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J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) was a major scholar of the English language, specialising in Old and Middle English. Twice Professor of Anglo-Saxon (Old English) at the University of Oxford, he also wrote a number of stories, including most famously The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the persuasive Park School, Rings (1954-1955), which are set in a pre-historic era in an invented version of our world which he called by the Middle English name of Middle-earth. This was peopled by Men (and women), Elves, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs (or Goblins) and of course Hobbits. He has regularly been condemned by the Eng.
Lit. establishment, with honourable exceptions, but loved by literally millions of readers worldwide. In the 1960s he was taken up by many members of the nascent #8220;counter-culture#8221; largely because of his concern with environmental issues. In 1997 he came top of three British polls, organised respectively by Channel 4 / Waterstone#8217;s, the Folio Society, and SFX, the UK#8217;s leading science fiction media magazine, amongst discerning readers asked to vote for the greatest book of the 20th century. Please note also that his name is spelt Tolkien (there is no #8220;Tolkein#8221;). To Write On Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The name #8220;Tolkien#8221; (pron.: Tol-keen; equal stress on both syllables) is believed to be of German origin; Toll-kuhn: foolishly brave, or stupidly clever hence the pseudonym #8220;Oxymore#8221; which he occasionally used. His father#8217;s side of the family appears to have migrated from Saxony in the 18th century, but over the century and essay Kensington School, a half before his birth had become thoroughly Anglicised. Certainly his father, Arthur Reuel Tolkien, considered himself nothing if not English. Arthur was a bank clerk, and went to South Africa in the 1890s for better prospects of promotion.
There he was joined by his bride, Mabel Suffield, whose family were not only English through and what to write Amsterdam, through, but West Midlands since time immemorial. So John Ronald (#8220;Ronald#8221; to family and early friends) was born in Bloemfontein, S.A., on essay Kensington Park, 3 January 1892. His memories of Africa were slight but vivid, including a scary encounter with a large hairy spider, and influenced his later writing to some extent; slight, because on 15 February 1896 his father died, and english as coursework St Leonards School, he, his mother and his younger brother Hilary returned to Park, England or more particularly, the Coventry University, West Midlands. The West Midlands in Tolkien#8217;s childhood were a complex mixture of the persuasive Kensington School, grimly industrial Birmingham conurbation, and the quintessentially rural stereotype of England, Worcestershire and surrounding areas: Severn country, the land of the what to write your essay on Vrije Universiteit, composers Elgar, Vaughan Williams and Gurney, and more distantly the poet A. E. Housman (it is also just across the essay titles Kensington Park, border from Wales). Tolkien#8217;s life was split between these two: the then very rural hamlet of Sarehole, with its mill, just south of an interview essay (INTO), Birmingham; and essay Kensington School, darkly urban Birmingham itself, where he was eventually sent to State University (INTO), King Edward#8217;s School. By then the family had moved to King#8217;s Heath, where the house backed onto a railway line young Ronald#8217;s developing linguistic imagination was engaged by the sight of coal trucks going to and from South Wales bearing destinations like#8221; Nantyglo#8221;,#8221; Penrhiwceiber#8221; and #8220;Senghenydd#8221;. Then they moved to essay titles, the somewhat more pleasant Birmingham suburb of Edgbaston. However, in the meantime, something of profound significance had occurred, which estranged Mabel and her children from both sides of the family: in 1900, together with her sister May, she was received into the Roman Catholic Church. From then on, both Ronald and Hilary were brought up in journal articles College, the faith of Pio Nono, and remained devout Catholics throughout their lives.
The parish priest who visited the persuasive essay Kensington Park School, family regularly was the half-Spanish half-Welsh Father Francis Morgan. Essay Coventry. Tolkien family life was generally lived on Kensington Park School, the genteel side of poverty. However, the english as coursework St Leonards School, situation worsened in 1904, when Mabel Tolkien was diagnosed as having diabetes, usually fatal in those pre-insulin days. She died on 14 November of that year leaving the essay Park, two orphaned boys effectively destitute. At this point Father Francis took over, and an interview Washington, made sure of the boys#8217; material as well as spiritual welfare, although in the short term they were boarded with an titles Park, unsympathetic aunt-by-marriage, Beatrice Suffield, and then with a Mrs Faulkner. By this time Ronald was already showing remarkable linguistic gifts.
He had mastered the Latin and persuasive Adelphi University, Greek which was the staple fare of an arts education at that time, and was becoming more than competent in a number of other languages, both modern and ancient, notably Gothic, and later Finnish. He was already busy making up his own languages, purely for persuasive Kensington School fun. He had also made a number of as coursework, close friends at King Edward#8217;s; in his later years at school they met regularly after hours as the #8220;T. C. B. S.#8221; (Tea Club, Barrovian Society, named after their meeting place at the Barrow Stores) and they continued to correspond closely and exchange and criticise each other#8217;s literary work until 1916. However, another complication had arisen. Amongst the lodgers at Mrs Faulkner#8217;s boarding house was a young woman called Edith Bratt. When Ronald was 16, and persuasive essay titles School, she 19, they struck up a friendship, which gradually deepened. Eventually Father Francis took a hand, and forbade Ronald to see or even correspond with Edith for three years, until he was 21. Essay University. Ronald stoically obeyed this injunction to the letter. Essay Titles Kensington. In the summer of 1911, he was invited to join a party on a walking holiday in Switzerland, which may have inspired his descriptions of the Misty Mountains, and of Rivendell.
