George! Pago de una compensacion para las ninas: US$ 8.000.00 (ocho mil dolares de los Estados Unidos de America) para la menor Dilcia Yean por concepto de dano inmaterial y la cantidad US$ 8.000.00 (ocho mil dolares de los Estados Unidos de America) para la menor Violeta Bosico por ese mismo concepto.
La Corte observa que las referidas alegaciones del Estado buscan controvertir los hechos establecidos y probados con base en el acervo probatorio que se presento ante la Corte durante el tramite del caso contencioso, ya que la Republica Dominicana somete a la consideracion del Tribunal cuestiones de hecho y de derecho que fueron planteadas en su oportunidad procesal y sobre las cuales la Corte ya adopto una decision, y que no merecen acogida en la presente etapa de interpretacion de Sentencia. Writing European! Considerandos juridicos de la resolucion: En la Resolucion emitida por el Tribunal el 28 de noviembre de 2007 (supra Visto 2), al supervisar el cumplimiento integral de la Sentencia emitida en el presente caso, la Corte considero indispensable mantener abierto el procedimiento de supervision de cumplimiento de tres puntos pendientes de acatamiento en el presente caso, referentes a: Convocar a la Comision Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, a los representantes de las victimas y al Estado de Republica Dominicana a una audiencia privada que se celebrara en San Jose de Costa Rica, en la sede de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, el dia 8 de julio de 2009, a partir de las 15:00 horas y hasta las 16:30 horas, con el proposito de que la Corte obtenga informacion por parte del Estado sobre el cumplimiento de los tres puntos pendientes de acatamiento de la Sentencia de excepciones preliminares, fondo, reparaciones y costas emitida el 8 de septiembre de 2005 en el presente caso, y escuche las observaciones de la Comision Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y de los representantes de las victimas al respecto.
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ligeia essay Poe's 'Ligeia' and the Pleasures of Terror. The apparent delights with which we dwell upon objects of pure terror where our moral feelings are not the least concerned, and no passion seems to be excited but the depressing one of fear, is a paradox of the heart, much more difficult of solution. 1. This essay appeared originally in Gothic 2:2 (December 1980) 39-48. I have revised it slightly but not substantially in this reprinting. What Is The Best Essay Writing Service Cyprus. Thanks are due to Gary William Crawford for editing Gothic and tending the flame of thing Niagara Gothic studies. When Joseph M. What Is The Writing European University Cyprus. Garrison, Jr. undertakes to resolve the writing International School, ostensible tension between Poe's acknowledged commitment to 'Supernal Beauty' as the writing service University, poetic ideal and his preoccupation - especially in his prose fiction - with horror, madness and those demonic influences which paralyze personality, destroy social bonds and how to write alienate men from spiritual environments, he not only raises a persistently puzzling question about Poe, but also raises by implication a question about the value of horror as an artistic effect. 2 Garrison concludes that for Poe, Horror and terror are legitimate effects when they are calculated to compel the is the writing service University Cyprus, reader to turn his attention and affections from a debilitating and terrifying analysis of the human condition to an alternative - an ideal - in Poe's case, 'the sentiment of Intellectual Happiness here, and the Hope of a higher Intellectual Happiness hereafter' (p, 148).
While such an argument may appeal to admirers of Poe, it remains on the face of it fundamentally unsound if Garrison means that a competent reading of Ligeia, for how to write essay Сollege Preparatory School example, ought to turn the reader's affections from horror toward Intellectual Happiness. There is what best essay writing University a general sense in how to write a convincing essay Chaminade Сollege which Garrison may be correct about the what is the writing service University Cyprus, reader's experience. How To Сollege. A tale of terror may contribute to enhancing a reader's humanity - as do all valuable works of art - by exercising and improving his perceptions and perspectives, his sympathies and self - awareness; only so far may such a tale perform an ethically valuable function. However, as Garrison demonstrates, connecting such a function with a tale such as Ligeia is no simple matter. Garrison's thesis seems a defense of Poe's Gothicism, a quality often thought of dubious value. Devendra P. Varma's discussions of the critical receptions of what is the best essay University Ann Radcliffe and Monk Lewis illustrate the kinds of factors that have contributed to a felt need to defend the Gothic by showing its horrors to serve some worthy end. 3 Radcliffe's reception tended toward the positive because she successfully appealed to her readers' taste for the sentimental (Varma, p. 86) and because one could depend on poetic justice and moral virtue to triumph (p. 91). Because Lewis' The Monk was much less clearly sentimental or didactic, response to the novel was more negative. My Childhood Essay Of Massachusetts Boston. Even though The Monk contains many didactic elements and presents a world in which poetic justice operates, reviewers often were unable or unwilling to justify the novel's horrors on these grounds (pp.
142 - 48). The tendency to subordinate the horrors of the Gothic to another end such as the sublime (Radcliffe's own justification), 4 or sentimentalism or didacticism is implicit in is the writing Cyprus the receptions of these works. As sentimentalism and the sublime became less interesting or available as justifications, critics tended to how to write essay, turn toward the didactic as a way of making acceptable the horrors of powerful works of fiction. The difference between the receptions of Radcliffe and Lewis is mirrored in the receptions of The House of the Seven Gables and Faulkner's Sanctuary. Chapter Eighteen of is the writing service Hawthorne's romance is among the write a convincing essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, more terrifying episodes in what best service European University Cyprus nineteenth century American fiction, yet because Hawthorne's moral purposes have rarely been doubted, because the prevailing opinion is that all his works are moral allegories, and perhaps because this episode of entrapment with a corpse is part of a narrative comedy, this novel has fared well in critical opinion. But Faulkner's Sanctuary, widely thought a powerful work, appeared at a time when Faulkner was not thought particularly moral and has been vigorously attacked on moral grounds. Sample Essay Writing Thornton. Those who have defended the novel have tended to writing University, turn to allegory or another didactic mode as a means of defense. 5.
It seems natural, then, that Garrison's defense of Ligeia should try to locate in Poe's intentions a specific and laudable moral effect for my childhood writing University of Massachusetts Boston the tale of terror. Garrison is not alone in this effort. Stuart Levine and best service European Cyprus E.W. Carlson are among the more able interpreters of Poe's career who would prefer that stories as powerful and interesting as Ligeia and The Fall of the House of Usher not be considered merely tales of terror. How To Essay Preparatory School. 6 Garrison apparently did not intend to directly raise the question of the what best essay writing, value of terror as an artistic effect, but perhaps he should have.
It is natural, both aesthetically and historically, to seek to justify the value of horror and terror as means to a didactic end. Garrison's is a highly sophisticated attempt of this kind. But such a justification, as I plan to show, will not do for Ligeia. Writing Tasks Hult International Business School. Therefore, we are forced to consider the more difficult questions raised in the epigraph of essay writing University Cyprus this essay: Why do we read horror literature? What rewards does it offer? As one might expect, a fair number of Poe's best known modern critics either do not read Ligeia as a horror story at write Hall School all or argue along with Carlson that beneath a surface of apparently gratuitous Gothicism is an undercurrent of meaning that redeems the horror. This undercurrent consists of the narrator's salvation through the transcendant visionary experience offered him by Ligeia's return (Poe's Vision of Man, p. 17). 7 Such readings seem the is the best University Cyprus, most sophisticated and sophistical attempts to Moreton School, rescue Poe from the disreputable Gothic. More true to the tone of Ligeia, though still problematic, are readings such as those given by Sidney Moss and G.R. Thompson.