In the autumn of that year he went up to Exeter College, Oxford where he stayed, immersing himself in the Classics, Old English, the Germanic languages (especially Gothic), Welsh and Finnish, until 1913, when he swiftly though not without difficulty picked up the threads of his relationship with Edith. He then obtained a disappointing second class degree in Honour Moderations, the #8220;midway#8221; stage of a 4-year Oxford #8220;Greats#8221; (i.e. Classics) course, although with an #8220;alpha plus#8221; in philology. As a result of this he changed his school from Classics to the more congenial English Language and Literature. Persuasive Essay Adelphi. One of the poems he discovered in persuasive Park School, the course of his Old English studies was the Crist of Cynewulf he was amazed especially by the cryptic couplet: Eala Earendel engla beorhtast. Ofer middangeard monnum sended. Which translates as: Hail Earendel brightest of angels, over Middle Earth sent to men. (#8220; Middangeard #8221; was an ancient expression for the everyday world between Heaven above and Hell below.) This inspired some of his very early and inchoate attempts at realising a world of ancient beauty in his versifying.
In the summer of 1913 he took a job as tutor and escort to two Mexican boys in Dinard, France, a job which ended in tragedy. Writing An Interview Washington State University. Though no fault of Ronald#8217;s, it did nothing to counter his apparent predisposition against France and things French. Meanwhile the relationship with Edith was going more smoothly. She converted to Catholicism and moved to Warwick, which with its spectacular castle and beautiful surrounding countryside made a great impression on Ronald. However, as the pair were becoming ever closer, the nations were striving ever more furiously together, and war eventually broke out in August 1914.
Unlike so many of his contemporaries, Tolkien did not rush to join up immediately on the outbreak of war, but returned to Oxford, where he worked hard and finally achieved a first-class degree in June 1915. At this time he was also working on essay Kensington School, various poetic attempts, and on his invented languages, especially one that he came to call Qenya [ sic ], which was heavily influenced by nacc score University, Finnish but he still felt the lack of persuasive titles Kensington Park School, a connecting thread to bring his vivid but disparate imaginings together. Tolkien finally enlisted as a second lieutenant in nacc, the Lancashire Fusiliers whilst working on ideas of Earendel [ sic ] the Mariner, who became a star, and his journeyings. For many months Tolkien was kept in boring suspense in England, mainly in Staffordshire. Finally it appeared that he must soon embark for France, and he and Edith married in Warwick on 22 March 1916. Eventually he was indeed sent to essay School, active duty on the Western Front, just in time for the Somme offensive. After four months in and out of the nacc score University, trenches, he succumbed to #8220;trench fever#8221;, a form of typhus-like infection common in the insanitary conditions, and in essay titles Kensington Park School, early November was sent back to England, where he spent the next month in hospital in Birmingham.
By Christmas he had recovered sufficiently to nacc Florida, stay with Edith at Great Haywood in Staffordshire. During these last few months, all but one of essay Kensington Park, his close friends of the #8220;T. C. B. S.#8221; had been killed in action. Partly as an act of piety to their memory, but also stirred by reaction against his war experiences, he had already begun to on school, put his stories into shape, #8220; … in persuasive essay Kensington Park, huts full of blasphemy and smut, or by candle light in bell-tents, even some down in dugouts under shell fire #8221; [ Letters 66]. This ordering of his imagination developed into the Book of Lost Tales (not published in his lifetime), in review articles Sheridan College, which most of the major stories of the Silmarillion appear in their first form: tales of the Elves and persuasive School, the #8220;Gnomes#8221;, (i. Nacc Score Florida. e. Deep Elves, the later Noldor), with their languages Qenya and Goldogrin.
Here are found the first recorded versions of the wars against Morgoth, the persuasive essay titles Kensington School, siege and fall of Gondolin and Nargothrond, and argumentative persuasive Adelphi University, the tales of Turin and persuasive School, of Beren and Luthien. Journal Sheridan College. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, although periods of remission enabled him to do home service at various camps sufficiently well to be promoted to lieutenant. It was when he was stationed in the Hull area that he and Edith went walking in the woods at titles Kensington Park, nearby Roos, and argumentative essay, there in a grove thick with hemlock Edith danced for him. This was the essay titles Park, inspiration for the tale of Beren and Luthien, a recurrent theme in his #8220;Legendarium#8221;. He came to think of Edith as #8220;Luthien#8221; and himself as #8220;Beren#8221;. Their first son, John Francis Reuel (later Father John Tolkien) had already been born on 16 November 1917. When the International University, Armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, Tolkien had already been putting out feelers to obtain academic employment, and by the time he was demobilised he had been appointed Assistant Lexicographer on the New English Dictionary (the #8220;Oxford English Dictionary#8221;), then in preparation. While doing the serious philological work involved in this, he also gave one of his Lost Tales its first public airing he read The Fall of Gondolin to the Exeter College Essay Club, where it was well received by an audience which included Neville Coghill and Hugo Dyson, two future #8220;Inklings#8221;. However, Tolkien did not stay in persuasive Park School, this job for long. In the summer of essay on school University, 1920 he applied for the quite senior post of Reader (approximately, Associate Professor) in English Language at the University of Leeds, and to his surprise was appointed.
At Leeds as well as teaching he collaborated with E. V. Gordon on the famous edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and continued writing and refining The Book of Lost Tales and his invented #8220;Elvish#8221; languages. In addition, he and Gordon founded a #8220;Viking Club#8221; for undergraduates devoted mainly to reading Old Norse sagas and drinking beer. It was for essay Park this club that he and Gordon originally wrote their Songs for the Philologists , a mixture of traditional songs and original verses translated into Old English, Old Norse and Gothic to score Florida International, fit traditional English tunes. Leeds also saw the essay, birth of two more sons: Michael Hilary Reuel in October 1920, and Christopher Reuel in 1924. Then in 1925 the on school Coventry University, Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford fell vacant; Tolkien successfully applied for the post. Professor Tolkien, The Inklings and Hobbits. Persuasive Kensington Park School. In a sense, in returning to Oxford as a Professor, Tolkien had come home. Although he had few illusions about the academic life as a haven of unworldly scholarship (see for example Letters 250), he was nevertheless by temperament a don#8217;s don, and fitted extremely well into the largely male world of teaching, research, the comradely exchange of ideas and occasional publication. Review Journal Articles College. In fact, his academic publication record is very sparse, something that would have been frowned upon in these days of essay titles Park, quantitative personnel evaluation. However, his rare scholarly publications were often extremely influential, most notably his lecture #8220;Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics#8221;.
His seemingly almost throwaway comments have sometimes helped to english as coursework, transform the understanding of a particular field for example, in his essay on #8220;English and Welsh#8221;, with its explanation of the origins of the term #8220;Welsh#8221; and its references to phonaesthetics (both these pieces are collected in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays , currently in print). His academic life was otherwise largely unremarkable. In 1945 he changed his chair to the Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature, which he retained until his retirement in 1959. Essay Titles Park. Apart from all the above, he taught undergraduates, and nacc score International University, played an persuasive titles Kensington Park, important but unexceptional part in academic politics and administration. His family life was equally straightforward. Edith bore their last child and only daughter, Priscilla, in 1929.
Tolkien got into the habit of writing the children annual illustrated letters as if from writing Washington State University, Santa Claus, and Park, a selection of these was published in 1976 as The Father Christmas Letters . He also told them numerous bedtime stories, of essay writing on school, which more anon. In adulthood John entered the priesthood, Michael and Christopher both saw war service in the Royal Air Force. Afterwards Michael became a schoolmaster and Christopher a university lecturer, and Priscilla became a social worker. Essay Titles Kensington. They lived quietly in North Oxford, and later Ronald and Edith lived in writing essay Washington State (INTO), the suburb of Headington. However, Tolkien#8217;s social life was far from unremarkable. He soon became one of the founder members of a loose grouping of Oxford friends (by no means all at the University) with similar interests, known as #8220;The Inklings#8221;. The origins of the essay, name were purely facetious it had to do with writing, and writing an interview essay Washington University, sounded mildly Anglo-Saxon; there was no evidence that members of the group claimed to have an Park, #8220;inkling#8221; of the Divine Nature, as is sometimes suggested. Other prominent members included the above-mentioned Messrs Coghill and Dyson, as well as Owen Barfield, Charles Williams, and above all C. S. Lewis, who became one of Tolkien#8217;s closest friends, and for whose return to Christianity Tolkien was at writing Washington State (INTO), least partly responsible.
The Inklings regularly met for conversation, drink, and essay titles School, frequent reading from their work-in-progress. Meanwhile Tolkien continued developing his mythology and languages. As mentioned above, he told his children stories, some of which he developed into those published posthumously as Mr. Journal Articles Sheridan. Bliss , Roverandom , etc. However, according to his own account, one day when he was engaged in the soul-destroying task of persuasive Kensington Park School, marking examination papers, he discovered that one candidate had left one page of an answer-book blank.
On this page, moved by who knows what anarchic daemon, he wrote #8220; In a hole in essay Universiteit, the ground there lived a hobbit #8220;. In typical Tolkien fashion, he then decided he needed to find out what a Hobbit was, what sort of persuasive Kensington Park, a hole it lived in, why it lived in to write your essay Universiteit Amsterdam, a hole, etc. From this investigation grew a tale that he told to his younger children, and Park School, even passed round. In 1936 an incomplete typescript of it came into the hands of State University (INTO), Susan Dagnall, an employee of the publishing firm of persuasive titles Park School, George Allen and Unwin (merged in 1990 with HarperCollins). She asked Tolkien to finish it, and presented the complete story to Stanley Unwin, the then Chairman of the firm.
He tried it out on essay Coventry University, his 10-year old son Rayner, who wrote an approving report, and persuasive essay titles Park School, it was published as The Hobbit in Adelphi University, 1937. Persuasive Essay Park. It immediately scored a success, and english, has not been out of children#8217;s recommended reading lists ever since. It was so successful that Stanley Unwin asked if he had any more similar material available for persuasive Kensington Park publication. By this time Tolkien had begun to make his Legendarium into what he believed to be a more presentable state, and as he later noted, hints of it had already made their way into The Hobbit . He was now calling the full account Quenta Silmarillion , or Silmarillion for short. He presented some of his #8220;completed#8221; tales to Unwin, who sent them to his reader.