8 These readings originate in three differing conceptions of Poe's career and vision. What Is The Best Writing Service European University. Carlson sees Poe's career as a clarification of his idealism and the alignment of his technique and subjects to serve that idealism. Moss sees Poe as essentially a nihilist whose stories teach a bleak view of man's place and fate. Thompson sees Poe as a romantic ironist, who willfully believes in his idealism, but is able at will to stand back from it and even to essay University of Massachusetts — UMass, contemplate the likelihood that what he chooses to what is the essay writing, believe might be false. According to Thompson, Ligeia leads the reader first, into the world of essay writing Boston supernatural horror, and then out of what is the that world into a world of mental horror, and steps to writing George College then, out of that purely mental world into what best essay writing service, a limbo region of ambiguity where we cannot be sure what did or did not take place ( Poe's Fiction, p. 104). To mediate among these views of Poe is not the intent of this paper. Because Thompson's reading seems truer to what I take to be a normal reader's competent response to Ligeia and because this reading acknowledges that the tale's effect is my childhood of Massachusetts Boston Boston horror at various levels, I propose to use this interpretation as a basis for examining how the story produces the effects of what best essay European horror, what these effects are, and finally, what might make such effects attractive to writing tasks, normal readers. By what means does Ligeia arouse horror in the reader? At the literal level where most readers begin to is the essay writing European University Cyprus, understand the story, we find a narrator explaining his mysterious association with Ligeia, a woman of Academy mysterious origin, great beauty, wealth and learning. She engages the narrator in the study of forbidden transcendental doctrine centering on the story's thrice repeated epigraph. The epigraph asserts that the will is mysterious, that God is is the best essay service European University a great Will pervading all things, and that man dies only because his will is not strong enough to keep him in life.
This central doctrine expresses both despair and hope: Man's will is weak, but if he can merge it with God's will, he might achieve immortality. On this literal and supernatural level, Ligeia succeeds in strengthening her will. Sample Essay Writing. She continues her existence beyond the death of her own body and essay service European University takes a second body, that of the how to essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, innocent Rowena. In the final scene, we witness the apparent transformation of fair Rowena into dark Ligeia. This reading is horrifying, but a closer reading on this supernatural level reveals more horrors. What is the meaning of Ligeia's act? Joel Salzberg has taken note of the fact that Ligeia's shrinking from the narrator's touch after her reincarnation suggests her aversion to is the best service European University Cyprus, him, an aversion inconsistent with the love she expresses for him when she is dying. Salzberg sees Ligeia becoming what she most feared, the Conqueror Worm . (living) only critical Niagara College through the death of Rowena, returning to him as a spiritual nullity in a grotesque rebirth. What Is The Best Essay Writing University Cyprus. 9 Other details of the story suggest deeper horrors. Ligeia possesses the writing of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, knowledge of the ages, beyond the what is the best essay writing service European Cyprus, learned narrator's ability to conceive. He cannot remember how he came to know her.
He knows nothing of her ancestry, not even her last name. Her face and eyes are unforgettable. The latter arouse in him feelings he cannot interpret but which numerous other objects also arouse, objects such as the glances of unusually aged people, a few distant stars, rapidly growing plants, and the passage that is the story's epigraph. One implication of his observations on her eyes is essay writing Thornton that they reflect the service Cyprus, will that refuses to my childhood essay writing Boston — UMass, die. She binds him to her with her incredible knowledge and mysterious beauty.
At her death, she fully reveals to him a love that amounts to idolatry. She leaves him great wealth. After her death, he surrenders his will to whatever forces will move him - and what essay European what results? He becomes a slave to opium, buys an isolated home and buys a new bride. Their bridal chamber is a pentagonal room decorated by the narrator with magical designs. Here Rowena soon falls ill and, not long after, dies on a night when the narrator both feels and desires another presence in the room and how to essay Chaminade thinks he sees ruby drops fall into best essay writing service University Cyprus, Rowena's wine. One need not be convinced by this compiling of detail, but it does not require an overly active imagination to my childhood Boston — UMass, take the hint that Ligeia has taken more than one body in her time and that she uses men such as the narrator without their knowledge to procure the bodies she needs for reincarnation. Ligeia is like the Conqueror Worm of her poem. In the poem, the angels watch the tragedy of Man in which human life consists of the what is the writing service European, pursuit of an ever sought never caught phantom, the pursuit a puppet show controlled by formless things, a show that ends with the entrance of the Conqueror Worm that devours the puppets most bloodily.
What the essay writing topics Academy, worm does to what is the writing European, mankind, Ligeia appears to have done physically to critical thing College, Rowena and spiritually to the narrator. How many other men have been her procurers? How many women have been her hosts? She has achieved immortality through feeding on the rest of mankind, dominating their feeble wills with her great will. The horror on what is the writing European University, the supernatural level does not end with the terrifying events we have noticed thus far.
Beyond cannibalism and transformation, beyond the possibility that Ligeia has fed on write a convincing essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, her kind for ages, and beyond the what service European Cyprus, suggestion in the poem that these acts reveal some fundamental truth about writing topics Thornton human condition lurk still more horrors. The epigraph implies that the power of will Ligeia seems to have achieved is a reflection of the best essay writing service European Cyprus, will of God. This implication forces the critical Niagara, reader to conceive a world that is a horror to the understanding. To conceive of this world is to is the best essay writing service University, be trapped in a threatening situation, to experience to some degree the frailty of one's own will, and to contemplate the terrifying implications of a desire for immortality. The narrator finds himself in a world where, despite his and Ligeia's desires, death seems to my childhood essay writing of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, be the ultimate force. Even if a will attains the strength to conquer death, it conquers by causing death, by becoming death. On this literal level, Ligeia is a powerful tale of terror. It presents the reader with a series of horrifying events that, upon examination, opens out into is the writing service University Cyprus, a possible world that is inimical to human needs and desires. On this literal level, the horror of incident is how to write a brief essay Moreton deepened by a horror of the spirit that should produce varying degrees of terror in is the best University Cyprus the reader. The degree of terror should vary in relation to the reader's perception of the distance between the fictionally presented world and the reader's world. (By terror, I mean the fear that harm will come to oneself.
Horror is one's response to fearing or to witnessing harm befalling another sensitive being.) 10 Some terror is inevitable as a result merely of imagining such a world, but this reaction should increase in intensity as one approaches nearer to believing this fictional world a true picture of one's own world. How To A Brief Essay Hall. Thompson's other two levels of interpretation will reveal Poe's probable intention of reducing, perhaps even eliminating, the distance between the world of the story and the world of the reader. As we examine these levels, it will be crucial to keep in mind that Poe's procedure is what essay European Cyprus not designed to convince readers that the world of the tale is their world by terrorizing them, but rather to terrorize them by strengthening the illusion that they inhabit the fictional world of the story. Critical. We must resist the easy route of choosing a relatively simple didactic end as a justification for the story's painful emotions. Still at a literal level, but moving from a supernatural to a psychological understanding of events, we enter the territory of the apparent majority of critics who see the narrator's reliability as a central issue. It has been amply demonstrated that the narrator's reliability is questionable, especially after he moves to his English abbey and what essay Cyprus becomes a slave to opium. Once the narrator is questioned, Pandora's box is essay Hall open, as is what European University Cyprus testified to Niagara College, by some strong attempts to reseal the what best European University, lid. 11 For the purposes of this paper, two of the problems resulting from the opened box seem especially interesting. First, critics begin to wonder just how much of the story is hallucination. Second, they have great difficulty determining the narrator's motives.
Does the write a brief essay Hall School, narrator hallucinate only what writing service Cyprus Ligeia's re - incarnation? Does this hallucination result from my childhood writing Boston — UMass, his megalomaniac desire to conquer death (Basler)? Does the narrator grow to what is the essay, hate Rowena so much that he is driven to murder her in order to restore Ligeia? 12 Perhaps. Persuasive Writing Tasks School. Ligeia is a visionary figure to whom the narrator sacrifices the real Rowena. 13 Joel Porte argues that the what is the essay writing service European, entire story is a fantastic projection of the narrator's internal romantic conflicts. 14 Explanations of the narrator's motivation range from how to essay Moreton School, seeing him as a ruthless idealist who almost knows what he is doing when he destroys Rowena (Salzberg, pp. 112 - 114) to seeing him as a helpless victim of a world drained of its power to arouse joy and a sense of elevated being (Gargano, p. 338). These and related interpretations lead almost directly to Thompson's third level of meaning, but before turning to is the University, that level, let us examine how the psychological level of Ligeia intensifies the reader's terror. What happens to a reader who discovers that the story he has been understanding as a supernatural tale may, in fact, be a psychological study of the narrator? It seems natural to move from relatively simple acceptance of the narrator to growing doubt about his reliability.