The reader#8217;s reaction was mixed: dislike of the poetry and praise for the prose (the material was the story of Beren and Luthien) but the overall decision at the time was that these were not commercially publishable. As Coursework St Leonards. Unwin tactfully relayed this message to Kensington School, Tolkien, but asked him again if he was willing to write a sequel to The Hobbit . Tolkien was disappointed at the apparent failure of The Silmarillion , but agreed to take up the score Florida International, challenge of #8220;The New Hobbit#8221;. Essay Kensington School. This soon developed into articles, something much more than a children#8217;s story; for the highly complex 16-year history of what became The Lord of the Rings consult the works listed below. Suffice it to say that the persuasive titles Park, now adult Rayner Unwin was deeply involved in the later stages of University, this opus, dealing magnificently with a dilatory and temperamental author who, at one stage, was offering the whole work to a commercial rival (which rapidly backed off when the scale and nature of the package became apparent). It is thanks to Rayner Unwin#8217;s advocacy that we owe the fact that this book was published at persuasive essay titles School, all Andave laituvalmes ! His father#8217;s firm decided to incur the Sheridan, probable loss of ?1,000 for the succes d#8217;estime , and Kensington, publish it under the title of The Lord of the Rings in three parts during 1954 and 1955, with USA rights going to Houghton Mifflin. It soon became apparent that both author and publishers had greatly underestimated the University, work#8217;s public appeal.
The Lord of the Rings rapidly came to persuasive essay titles, public notice. It had mixed reviews, ranging from the ecstatic (W. H. Auden, C. S. Lewis) to the damning (E. Wilson, E. Muir, P. Toynbee) and just about everything in between. The BBC put on argumentative Adelphi, a drastically condensed radio adaptation in 12 episodes on the Third Programme. In 1956 radio was still a dominant medium in Britain, and the Third Programme was the #8220;intellectual#8221; channel. So far from losing money, sales so exceeded the break-even point as to make Tolkien regret that he had not taken early retirement. However, this was still based only upon Park, hardback sales.
The really amazing moment was when The Lord of the Rings went into a pirated paperback version in 1965. St Leonards School. Firstly, this put the book into the impulse-buying category; and secondly, the publicity generated by the copyright dispute alerted millions of American readers to the existence of something outside their previous experience, but which appeared to speak to their condition. By 1968 The Lord of the Rings had almost become the Bible of the #8220;Alternative Society#8221;. Persuasive Park. This development produced mixed feelings in the author. On the one hand, he was extremely flattered, and to his amazement, became rather rich.
On the other, he could only deplore those whose idea of a great trip was to ingest The Lord of the Rings and LSD simultaneously. Arthur C. Clarke and School, Stanley Kubrick had similar experiences with 2001: A Space Odyssey . Persuasive Titles Kensington Park. Fans were causing increasing problems; both those who came to gawp at his house and those, especially from California who telephoned at 7 p.m. (their time 3 a.m. his), to demand to know whether Frodo had succeeded or failed in the Quest, what was the preterite of Quenyan lanta -, or whether or not Balrogs had wings. So he changed addresses, his telephone number went ex-directory, and argumentative essay University, eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth, a pleasant but uninspiring South Coast resort (Hardy#8217;s #8220;Sandbourne#8221;), noted for the number of its elderly well-to-do residents. Meanwhile the persuasive essay Kensington, cult, not just of argumentative essay Adelphi University, Tolkien, but of the fantasy literature that he had revived, if not actually inspired (to his dismay), was really taking off but that is another story, to be told in another place. Despite all the fuss over The Lord of the Rings , between 1925 and his death Tolkien did write and publish a number of other articles, including a range of scholarly essays, many reprinted in persuasive essay School, The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays (see above); one Middle-earth related work, The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ; editions and translations of Middle English works such as the journal Sheridan College, Ancrene Wisse , Sir Gawain , Sir Orfeo and The Pearl , and essay Kensington School, some stories independent of the Legendarium, such as the Imram , The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm#8217;s Son , The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun and, especially, Farmer Giles of Ham , Leaf by Niggle , and Smith of Wootton Major . Review Journal Articles College. The flow of persuasive essay Kensington Park, publications was only temporarily slowed by Tolkien#8217;s death. The long-awaited Silmarillion , edited by Christopher Tolkien, appeared in your college essay Universiteit Amsterdam, 1977. In 1980 Christopher also published a selection of his father#8217;s incomplete writings from his later years under the title of essay School, Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth . In the introduction to this work Christopher Tolkien referred in passing to The Book of Lost Tales , #8220;itself a very substantial work, of the utmost interest to one concerned with the origins of review, Middle-earth, but requiring to be presented in a lengthy and complex study, if at all#8221; ( Unfinished Tales , p. 6, paragraph 1). The sales of The Silmarillion had rather taken George Allen Unwin by surprise, and those of Unfinished Tales even more so.
Obviously, there was a market even for this relatively abstruse material and they decided to risk embarking on this #8220;lengthy and complex study#8221;. Even more lengthy and complex than expected, the resulting 12 volumes of the essay Park School, History of Middle-earth , under Christopher#8217;s editorship, proved to be a successful enterprise. (Tolkien#8217;s publishers had changed hands, and as coursework St Leonards, names, several times between the start of the enterprise in 1983 and the appearance of the paperback edition of Volume 12, The Peoples of Middle-earth , in Park, 1997.) After his retirement in 1959 Edith and Ronald moved to Bournemouth. On 29 November 1971 Edith died, and your essay on Vrije, Ronald soon returned to Oxford, to essay Park School, rooms provided by writing an interview essay Washington, Merton College. Ronald died on 2 September 1973. He and Edith are buried together in a single grave in the Catholic section of Wolvercote cemetery in the northern suburbs of Oxford. (The grave is well signposted from the entrance.) The legend on the headstone reads: Edith Mary Tolkien, Luthien, 1889-1971. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973.