This gradual movement increases the reader's terror by decreasing his distance from the horrifying events. Thompson has pointed out that doubting the narrator opens an ironic distance between the reader and the narrator as it becomes clear that the narrator is closely involved in the eerie events. ( Poe's Fiction , p. School. 81). This observation overlooks the dynamic of the reader's transition from the supernatural to the psychological level of understanding. Is The Best Service Cyprus. On the supernatural level, the narrator is the victim of inimical forces beyond his ken. Furthermore, it is the nature of first person narration to create a strong bond between reader and narrating character. When the supernatural events begin to change into psychological symbols, the reader is critical Niagara more likely to abandon the supernatural world view than his closeness to the narrator. With the disappearance of the supernatural, the narrator's world becomes more like the reader's world. The distance between reader and narrator is reduced. At this stage of the best essay service European Cyprus, transition between levels, the narrator's victimization becomes a puzzle for critical thing Niagara the reader.
If the what is the best writing service European University, narrator is not the victim of critical Niagara a terrifying universe represented by is the essay European University Ligeia, of what is he the victim? The most immediate answer would seem to be that he is the victim of his desire for assurance of his soul's immortality. He has attempted to imagine a victory over mortality, but the vision he has achieved is a horror. To the horror already evoked by the failed quest on the supernatural level is added the failure of imagination on the psychological level. The reader witnesses the spectacle of a sensitive mind unable to sample essay writing topics Academy, imagine an escape from an oppressive world order, an order that refuses to grant transcendental assurances and that perverts or defeats the imagination by making it a mocking torture to its possessor. A key phase in the reader's shift from the first to the second level of meaning is this moment when the great differences between the narrator's world and the reader's world disappear while the bonds between their minds remain. The narrator becomes a fellow sufferer seeking certainty and power in an unsympathetic universe.
Distance does open up between reader and narrator when the reader begins to writing University Cyprus, suspect that the narrator is a murderer or a psychotic, but the my childhood of Massachusetts Boston, critics who prefer such readings are perhaps too quick to leap that distance, for such readings are more properly later developments in essay Cyprus a reader's experience, products of a further turning over of the persuasive tasks Hult International, tale in the mind. Once one begins to doubt the narrator, one is bound to see the possibility of is the writing service Cyprus reversing one's moral judgment of him. Since the reduction of distance between the reader and the text intensifies the reader's terror, it will be a natural reaction for readers to increase their distance from the text by revising their judgments of the narrator. My Childhood Writing Boston Boston. As we have seen, the motives one then attributes to the narrator can vary widely. He may be a megalomaniac murderer, a man destroyed by his commitment to the ideal, a frustrated lover, or a frustrated seeker after the unknowable. That so many possibilities can be cogently argued may indicate that the text is indeterminate at just the what is the best service European, point where many readers might wish it to be determinate. Sidney Moss believes Ligeia is my childhood writing of Massachusetts ultimately indeterminate. Noting sketchily a supernatural and a psychological reading, Moss asserts that they cannot be reconciled. These two conflicting readings force the reader to confess that the tale's meaning is indeterminable, . we can say hardly anything about what is really happening . and nothing at all about its meaning, except that . it is inexplicable (Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, pp. 48 - 49). Moss does not elaborate his argument, but it seems clear he is incorrect in so far as he asserts the incompatibility of the two readings; so one must conclude if, as has been argued here, there is a natural movement in the reader's experience from the supernatural to what is the University Cyprus, the psychological level.
But Moss does emphasize two significant facets of the story. First, as the continuing controversy over which of the two levels is primary demonstrates, the move to a psychological level is only possible, not certain. The text encourages such a move but does not insist on its finality, so Halliburton, for example, can move back from the second to the first level (see note 11). On this point, the text does not seem determinate. Second, Moss believes this story demonstrates his thesis that for Poe, Man is totally helpless in a universe he has abandoned all hope of understanding. All that man really knows, all he can experience, is terrible torment (p. 47).
While it is probably incorrect that this story is designed to teach any lesson, it is persuasive writing Hult Business true that Ligeia confronts the reader at some point with such a world and is the essay service University the struggles of a sensitive soul to make himself a place in it. Ligeia is indeterminate not only with regard to the primacy of the first two levels but also with regard to how to essay Chaminade, the narrator's motives on is the service European Cyprus, the second level. This indeterminacy is profoundly disturbing; it propels the reader who successfully exercises negative capability to Thompson's third functional level, that ironic level at which the story mocks the College, reader. Following the lead of Clark Griffith, 15 Thompson argues several ways in which Ligeia satirizes its readers, but satire is less productive of terror than are the ways in what best essay writing European which the text mocks the reader's attempts to know it. Essay Chaminade School. 16 Discovering the narrator's possible unreliability and being forced to explore the implications of this possibility is an unnerving experience for the reader even though it may be mitigated by the excitement of is the best writing service discovery as new possibilities emerge from the text. How To Write A Convincing Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. But what happens when, in the unsettled excitement of this discovery, the story explodes into multiple possibilities? It may be somewhat like reading the more convincing interpretations and being convinced by each in turn over and over again into eternity. The story refuses to be known. It resists one's attempts to what essay European Cyprus, settle on an evaluation of the narrator. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that each choice is writing University of Massachusetts Boston a temptation to be done with the tale, to best essay service European University, escape the my childhood writing of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, terrifying world in which one must remain so long as one attends to the story.
What world is is the best writing European University Cyprus this? Precisely the world in which the narrator finds himself, a world that will not yield to his attempts to critical thing Niagara, know it. Even when the narrator imagines an ideal order, a world without death, that image turns back on him, mirroring the terrifying nightmare of Ligeia's poem. Is the world diseased or is his mind his enemy? In either case, the result for the narrator is the same. What Is The Writing European University. As the world is to the narrator, the persuasive writing International School, story is to the reader. What Writing European University. Stephen L. Sample Essay Writing Topics Thornton Academy. Mooney's definition of Poe's doctrine of effect seems to apply as well to Ligeia: . the calculation of the artist to involve the reader in the life of the fiction, so that an experience of reality would be forged in the consciousness, fully and permanently . Poe is a spiritual aggressor. What Best Essay Writing European University. He moves in upon consciousness like an invading army. If the effect of reading him is rather like going through a war, we may be sure that it was the effect he intended. The reader does not forget. He knows that Poe has been there.
17. To read this story faithfully is to submit to write a convincing essay Preparatory, imprisonment in a terrifying and, in some ways, inescapable fictional world and, therefore, to experience terror as intensely as may be possible for a reader of best University a fiction. The reader is threatened with becoming like the narrator. Such a threat may stimulate still further the reader's desire to know the unknowable narrator in persuasive Hult International Business School order to more fully understand the narrator's true relation to the reader. To attempt such a knowing in this state is to prolong one's terror. Ligeia is designed to arouse intense terror in its readers. The greater the attention a reader gives to the story, the more intense will be his experience. In fact, it appears that a careful reading in what essay European University Cyprus which this intensity reaches a maximum will move through stages roughly parallel to the stages through which critical interpretation of the story has moved and almost exactly parallel to sample writing Academy, the ascending functional levels Thompson has seen in Poe's Gothic tales. What Is The Essay Service European University. It is not difficult to understand why such a reading of Ligeia might arouse skepticism. We have seen that horror is thought to be of dubious literary value as an end.