Tolkien: A Biography . Humphrey Carpenter. Allen and titles Kensington School, Unwin, London, 1977. St Leonards School. Letters of titles School, J.R.R. Tolkien . Ed. Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1981. The Tolkien Family Album . John Tolkien and Priscilla Tolkien. HarperCollins, London, 1992.
#8220; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892-1973). #8221; T. A. Shippey. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press. As Coursework St Leonards School. Print 2004. Online 2006. Persuasive Essay Titles Park. (Also available as a podcast.) The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide . Wayne G. Hammond and essay State University (INTO), Christina Scull. HarperCollins, London, 2006. 2 vols. President in essay titles Kensington School, perpetuo : Prof. J.R.R. Tolkien CBE.
Vice President: Priscilla Tolkien. The Tolkien Society is a registered charity (registration no 273809) in score, England and titles Kensington School, Wales.
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Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies. This study seeks to essay titles determine the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and drug consumers in Cross River State. A cross- sectional descriptive study design will be applied in this research and data will be collected from important drugs randomly selected from community pharmacies and patent medicine drug distribution outlet and nacc University, the level of knowledge of the public health implication of counterfeit drugs will be collected from pharmacist and patent medicine vendors using structured questionnaires. Kensington! The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the study area to test for validity and reliability of instrument. Journal Sheridan! Data for this study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.
Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and persuasive essay titles Kensington, Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to an interview essay State University assess effects of essay Kensington selected variables on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs, P- value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the what your essay on Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam data as applicable. Final output of the research will be recommendations on the control of counterfeit drugs. The objectives of this study are to: • assess the prevalence of the distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • compare the titles Kensington Park proportion of nacc score distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. • identify factors influencing the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in essay titles Kensington Park Calabar metropolis. • determine the level of as coursework St Leonards School knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implications of counterfeit drugs. Identification / defining research problem.
The availability of counterfeit drugs in the market presents a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, and may have a significant impact on the national disease and economic burden. Current estimate suggests that 10% of prescription drugs sold worldwide are counterfeits, fake or contaminated, and in persuasive titles Kensington Park School parts of Africa and Asia, the figures exceed 50% (Newton, Lee, Goodman, Fernandez, Yeung, Phanouvong, Kaur, Amin, Whitty, Kokwao, Lindegardh, Lukulay, White, Day, Green, 2009). Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to healthcare failures, such as resistance to antibiotics and review journal articles Sheridan College, the spread of disease within a community, as well as loss of life. Research has also shown that poor-quality medicines can reach the market through deliberate fraudulent practices by those that want to get rich overnight. There is low awareness of the persuasive essay titles Kensington Park School problem of counterfeit medicine; a problem that could lead to public-health crisis (Charles, 2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding counterfeit drugs are often undermine and nacc, given less concern in the area of research.
Measuring the magnitude of the phenomenon of counterfeit drugs turns out to be extremely complicated, particularly due to various reasons that have to Park do with the disposable means to writing on school detect the trafficking routes, the number and the identity of those involved in the production and distribution processes, and persuasive essay, the difficulty in journal systematizing and coordinating the information from the various stakeholders in charge of keeping, collecting and analyzing data (Charles, 2010). Available statistics have tried to propose figures on the exact percentage of counterfeit medicines within the worldwide pharmaceutical market. Their estimations reflect both the magnitude and the volatility of the problem: percentages of counterfeit medicines in different national pharmaceutical markets vary from as 1 percent to as high as 50 percent. In general, higher percentages refer to less developed countries and economies in transition whereas lower percentages refer to the developed countries. Therefore, it is essential to take into account geographical, economic, legal and social criteria in essay titles Park School order to interpret these percentages (Newton, et al, 2009).
Research has shown that counterfeit medicines is less spread in more developed countries due to a combination of enhanced legislation, stronger institutions and a more efficient regulatory control. According to the WHO, developed countries such USA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand and those within the European Union (EU) have a very low proportion of counterfeit medicines no more than one per cent of market value (WHO, 2012). However, the fact that a considerable amount of counterfeit drugs cases are declared on what your on Vrije Amsterdam an annual basis by developed countries proves that this problem still affects both developed and developing countries. Case studies can illuminate what statistics cannot. Nevertheless, the situation is more dramatic in less developed countries due to fragile economies, widespread poverty, lack of regulation, difficulties in controlling the essay Kensington Park School system, as well as the difficulties in college on Vrije Amsterdam furthering and enforcing strong legislative measures. WHO has estimate shows that counterfeit medicines would represent approximately ten percent of the persuasive titles Kensington entire amount of medicines worldwide (WHO, 2012). Pfizer estimates that counterfeit Viagra alone causes a loss of 2 billion USD in sales. According to the Centre for Medicine in the Public Interest, based in the United States of America, counterfeit drug sales generated 75 billion USD globally in 2010. However, and according to other estimates, these rates increased to 20 per cent as there is a growing problem of drugs that look alike in most market.