Worse still, this reading asserts that Ligeia's end is to terrorize the a convincing Сollege Preparatory School, reader. Furthermore, by accepting the reading, one is forced to consider a most vexing question: why would anyone want to is the best essay service Cyprus, read a story that has such an effect? It would appear that many readers do not want to read such a story, for if, as I have implied, this reading includes and partially synthesizes most earlier readings, then those who insist on the finality of one earlier reading are either denying or attempting to mitigate the tale's terror. 18 I would argue that this story produces in the reader terror as an my childhood essay writing University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston, end rather than a means and that normal people read and reread the story precisely because they enjoy such experiences. To give some credibility to what is the essay Cyprus, the latter half of that statement, let us take two steps: first a consideration of the technical means by which a story can terrorize a reader and, second, a consideration of how the reader might find pleasure in experiencing such a story. Without the critical thing College, example of Ligeia before us, it would be difficult to assert the possibility of a reader being terrorized by a fiction. Such an effect may entail the breakdown of the psychical distance that Edward Bullough argues is essential to is the European, an aesthetic experience. Bullough defines psychical distance as the separation of the Hult International Business School, object and its appeal from one's own self by what is the best service putting it out of gear with practical ends and needs.
19 If a story terrorizes a reader, it must somehow deliberately reduce or even eliminate psychical distance. Bullough uses an example of a fog at sea to explain the effect of distance. A sea fog is usually frightening; however, during such a fog one can experience a turning of attention in which practical concerns of safety fade away and the fog becomes an object of how to a convincing Сollege aesthetic contemplation. This turn opens the fog to a new kind of perception in which its danger may become a part of the experience of its beauty because now the danger is not felt as a practical danger to oneself (p. 755). Best Essay Cyprus. The proper approach to a story is to to writing, open oneself to what is the best essay writing University Cyprus, the aesthetic turn and to enter easily into essay writing topics Thornton Academy, an attitude of psychical distance that the author, with technical skill, attempts to manipulate in order to encourage the reader, in Roman Ingarden's terms, to form one aesthetic object from among all the possible concretizations of the text. 20 Once the reader has entered the story and accepted its projections of narrator and world, Ligeia begins to attempt deliberately to reduce and, perhaps, finally eliminate psychical distance, to move the reader out of what University Cyprus his aesthetic attitude and into a quite particular practical attitude.
In Ligeia, the practical attitude is mental terror. This effect violates Bullough's antinomy of distance:what is, therefore, both in appreciation and production most desirable is the utmost decrease of University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston distance without its disappearance (p. 758). In Ligeia, Poe tries to best essay service Cyprus, make distance disappear. Even though Bullough would tend to blame a loss of distance either on the artist's failure or on the reader's, he does make it clear that loss of distance is possible. Tragedy, he asserts, trembles always on the knife - edge of a personal reaction, and to writing an argumentative Brown College sympathy that finds relief in tears tends almost always towards a loss of distance (p. 763).
If the best essay service University, loss is possible, then it is critical thing College also possible that authors might attempt to exploit the potential of deliberately destroying psychical distance, of switching readers out of the aesthetic attitude. It may be that all or most horror stories seek to terrorize readers at least mildly. Even the explained Gothic of Ann Radcliffe, terrorizes to some extent though the distance between reader and terrifying objects is what best essay European maintained by many technical features of the work, such as the orderliness of the how to a brief essay Moreton Hall, fictional world, the remote settings, the concentration of the what is the essay European University Cyprus, horrors on a sympathetic victim clearly separated from the reader, and the conventional reliable narration. One can observe a trend in thing Lewis, Maturin, Poe and down to Lovecraft and the twentieth century horror film, of what best essay writing service University increasing exploration and exploitation of universally terrifying objects. A catalog readily comes to persuasive writing Business, mind: all hostile manifestations of supernatural agency; nearly everything associated with death; the violation of the most basic moral laws against what is the service European University Cyprus incest, torture, and cannibalism; and attempts to harm the individual soul. The vivid portrayal of such horrors is tasks Hult International likely to reduce most readers' distance from the best essay service University, portrayal and to essay Moreton Hall School, threaten them directly. Perhaps a major difference between Maturin or Lewis and Poe is that the former maintain conventional distance while Poe seems to have discovered ways to essay, reduce or eliminate such distance and, thereby, to intensify the reader's terror. G.R.
Thompson notes that Melmoth theWanderer teases the reader in a way that points toward the ambiguity of Poe (Gothic Fiction and the Romantic Age, p. 21). However, the terror (as opposed to the horror) of the reader arises only as a direct response to the horrors that characters suffer. The degree of that direct response depends on how sensitive the particular reader is to the depicted horror. Peter Penzoldt, in his chapter on The Pure Tale of Terror has inadvertently demonstrated the degree to University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, which sensitivities can vary. He finds the tales of Crawford, Machen, and Lovecraft too repulsive to be really good, yet he marvels at how the what essay writing service European, tales he thinks uncommonly bad are most often anthologized. 21 One direction of refinement the how to write essay School, tale of terror seems to have taken is what is the essay writing European University toward techniques, situations, and images that, in Henry James' words, will catch those not easily caught. the. jaded, the disillusioned, the tasks International Business, fastidious. 22.
It becomes more plausible to think that Poe might have written at what service European University least one story in which he experimented with the destruction of the aesthetic attitude when one reflects that such experimentation was in the air, especially in my childhood essay of Massachusetts Boston nineteenth century America, that the theoretical possibility had been present at least since Burke's definition of the is the service European Cyprus, sublime as involving terror in an essential way, and that experiments in didactic fiction, at least as early as Candide had cultivated an interest in using the delights of fiction in the service of practical ends. Essay George College. The attempt to appropriate the pleasures of art to practical moral ends is as old as aesthetic thought and needs no documentation here. One need only notice that with the is the best writing service University, rise of how to Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School mass readership and the accompanying extension of concern about the relation of what is the best essay writing service Cyprus art and public morality, novelists could be expected to seek ways of moving readers into, then out of an aesthetic attitude, to seek ways of telling stories to Hult, arouse energies that might then be directed to virtuous action. 23 While it may not be possible to make stories that will have precisely this effect, the attempts to do so, especially those of major Gothic writers such as Radcliffe, Lewis, Brown, Shelley, and Maturin, brought to the fore questions about the aesthetic value of terror and attendant problems of distance. Most discussions of these questions, according to Samuel Monk, derived from Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, published in 1757. 24. Burke explains how terror is involved in the sublime: Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the best essay service European Cyprus, sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion that the mind is capable of write a brief feeling . When danger or pain press too nearly they are incapable of giving any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful, as we every day experience (1, 7; Quoted in Monk, p. 91). Implied in this explanation is the possibility that the aesthetic attitude toward a terrifying object might break down. Monk also presents Knight's argument that Burke has confused the best essay European Cyprus, practical and the aesthetic: To the man who sees the persuasive tasks International School, danger in the storm and who does not fear, the phenomenon is sublime; but the moment that it becomes terrible, the moment that fear comes into the experience, all sympathy with the cause that produced it, and consequently, all relish for the sublimity of it, is at an end.
Practical considerations have destroyed the capacity of best regarding the tempest aesthetically (The Sublime, p. 162). In Burke and in thing Niagara subsequent discussions of the sublime is the possibility, undesirable but always present, that someone might find a value in is the best writing service European University deliberately eliminating the distance essential to harnassing terror's energy to the sublime. That experiments with distance were in the nineteenth century air is demonstrated by a few familiar examples. How To Write Essay Moreton. Crossing Brooklyn Ferry is a calculated attempt to eliminate distance between speaker and reader. In The White Heron, Sarah Orne Jewett attempts the imaginative union of narrator, character, landscape, and reader. As Richard Poirier has argued, American writers have long been interested in inducing visions in their readers. 25 But for the purposes of this essay, a useful example is the eighteenth chapter of The House of the Seven Gables, Governor Pyncheon. What European Cyprus. In that chapter, Hawthorne approximates the movement we have seen in Ligeia in such a way as to reveal the my childhood essay University of Massachusetts — UMass, springs of the tale's ability to essay writing European Cyprus, attract and please readers. Like Ligeia, Governor Pyncheon captures the reader and provides a terrifying vision of the abyss, a vision virtually the opposite of that offered by Whitman and Jewett. This chapter begins in a tone of mockery as narrator and reader play the game of pretending the dead judge is alive in order to judge him for his sins and to twit him for his inability to carry out his ambitious and greedy projects. But as we mock the judge, time passes.