The situation seems to what to write your college on Vrije Amsterdam be even worse in some African countries. However, there are currently little published work on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Nigeria including Knowledge, Attitude practice and no available research work in the study area. Thus the following questions need to be answered: • What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and titles, patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. • What are the Coventry University factors affecting the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. • What is the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implication of counterfeit drugs. 1. Persuasive Essay School! There is nacc Florida University, no significance differences in persuasive Kensington School the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and college on Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets in Calabar metropolis. 2. Persuasive Titles Kensington! Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational qualification and years of persuasive essay University experience has no effect on persuasive Kensington School the proportion of counterfeit drugs in Calabar metropolis.
According to on school Coventry World Health Organization (2010) defined counterfeit drugs as drugs that have been deliberately or not well labeled with respect to identity and or source which makes it difficult to track the essay Park School manufacturer of such drugs (WHO, 2011). The counterfeited could include incorrect ingredients, misstated amount of the active ingredients, or lack quality control in the manufacturing of the drug. According to NAFDAC in essay on school Coventry University its definition of Counterfeit drugs included preparations without active ingredients, preparations that are toxic, expired drugs that are relabeled, drugs issued without complete manufacturing information and drugs that are not registered with the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and essay, Control (NAFDAC). Looking at nacc score Florida, the above definition, it can be deducted that counterfeit drugs are drugs that are adulterated, inappropriate, and illegal and poses a threat to human health. The latest attempts at persuasive titles Kensington, the international level to what to write college essay on Vrije Amsterdam better specify the definition of counterfeit medicines showed how complex the essay titles School problem is in reality. This is what happened for example when in International 2008 the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Task-force (IMPACT) tried to redefine counterfeit medicines. At the end the proposed definition, was not officially endorsed at an international level, lengthily yet precisely explained what counterfeiting was and was not, stressing the differences between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) related issues and public health protection (Charles, 2010). The term counterfeit drugs describe a drug with a false representation of its identity and or source (3) and essay titles Park School, this is also applicable to the drug container or other packaging or labeling information. Counterfeits may include drugs with correct ingredients or wrong ingredients/components, some without active ingredients, with incorrect amounts of active ingredients, or with fake packaging.
Drugs that are not authorized to Florida be distributed in a given country but authorized elsewhere are not considered counterfeit. In reality the fight against counterfeit medicines goes well beyond the mere protection of IPRs and is a struggle aimed at protecting patients and public health while fighting organized criminals profiting from this crime. For this reason, its use was sometimes avoided or well specified in the new regulations proposed at the international level and persuasive essay Park, aimed at protecting public health. The problem of counterfeit drugs is of public health concern due to articles its associated health risks. The associated health risks include antibiotic resistance, therapeutic failure, toxic effects and even deaths. Essay Titles Park School! (Akunyili, 2005). Counterfeit antibiotics with low doses of active ingredients are potentially more dangerous than counterfeited drugs containing no active ingredient at all and this may result to negative effect of drug resistance that may affect the entire community. Antibiotic resistance caused by drug counterfeiting might have contributed significantly to the inability to eradicate or control important infections such as malaria and tuberculosis in developing countries. Resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is english as coursework St Leonards, already common (Meremikwu, 2007). Park! The recent emergence of counterfeits of Artemisinin derivatives (Newton et al, 2006) and antiretroviral drugs (Ahmad, 2004) in some countries of South-East Asia and Africa is an important development which is potentially disastrous because alternative drugs are either inaccessible or unaffordable. The use of counterfeit drugs can also lead to Therapeutic failure especially drugs containing insufficient or no active ingredient, which can also lead to persuasive essay loss of confidence by the patients on the conventional drugs and Kensington, public health program if they are aware. An estimated 700,000 deaths annually are caused by fake antimalarials and tuberculous agents, suggesting that the total annual mortality due to the menace will definitely be much higher (Harriset al., 2009).
Various instances where fake drugs resulted in deaths due to failure to treat life-threatening conditions have been reported in the literature. In 2001 about 192,000 people were reported to have died in on school China as a result of fake drugs. Persuasive Titles Kensington Park School! Also about 2500 people died in Niger following the administration of counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines (containing no active ingredient) to some 60,000 people during the essay Washington State University 1995 meningitis epidemic (Cockburn 2005). Research has shown the persuasive essay Park incidence of Acute renal failure due to score International University poisoning from titles, diethylene glycol packaged as a cough syrup which resulted in hundreds of english as coursework St Leonards School deaths in Haiti, Bangladesh, Nigeria, India and Argentina which are examples of the potentially fatal effects of counterfeit drugs containing a toxic ingredient in place of the persuasive titles Kensington Park School original active ingredient (WHO, 1995). Also as recent as 2008, deaths in the US have been attributed to the use of english as coursework St Leonards School adulterated heparin from China (Harris et al., 2009). The Economic loss associated with proliferation of counterfeit drugs is enormous and appears to be increasing annually. Persuasive Titles Kensington Park School! According to the WHO, about 32 billion US dollars were lost to score University drug counterfeiting business in 2004 (WHO, 2006). This increased to titles Kensington 40 billion US dollars in 2006 and is projected to articles Sheridan College reach 75 billion US dollars in 2010 (WHO, 2006; Bate and Boateng, 2007). Many pharmaceutical companies are deprived of their rightful profits due to the unjust competition from Kensington School, this brutal crime and have even resulted in the collapse of writing Washington University (INTO) some of the persuasive essay Kensington companies (Akunyili, 2005). Drug counterfeiting business thrives better in a place where the drugs are relatively scarce of the writing on school Coventry prices are high. According to the WHO, an estimated 2 billion people globally have limited access to essential drugs (WHO, 2004) which is Kensington School, attributed to poverty, high cost of drugs, inadequate health facilities and corruption (Cohen et al., 2007).
Unlike in more developed nations where little or no tariffs are collected from pharmaceutical products (Harris et al., 2009), high taxes and tariffs are usually collected from genuine medicines in less developed countries, leading to eventual increase in writing essay Washington (INTO) drug prices, decrease in incentive to adequate supply of drugs and consequent scarcity of the drugs that may be exploited by the counterfeiters (Morris and Stevens, 2006) since, most of the patients in those countries pay for the drugs from their own pockets. Although, drug counterfeiting is as dangerous and as lucrative as the narcotic business, its penalty tends to be less severe. Therefore, it is not surprising that criminal gangs previously known to be involved in the narcotic trade usually switch to drug counterfeiting because they find it quite appealing and less risky. Persuasive Essay School! There are also some reports of individuals being singly involved in this offense as in the case of a US pharmacist convicted of diluting patients’ injections (Reggi, 2007). The business of fake drugs requires little capital and simple equipment hence, it can be easily and successfully carried out by some small scale unrecognized industries (Reggi, 2007). Appropriate penalty for score University, drug counterfeiting could be an persuasive titles Kensington Park effective deterrent.
Unfortunately, the penalty for manufacturing or distributing counterfeit drugs is very lenient in many developing countries. English As Coursework School! For instance, in Nigeria such an offense is usually punished by imprisonment for persuasive essay titles Kensington School, periods ranging between 3 months to 5 years or alternatively a fine of 70-3600 US dollars (Akunyili, 2007). Similarly, in South American countries, the argumentative persuasive Adelphi penalty for such a crime is just six months in Kensington Park jail or a fine (Bate and Boateng, 2007). An Interview Essay Washington! Such a weak and incongruous penalty is incapable of making any great impact in preventing this lucrative crime. Unlike developed nations with clear and persuasive, strongly enforced laws on civil liability against St Leonards, suppliers or manufactures whose product causes harm to consumers, most of the persuasive Park poor countries afflicted with the problem of drug counterfeiting have laws in which civil liabilities are either not clearly defined or inadequately enforced. For example, in the US it is not uncommon for articles, victims of essay School fake drugs to seek compensation in the order of millions of dollars from the culprits of the crime. On the other hand, although, the punishment for the supply and persuasive Adelphi University, manufacture of fake drugs in India and China is very severe (death penalty), inadequate and inefficient civil liability laws is a huge roadblock to successful combat of drug counterfeiting in the two nations (Harris et al., 2009). Further findings have shown that developing countries are not merely the persuasive essay victims of the problem but also serve as the sources of counterfeit drugs with India and China being the biggest culprits globally (Bate and Boateng, 2007). One statistics by the European Commission described India as the source of 75% of fake drugs and score Florida International, according to titles School one report, most of the fake drugs in Nigerian markets originate from India (Raufu, 2003). Drug counterfeiting business may also be encouraged by the different standards set by International University the exporting countries regarding the drugs for public use and those for exports with the standard of the latter being less stringent than the former.
One expert suggested that abolishing such a double standard could help to a large extent in persuasive titles Kensington combating the as coursework crime (Reidenberg and Conner, 2001). This factor is particularly important in countries like Nigeria whose indigenous pharmaceutical industries can only cater for 40% of the demand of its teeming population (Akunyili, 2007). Despite the effort of NAFDAC in fighting counterfeit drugs in titles School Nigeria, gap still exist in the availability of published research in the study area. The study will be carried out in english School Cross River State, Nigeria. Cross River State is one of the 36 political administrative states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It comprises of three Senatorial districts each of persuasive Kensington School which is made up of 5-7 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Calabar is the capital of Cross River State. The state is located in the south-south geo- political zone of the country within the tropical rain forest belt.
The State has an annual rainfall of over 3500 millimetres. The state capital has one tertiary hospital, the University of essay on school Coventry Calabar Teaching Hospital, a Neuropsychiatric hospital, two General hospitals, many primary health centres, registered maternity homes, registered private hospitals, registered clinics, registered Pharmacies, patent medicine shops. In addition, a Cement factory and a Petroleum depot are located at persuasive titles Kensington School, the outskirts of the town. The major occupations of the people are trading, farming, fishing and civil service. Nacc Florida University! The state shares boundaries with Akwa Ibom,, Abia, Ebonyi and Benue State. The state is made up of 1,47,1967 males and 1,421,021 females. Majority of the population in the urban settings are civil servants while majority of the population living in the rural settlement are farmers. The researcher intends to carry out a cross sectional descriptive study by searching literature, collecting drug samples from selected community pharmacies, patent medicine vendors and drug consumers and interviewing the subjects. The choice of the research design is because of it flexibility and adaptability to change. This design also requires strong focus and concern to create observational skills, capable of titles Kensington Park School getting precise and accurate data and to be competent to interpret different situation effectively.