The twilight comes glooming upwards out of the corners of the room. 26 We are left in utter, deathlike darkness. Writing Tasks Hult Business School. An infinite, inscrutable blackness has annihilated sight! Where is our universe? All crumbled away from what is the best University, us; and we, adrift in chaos, may harken to the gusts of homeless wind, that go sighing and to writing murmuring about, in what essay service University Cyprus quest of write Hall what was once a world (p.241)!
We have been captured in our game and the mockery has turned back upon best writing service European Cyprus, us. The narrator identifies us with the homeless wind, for we have experienced something like death and now are spirits without a world. We are transformed and persuasive writing Hult School entrapped. While time is no longer of importance to the judge (so we agreed as we mocked him), now we experience it as unendurable duration: Would that we were not an is the essay writing service European University Cyprus, attendant spirit here! It is too awful! This clamor of the wind through the lonely house; the judge's quietude as he sits invisible; and that pertinacious ticking of my childhood writing Boston — UMass Boston his watch (p. Best University. 242)! When the moon restores some light, the narrator lightens the tone by mentioning the critical thing, ghost legends of the house.
However, we are again entrapped by his efforts to make a little sport with the legends. His vision assumes a life of its own and reveals more than we know, that the what is the best essay writing service European Cyprus, judge's heir is also dead. The intended relief intensifies terror and entrapment, We needed relief .. from our too long and sample essay Thornton exclusive contemplation of what is the that figure in the chair . yonder leaden Judge sits immovably upon our soul. Will he never stir again? We shall go mad unless he stirs (p. 245)! Several distancing factors, including a certain playfulness in the narrative voice, prevent the degree of reduction of distance in this chapter that one experiences in Ligeia. Still, it is clear that Hawthorne seriously intends to how to write Preparatory School, terrorize the reader to some extent, perhaps in order to is the essay writing service University, evoke a deeper understanding of the sufferings of others, especially Clifford and how to write essay Moreton Hall School Hepzibah, that the judge lacked during his life and, perhaps, to explore the world implied by the judge's values.
This chapter of The House of the Seven Gables helps to demonstrate that Poe's contemporaries were experimenting with the possibilities of reducing psychical distance and provides one example, in addition to Ligeia, of best essay service European Cyprus a movement toward dissolving a previously created aesthetic attitude. Critical Thing Niagara. This example is useful to the further extent that it is specific about what means it intends to use for is the essay European terrifying the reader. How To A Brief Moreton School. There is an attempt to entrap the reader in the fictional situation, to render that situation frightening via the presence of threatening objects, agencies, and events, and to transform the reader psychologically. The threats of entrapment, confrontation with the threatening, and transformation are familiar because they are primary means by which the villains of Gothic Romance terrorize their victims. However, Hawthorne and Poe have introduced a new factor. Elizabeth MacAndrew points out that in eighteenth - century critical thought, the misery of innocent suffering was thought to what is the essay writing service European, call forth the a brief, reader's benevolence on behalf of the sufferer (pp.39 - 40). Presumably, when the victim is terrorized, the reader may feel an intensity of pity as a part of the suspense that such threats evoke. These effects are often associated with melodrama and are familiar in what essay writing University Cyprus the films of Alfred Hitchcock; consider, for example, the intensity of suspense and fear for any character in Psycho who enters the house alone. MacAndrew also discusses John and Anna Aiken's puzzling over what they saw as gratuitous horrors in Gothic fiction.
For them, as for Burke, terror became functional only in evoking the sublime, a response valuable in essay topics Thornton Academy itself (MacAndrew, pp. 41 - 2). However, when Hawthorne mildly but directly threatens the reader and when Poe makes the reader an what is the best essay writing service European University Cyprus, actual victim of Gothic terrors, neither of these explanations is adequate. For horror to intensify the reader's sympathy and for terror to serve the sublime, distance is essential. Hult International Business. When a tale sets out to terrorize the reader directly, it must do so by drawing the what best essay service University, reader into an aesthetic attitude; then it must quite deliberately move toward destroying that attitude in such a way as to threaten the reader. Writing Academy. This new factor subverts the old aims. To understand why Poe may have thought the experience of terror might be pleasurable to readers, it is helpful to best writing University Cyprus, look somewhat closely at writing Academy how fictional characters are made to react to terror. In the Gothic Romance, heroines often undergo a sequence of events that includes entrapment, a confrontation with some threatening circumstance, and a threatened or actual transformation. For example, in C.B.
Brown's Wieland, Clara Wieland experiences progressive isolation and multiple physical entrapments that contribute to psycholocigal entrapment in a repulsive social identity. During the physical entrapments she is essay writing service European University subjected to essay Сollege Preparatory School, physical threats such as rape and murder and is the service European University Cyprus the psychological threats of transformation of social identity and, eventually, of personality. When she witnesses her brother's transformation into a madman, she experiences a profound threat that she will be similarly transformed even should she escape all the other threats. By observing how she reacts to these threats, we may gain insight into what sort of reactions one might expect from a reader threatened in parallel ways by a tale. The central effect of Clara's entrapment in threatening circumstances is the deterioration of her rational powers; a separation of reason and will precedes the disordering of reason.
Alone in her house, Clara has heard from sample writing Thornton Academy, within her closet a voice plotting her murder. Yet on best essay writing service University Cyprus, a later night, after she dreams of being murdered, she decides to writing tasks Business School, enter that closet in defiance of a rational evaluation of her position. In her closet she meets a man who says his intentions were to rape her. 27 Like Arthur Gordon Pym, when he is trapped in the hold of a ship, Clara loses control of her will and partially loses her self - possession. Poe's novel is even more instructive on this point; Pym, as a result of entrapment, experiences debilitation and what essay service European Cyprus loss of orientation. Steps College. He imagines threatening agencies and, eventually, loses virtually all control over body and what writing service Cyprus mind. The sequence, from entrapment through transformation, causes a progressive disordering of rational faculties in the victims of Gothic Romance. When Clara understands the nature of essay writing Boston Boston her brother's transformation, she reflects, I wondered at my brother's condition.
Now was I stupified with tenfold wonder in contemplating myself. Was I not likewise transformed from rational and what best essay writing service European human into University of Massachusetts Boston Boston, a creature of nameless and fearful attributes (Brown, p. 205)? Following this train of thought to a conclusion, she realizes that her sanity must appear madness to her brother, who has actually heard the voice of God commanding him to slay those he loves. How can she be certain that he has not heard God's voice? Her rationally ordered world crumbles away leaving her hoping for the comfort of an early death (Brown, pp. 205 - 7). The central Gothic horrors constitute an assault on the integration of the victim's personality. Elizabeth MacAndrew has argued that Ann Radcliffe's novels involve tests of their heroines.
For example, in The Mysteries of essay service European University Cyprus Udolpho , Emily's travels are symbolic journeys between different worlds that represent different states of mind she must confront and understand, whether they are in College herself or in others . Brought up surrounded by goodness . Emily . makes out of human wickedness, cruelty, greed, and what is the essay service University desperation, a nightmare Gothic world of supernatural evil. This Gothic view is hers, not Ann Radcliffe's. Thing College. Before she can escape, she must first recognize that Montoni is not a human monster but a bandit. (MacAndrew, pp. 132 - 3) Perhaps a story could attempt to subject a reader to is the essay service European University Cyprus, a direct approximation of this kind of Business School test. That Ligeia is intended to is the best essay writing service University, try its readers seems plausible.
It is a trial to withstand and deal with a story that leaps over the normal distance between fiction and reader in order to attack the reader. The story may give pleasure because successfully reading it is a test of one's ability to hold together in the face of a world that refuses to surrender to one's powers of integration. All literature offers, among its many pleasures, those of exercising peculiarly human faculties and capabilities: verbal mastery, the power of forming mental images, sympathy, intensity and sample essay writing Thornton variety of emotional response, moral judgment, and, perhaps also, the sense of having the strength to maintain the integration of one's chosen personality. Personality is chosen, not only in the sense that we commit ourselves to values and essay writing Cyprus actions that contribute to our identities, but also in the existential sense of moment by moment choice to be one personality (sanity) as opposed to surrendering to alternate possible selves (psychosis). Entrapment, confrontation with horrific threats, and transformation suggest three major psychological threats: claustrophobia and related spatial fears, paranoia, and schizophrenia. Steps To Writing Essay Brown College. Ligeia may be seen as giving the reader some sense of how these psychotic states feel. What Best Essay Writing Service. To the degree that Ligeia succeeds at threatening its reader with these psychoses, it must test that reader's ability to resist such states. It is possible that readers will feel greater pleasure in the exercise of their faculties of integration as the threats they withstand are more direct and intense. And, if the threats prove too intense, the normal reader has available the usual defenses, flight and repression. The pleasure of reading a tale that to some degree attempts a direct attack of critical thing Niagara terror on the reader derives from the reader's successful exercise of his faculties of personal integration in resistence to the threats posed by is the best essay writing European that story. Even though this hypothesis about the pleasure of terror has the value of suggesting that the modern taste for the mental terror that fiction can arouse may not be a disease, it is, nevertheless, certain - to evoke skepticism.
Perhaps the sample essay writing topics Academy, best way of enhancing the credibility of the hypothesis would be to analyze a number of texts with similar effects, but to do so would make this essay too long. However, with the help of other scholars and critics, it is possible to suggest that there are other works like Ligeia which to some degree terrorize their readers, that the effect of terror in such works centers on best essay European University, threats to the reader's personality, and that the sample, pleasure that attracts readers to such works derives from exercising the essay writing service University, personality's integrative faculties to master those threats. The possibility that other works function in ways similar to Ligeia is strengthened if not demonstrated by how to write a brief Moreton recalling the critical histories of two other major terror tales, The Fall of the House of Usher and The Turn of the Screw. Each has gone through the what European, same three stages of interpretation from literal supernatural readings, through the discovery of psychological ambiguity, to a proliferation of explanations of the ambiguity that seems to steps George College, suggest that in is the service European Cyprus both works a potentially terrifying indeterminacy emerges from the to writing College, most attentive readings. 28 Works that attack readers in other ways have a long history and seem, in contemporary fiction to have increased in number. Philip Thomson demonstrates how since ancient times the technique of the grotesque has produced in readers an unresolvable clash of incompatibles. Best European University Cyprus. 29 Mathew Winston has argued that contemporary Black Humor concerns itself with unsettling readers, by to writing George deliberately disorienting them, in order to achieve various effects.
30 David I. Grossvogel believes that the modern mystery story attempts to is the University, achieve a kind of steps Brown College open-endedness that will make the text into a mystery; the text offers itself as a deciphering, as another form of the obdurate otherness at whose shifting limits the probing continues. What Essay Writing Cyprus. 31 He further argues that The Purloined Letter is designed, as we have seen that Ligeia is writing tasks Hult Business School designed, to entrap or captivate those of its readers who attempt to attend to it fully. The more closely The Purloined Letter is read, the what service European, more stubbornly does it refuse to yield itself. This story confronts the close reader with an experience of reality (Grossvogel, pp. Critical Thing. 93 - 109). S.S. Prawer indicates that he and what is the service European University others have been terrorized by horror films. He attempts to explain how the terror works and suggests some ideas about why such an experience may be pleasurable. 32.
In Caligari's Children, Prawer attempts an analysis of the fascination of fear which seems to persuasive writing International Business School, support our hypothesis. What European. He lists and describes the sample topics Thornton, fears to what is the European University Cyprus, which horror films have spoken. He recognizes the general fear of critical entrapment (pp. 77 - 8) and threatening agencies. The fear of threatening agencies may include: fear of being possessed (p.
5 1), of invasion of what is the best essay privacy (p. 52) and of being manipulated against one's will (p. 57), fear of those who have defied human limitations (p. Write Essay Moreton Hall. 56), of the dead (p. 68), and of encounters with hostile non - humans (p. 52). Is The Writing European Cyprus. He also recognizes the how to write Chaminade Preparatory, fear of being transformed; among the other fears he mentions, those related to is the best writing service European University, transformation are: of being possessed (again), of the escape of one's inner animal nature (p. 53), of the loss of wholeness of personality (p.
55) and. fear of loss of a rational world (p. 81). Such a list makes clear one point that might easily be misunderstood; the categories of steps to writing an argumentative essay George College entrapment, threatening objects and agencies, and transformation are neither mutually exclusive nor guaranteed to be all - inclusive. Barton Levi St. Armand underlines this point in The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft. 33 According to essay writing service European University, St.
Armand, Lovecraft finds the experience of viscosity terrifying because he associates it with the primal slime from which life emerged: To become a part of that (primal) sea without losing consciousness was the ultimate horror of Lovecraft's landlocked world. It was the triumph of viscosity, the thing Niagara, triumph of filth, the triumph of best essay writing all alien mixtures, and especially, the triumph of alien blood (St. Armand, p. Niagara. 63). Contained in the concept of best viscosity are all three general categories: entrapment in a physical process of deterioration in which one is powerless before the force that transforms one into an alien substance. This image of viscosity suggests that the key to Thornton, the mental terror of what is the essay service Cyprus fiction is the threat of transformation, for this threat presupposes entrapment and confrontation with a power that is perceived as alien whether it arises from within or from without.
The threat of transformation seems aimed directly at the personality of the victim just as the mental threats of psychosis that Ligeia makes are aimed at the personality of the reader. In the words of Lovecraft's Randolph Carter, Merging with nothingness is peaceful oblivion; but to be aware of existence and yet to know that one is no longer a definite being distinguished from College, other beings - that one no longer has a self - that is the what best writing European University, nameless summit of agony and dread. Write A Convincing Chaminade. 34. Prawer speaks more directly than does St. Armand to the problem of the reader's or the viewer's pleasure in the terror of a fiction.
He goes beyond the what best essay writing University, usually unexamined assertions that horror or films are somehow thrilling, for he recognizes the problem of explaining why a thrill of terror should be pleasurable. In his conclusion, Prawer suggests that viewers somehow perceive that horror is good for them: terror - films articulate not infrequently terror at the order we have created or help to uphold as well as the anarchic desires that oppose such order (p. 270). He also says, . the terror - film responds to a need one can also observe in any fairground: the need to be safely frightened, the need to test and objectify and critical thing College come to grips with one's terrors in a setting of ultimate security, where one can tell oneself at any moment: 'It is only a film; these are only actors; this isn't even my own dream, I can get up and leave the darkened cinema to step into a more familiar world at any moment' (p. 48). While it may be true that one is ultimately safe in that one can physically escape the what is the best European Cyprus, mental terror of a film, it is not certain that one is very safe. The viewer must make his own distance. How To Write A Convincing Essay Сollege School. And because the threats are mental, once one has taken in the images, they must be dealt with. Prawer comments on the degree to which distance may be reduced in the cinema (pp. 65 - 6) and, still more interesting, he tells of his own daughter's loss of distance from 7he Exorcist: Age - old fears that alien forces may enter and take over is the writing University Cyprus, our very bodies help to explain the Hult Business, undoubtedly disturbing effect that Friedkin's The Exorcist had on a number of susceptible viewers - including my teenage daughter, who had the screaming heebie-jeebees for weeks after seeing that film, but who seems now to have come to terms with the is the service University, terrors it articulated for her (p.
51). When a work of terror succeeds in erasing the barrier of distance, it becomes positively threatening to its reader or viewer. But, as another of Prawer's personal experiences suggests, this threat may be just what the reader or viewer sought in the first place. He describes his reaction upon first seeing. White Zombie when he was fourteen: the whole added up to an encounter with deep - seated fears from which I felt I emerged with credit. I remember the experience with gratitude as a liberating and exhilarating one. (p. How To Write Essay Сollege. 202). Prawer is essay writing University not speaking here of being safely frightened, but of being really frightened. He is not speaking of the critical, thrills of terror, even though he most likely felt emotions that could be so named, but rather of what best essay service European Cyprus his own mastery of the terror that the film evoked. Prawer may not wholly agree with these derivations from his presentation, but his experiences seem to confirm the idea that the pleasures of persuasive writing International terror arise from the successful exercise of faculties of personal integration in resistance to the mental terrors of the work.
For his more susceptible daughter, the process of mastery extends over some time after viewing the film. One is safe from such a film only is the best essay writing European Cyprus because it will end; therefore, if one cannot master its terrors, one can only reassert some form of distanced relation to a brief Hall School, those terrors either during or after the film. The latter response is what essay writing European University Cyprus probably much less pleasurable than the former. If the rewards of enduring the disappearance of distance that leads to psychological terror include the liberation, the exhilaration, and the self - praise that Prawer describes, then, surely, tales of terror are valuable. They have not only the ethically valuable effect of helping us to master our terrors, but also the essential artistically valuable effect of pleasing us. 35 Without the latter, there would be no readers or viewers to benefit from the former effect.
Normal people are attracted to terror in how to literature and film because it legitimately pleases them. In order to be pleased by terror, they must exercise their uniquely human faculties, not only all those faculties that are necessary for the arts of reading and is the writing service European Cyprus understanding, but also those special faculties for maintaining an integral personality. Inevitably, in the pleasurable exercise of those various faculties, those people who are terrorized are also humanized. The pleasures of terror are humane pleasures. 1 Quoted by steps to writing an argumentative essay Brown College Elizabeth MacAndrew, The Gothic Tradition in Fiction (New York: Columbia Univ.
Press, 1979), p. 41. Her source is the third edition of John Aikin and Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Pleasure Derived from Objects of Terror, Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose (London, 1792), p. 120. There are slight textual variations in the first (1773) and second (1775) editions. 2 Joseph M. Garrison, Jr., The Function of Terror in the Work of Edgar Allan Poe, American Qu arterly, 18 (1966), 137. 3 D.P. Varma, The Gothic Flame (London: Baker, 1957), chapters five and six. 4 Ann Radcliffe, On the Supernatural in Poetry, New Monthly Magazine, NS 16 (1826), 145 - 50. 5 The critical response to Hawthorne's works is well known and can be reviewed in B. Bernard Cohen, The Recognition of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1969). For attacks on the morality of Sanctuary see H.S.
Canby, Seven Years Harvest (Murray Hill, New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1936), pp. 79 - 82, Oscar Cargill, Intellectual America (New York: Macmillan, 1941), p. 378; and W. Lewis, A Moralist with a Corncob, Life and Letters, 10 934), 312 - 28. For a pair of less than satisfactory attempts to treat the novel as allegory, see Richard Chase's discussion of what is the essay writing service George Marion O'Donnell's account of writing tasks Business Sanctuary, 7he American Novel and Its Tradition (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1957), pp. 237 - 41. For a discussion of Sanctuary as a Gothic novel, see Robert D. Hume, Gothic vs. Romantic: A Reevaluation of the what is the best essay European Cyprus, Gothic Novel, PMLA, 84 (1969), 288. 6 Stuart and Susan Levine, eds., The Short Fiction of my childhood writing University — UMass Edgar Allan Poe (Indianapolis: Bobbs - Merrill, 1976), and Eric W. Carlson, Poe's Vision of Man, R.P. Veler, ed., Papers on Poe (Springfield, Ohio: Chantry Music Press, 1972), pp.
7 - 19. 7 David Halliburton, Edgar Allan Poe: A Phenomenological View (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973), pp. 217 - 18, brings the horror of the narrator's defeat back into the story as subordinate to the victory of transcendent vision. 8 Sidney P. Moss, Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, R.P. Veler, ed. Papers on Poe, pp. What Essay Writing European Cyprus. 42 - 53 and G.R. Thompson Poe's Fiction (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1973), pp.
77 - 87. For a discussion of the a brief essay Moreton Hall School, views of Carlson, Moss, and Thompson, see G.R. Thompson, Poe and Nineteenth - Century Poetry, in J:A. Robbins, ed. American Literary Scholarship 1972 (Durham, North Carolina: Duke UP, 1974), pp. 212 - 14. 9 Joel Salzberg, The Gothic Hero in is the essay writing European University Transcendental Quest: Poe's 'Ligeia' and James' 'The Beast in the Jungle,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 113. 10 These definitions of terror and horror derive from modern usage, not from Niagara, Ann Radcliffe's distinction in On the Supernatural in Poetry. It will be useful to is the best writing service European Cyprus, notice that, according to essay University Boston — UMass, the definitions I use in what is the best essay writing service European University this essay, terror will vary according to the immediacy and intensity of the threat.
Horror will vary according to the moral deserts and the intensity of suffering of the victim. Horror tends to become terror, or to mix with it, when the psychological distance between oneself and the victim decreases. 11 Roy P. Basler began the controversy in his 1944 College English essay The Interpretation of Ligeia, reprinted in R. Regan, ed., Poe (Englewood Cliffs. Sample Writing Topics Academy. New Jersey: Prentice - Hall. 1967). pp. What Essay Writing Service Cyprus. 51 - 63. Arguments from thing, various points of view for a supernatural reading include James Schroeter, A Misreading of Poe's 'Ligeia,' PMLA, 76 (1961), 397 - 406; Edward Wagenknecht, Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Oxford UP, 1963), pp.
248 - 49, John Lauber 'Ligeia' and Its Critics: A Plea for is the writing service European Literalism. Studies in Short Fiction. 4 (1966).28 - 32: E..W. Carlson. Poe on the Soul of Man . My Childhood Essay — UMass. ( Baltimore: The E.A. Poe Society and the Enoch Pratt Free Library. What Best Writing Service Cyprus. 1973). pp. Of Massachusetts Boston. 14 - 17. David Halliburton reads the story as both supernatural and psychological in Edgar Allan Poe , pp.207 - 18.
12 G. R. Thompson, ' Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and is the best writing the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 3049, and Daniel Hoffman. A Convincing Essay Сollege Preparatory. I Have Been Faithful toYou in My Fashion: The Remarriage of Ligeia's Husband, Southern Review, 8 (1972), 89 - 105. 13 James W. Gargano, Poe's 'Ligeia': Dream and Destruction, College English, 23 (1962), 335-42. 14 Joel Porte, Tire Romance in America (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan UP, 1969), pp. 69 - 74. 15 Clark Griffith, Poe's ' Ligeia' and what is the writing European the English Romantics. University of Toronto Quarterly , 24 (1954), 8 - 13, 16 - 25. 16 Thompson's arguments appear both in writing tasks International Business 'Proper Evidences of is the best service University Cyprus Madness': American Gothic and the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' and in Poe's Vision, pp. 77 - 87.
17 Stephen L. Mooney, Poe's Gothic Wasteland, in steps essay George Brown College C.W. Carlson, ed. What Is The Best Writing Service University. The Recognition of Edgar Allan Poe (Ann Arbor: U of persuasive writing Hult Business Michigan P, 1966), p. 295. 18 I am aware of an what European University Cyprus, element of unfairness in subjecting previous readings to a double - bind. Steps To Writing George Brown College. Such a judgment seems inevitable from the point of is the best writing view argued in this essay, but it is not meant to exempt this essay from careful scrutiny or opposing arguments. 19 Edward Bullough, 'Psychical Distance' as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle, in Hazard Adams, ed., Critical Theory Since Plato (New York: Harcourt, 1971), p. 756. 20 Roman Ingarden, Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Object. Brown. Philosophy, and Phenomenological Research, 21(March 1961), 289 - 313. 21 Peter Penzoldt, TheSupernatural in Fiction (1952; New York: Humanities Press, 1965), pp. 146 - 91.
22 James is speaking of what is the essay writing University his aims in The Turn of the Screw , Preface to 'The Aspern Papers,' in The Art of the Novel (New York:, Scribner's, 1934, 1962), p. 172. 23 David H. Richter suggests that The Vicar o f Wakefield may break down structurally under the strain of attempting to encompass such an end, Fable's End (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1974), pp. 171 - 76. 24 Samuel Monk, The Sublime (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1935), chapter 7. 25 Richard Poirier, A WorldElsewhere (New York: Oxford UP, 1966).
26 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables (New York: Signet, 1961), p. 240, 27 C. B. Brown, Wieland (NewYork: Doubleday, 1962), pp. 100 - 104. 28 For a survey of the discussion of my childhood writing University Boston The Fall of the House of Usher, see E.W. Carlson, ed., Edgar Allan Poe: The Fall of the House of Usher, (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1971). This survey should be supplemented with Halliburton, with Thompson's Poe's Fiction, and with a suggestive essay about the story's formal structure by Walter Evans. 'The Fall of the House of Usher' and Poe's Theory of the Tale. Studies in Short Fiction,14 (1977 ),137 - 144. For a survey of discussions of The Turn of the Screw, see Robert Kimbrough, ed.. Henry James: The Turn of the Screw (New York: W.W.
Norton, 1966). Perhaps the service University Cyprus, most sophisticated argument yet to appear for a supernatural reading of James' novella is in Wayne C. Booth, Critical Understanding (Chicago : U of Chicago P, 1979), pp. 284 - 301. Booth bases his argument on - the limits imposed by an informed judgment of an author's capabilities. Were he to find this paper convincing, Booth might be able to critical Niagara, revise his judgment of what is the James' capabilities. 29 Philip Thomson, TheGrotesque (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 27. 30 Mathew Winston, Humour Noir and sample essay Thornton Black Humor, in Harry Levin. ed..
Veins of Humor (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1972), pp. 269 - 84; and The Ethics of Contemporary Black Humor. The Colorado Quarter1y 24 (1976), 275 - 88. Is The Service European Cyprus. See also my Some Techniques of Black Humor, Thalia 2 (1979-80), 15-21.. 31 David I. Grossvogel, Mystery and Its Fictions (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1979), p. 21. 32 S.S. Prawer, Caligari's Children: The Film as Tale of Terror (New York: Oxford UP, 1980), chapters 2, 4, and 8. 33 Barton Levi St.
Armand, The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of critical Niagara College H.P. Lovecraft (Elizabethtown, New York: Dragon Press, 1977), pp. 59 - 77. 34 H.P. Lovecraft, Through the Gates of the Silver Key, At the Mountains of Madness (London: Panther, 1970), p. 281. 35 That terror fiction tests and strengthens the self seems to support Varma's argument that Gothic fiction originates out of the decline of religious belief in the eighteenth century ( The Gothic Flame, pp.
206 - 212). Is The Best Essay Service European Cyprus. In the how to write a convincing essay Chaminade Preparatory School, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it has become increasingly clear how personal identity is threatened by what best writing service European the loss of a sense of relatedness to the cosmos on a spiritual level, Perhaps there is persuasive writing Hult International School so much modem horror fiction and best writing service European University Cyprus film because we need it now more than ever.
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Plato and Socrates were both ancient Greek philosophers. They are considered to be the founders of is the best European University Western philosophy. Both men also founded a school. Socrates was Plato’s teacher and persuasive International Business mentor. Socrates expounded on the wisdom of “I know that I know nothing.” Plato philosophized that the world of ideas was the only constant and that the world of senses is changeable. Adolf Hitler and Regina George both can be considered dictators in their own right.
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Pope Francis is the leader of the Catholic Church. Macklemore is an American entertainer and hip-hop rapper. Macklemore “wears your grandad’s clothes,” while Pope Francis is old enough to how to write, be your grandad. 13. Lin-Manual Miranda vs.
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Media coverage of past wars vs. media coverage of current wars. Best! Compare and Contrast Essay Topics: Religion. When you set out to compare and contrast world religions, you may feel like you have fallen down a rabbit hole. A student I know once wrote an essay comparing Jesus Christ and Snow White—talk about College falling down a rabbit hole! What’s more, the crossovers between two opposing religions can be surprising. Protestants were originally a part of the Catholic Church. So they still believe that Jesus is the what is the best essay writing University savior and that he was crucified and rose from the dead to save humanity. International! Among their many differences, Catholics believe in what best essay European Cyprus, Holy Water, purgatory, and that those wafers you eat at mass are actually, literally the body of Christ. Persuasive Hult International! Protestants don’t believe in any of that. (While protestants do take communion, they don’t think the wafers are really a piece of flesh.) Catholics have nuns, priests, and a pope. Protestants don’t. 22.
Theravada vs. Mahayana Buddhism. Both Theravada and is the essay writing European Cyprus Mahayana Buddhism follow Dharma, the teachings of Buddha. How To Write A Convincing Essay School! Both reject the notion of a god or gods (they are nontheistic ). Both believe theistic religions are misguided. Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism have some basic philosophical differences. For example, Theravada Buddhists believe that Buddha died, leaving his teachings behind. Mahayana Buddhists believe that Buddha lives on in various incarnations. Judaism and Christianity are both monotheistic religions that teach about essay writing service European University one almighty God.
Both are Abrahamic religions. Both religions teach the Old Testament. Both believe in write a brief essay, angels, demons, and spirits as spiritual beings. Christianity teaches that Jesus Christ was the messiah and that he will return to Earth one day. Christians believe that Jesus died for the sins of humankind. Judaism teaches that Jesus was a teacher and a prophet of God, but not God himself. Judaism also rejects the notion of Jesus’s sacrifice.
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Both institutions employ instructors to teach coursework. Both require students to refer to textbooks. Both require substantial homework. High school allows for fewer academic choices. Persuasive International! Students are typically limited to a state-designed curriculum that does not take into what is the writing European University account a student’s particular strengths and interests.
College is a time for students to focus on courses that are specific to their career goals. Both online and traditional classes offer education toward a degree program. Students have access to instructors in both class formats. Both involve some form of discussion among classmates. Both often have group projects. Online classes allow for critical thing Niagara College more flexibility than traditional classes. Students can take an service University online course at any time from the comfort of their homes. Traditional classes require students to attend class at a specific time and location. The access to instructors is virtual in online classes and in-person in traditional classes. Online classes often have discussion board posts that replace live classroom discussions. 37.
Homeschooling vs. public education. Homeschooling and public education provide specific guidelines and learning outcomes for students. Both provide a way for children to experience and learn about the world around them. Public education provides more opportunities for socialization than homeschooling. Homeschooling can be more demanding on parents as they must be both full-time parent and critical thing Niagara College full-time teacher. 38. Advanced placement (AP) classes vs. honors classes.
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Following are some topic examples. Both pieces of literature investigate vampire lore. Both use foreshadowing as a literary device to move the story forward. Both also share three themes: attraction, addiction, and sample essay Academy repulsion. What Essay Cyprus! Twilight’ s 21 st century vampires are sexy and how to write School sparkly.
Edward Cullen of Twilight is charming and irresistibly dangerous. On the other hand, Dracula is a 19 th century blood-thirsty beast that anyone would resist. Bram Stoker’s Dracula had a thick mustache, a large nose, and white hair that “grew scantily round the temples but profusely elsewhere.” (Bella, eat your heart out.) Also, there are no werewolves in Dracula . What Is The University Cyprus! Both Breaking Bad and Lost were hit TV series of the early 21st century. Both shows have won a Golden Globe Award and an Emmy. Both have a character named Walt. Both use flashforward scenes to move the narrative forward.
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Fahrenheit 451 is best writing European a science fiction novel about how the character Montag defies authority and begins to read the books that he had been ordered to burn. Red Scarf Girl is a true story about a young girl, Ji-li, and her experience of defiance and resistance during China’s cultural revolution. 43. The Day After Tomorrow vs. I am Legend. Both movies address the theme of the Chaminade apocalypse and best writing service European post-apocalyptic struggles for to writing an argumentative essay College survival. Both movies touch on deeply rooted fears of humanity and our intrinsic understanding that the human race must eventually meet its end. Both showcase a lone scientific hero who tries to save humanity.
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