Quantitative research strategy will be used in as coursework St Leonards School the design, collection and analysis of data. Community pharmacies and persuasive essay titles Kensington Park, patent medicine vendor’s outlets will be selected using a simple random sampling technique. 10 registered Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor’s outlets each will be selected in both LGAs using the collected list from the state ministry of persuasive Adelphi health as sampling frame. The first phase will include, mapping, enumeration of essay titles Kensington Park School Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets while Numbers will be assigned to each Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets, folded and put in a polythene bag and then 10 persons will be blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. The first 10 Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets selected will be included in the research. Medications to be included in this research will be selected based on high therapeutic importance and utilization based on discussion with local pharmacist experts. For the community based sampling for drug consumers, the following multi-stage techniques will be used: Phase I: Simple random sampling technique will be employed to select three wards from each setting (rural and urban) using the lottery method.
Numbers will be assigned to each ward, folded and put in a polythene bag and then six persons will blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. Nacc Florida International University! The first six wards selected will be included in the research. Phase II: In each selected ward, simple random sampling technique will be employed to select 4 settlements using the lottery method. Numbers will assign to each settlement folded and put in a basket. It will then be vigorously mixed. The first 4 settlements picked will be recruited into the study (i.e.6 wards x 4 settlements = 24 settlements).
Phase III: In each selected settlement, at the entrance, a pen will be spin and the direction of the persuasive titles mouth of the pen will determined the first household to St Leonards School be selected and persuasive essay titles Kensington Park School, thereafter systematic sampling procedure will be employed in subsequent selection of eligible households. Four research assistants (2 males and 2 females) who are fluent in the local language and English will be recruited for Florida University, data collection and persuasive essay titles Kensington, will be trained on field exercise and how to handle ethical issues. Those field assistant will present themselves as local buyers and follow the research protocol for obtaining drug samples based on the recommended sampling techniques. If they are unable to purchase the necessary quantity for a complete sample from one batch or lot, they will note it and another attempt will be made to purchase it from another randomly selected outlet of the same type. The quantitative data will be collected through a one-on-one interview with the nacc Florida International respondent using a structured questionnaire.
The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to titles Kensington Park and outside the study area to ensure questions are clear and well understood by nacc score Florida University the respondents and data collectors. Data obtained from the study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Persuasive Essay School! Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to access effects of selected variables on institutional delivery services utilization. P- Value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. S/N TASK/ACTIVITIES TO BE PERFORMED TIME LINE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR TASK. 1. Final research proposal 1 week Research team. 2. Preliminary visits to College area of persuasive titles study 1 week Research team.
3. Clearance and permit from communities and essay Coventry, local authorities 4 weeks Research team. 4. Recruitment of persuasive essay titles Park field staff/community mapping 1 week Research team/ field staff. 5. Training of persuasive essay Adelphi University field assistant 1 week Research team. 6. Pretesting of instruments for collection of data (questionnaire) 4weeks Research team. 7. Finalize data collection tools 1 week Research team.
8. Collation and persuasive titles Kensington School, analysis of writing essay Washington State (INTO) data 4 weeks Research team. 9. Report writing and presentation of findings 3 weeks Research team. Total weeks = 20weeks (4 months) This research will provide data on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in persuasive Kensington Park Urban and rural settings and make recommendations on public health approach to what your on Vrije Amsterdam addressing the current challenge. Societal and titles School, scientific relevance. The output from this research will serve as evidence to inform the scientific community and relevant government agency on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in the study area, this will help inform policy guidelines and safeguard against counterfeit drugs. This study will also improve public health practice in terms of improving health education and identify the most at risk population of counterfeit drugs for intervention. The subjects will be briefed on the purpose of the study and consent will obtain from them to enroll into the study. Any subject who decline assent will be excluded from the study. All the information will be treated and kept secretly with high confidentiality without disclosure of the respondents’ identity.
No information will be changed or modify, hence the information will be presented as collected and the same with the review articles literatures collected for persuasive Kensington School, the purpose of nacc score International this study. Furthermore the persuasive essay Kensington researcher will avoid using any equipment or technique that will have possible harm or against argumentative Adelphi University, the interest of the participants. Moreover, the researcher does not have any intention to use unfair means to influence the participants to obtain information. The drugs and questionnaire will be anonymous and persuasive titles, the researcher will maintain a high level of confidentiality when treating the information collected. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Medicine essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to english as coursework St Leonards help you.
Each of us is qualified to persuasive a high level in our area of writing Coventry expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Essay Titles School! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Medicine work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Medicine essay was submitted to us by a student in argumentative persuasive Adelphi order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to titles Kensington provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/medicine/counterfeit-drugs-community-pharmacies/ [02-10-17]. If you are the as coursework School original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on persuasive Park School the link below to request removal:
18-02-17 - USE OF HAPTEN-CARRIER COMPLEXES - An Innovation of the on school University Ages: The True Birth and Reception of the Tubed Pedicle Flap 21-12-16 - Drug administration and Drug Delivery Systems 23-11-16 - Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies 09-11-16 - To what extent has the practice of medicine reinforced health inequalities among minority ethnicities? 06-11-16 - Prevention of UV Radiation-Induced Skin Aging by TNFR antagonistic peptide - Stem Cell Transplant - Hepatogenic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem cells 03-11-16 - Stem cell transplantation for treating cancers 28-07-16 - End-stage-renal disease and kidney transplantation. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is persuasive titles Kensington, a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .
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“Obasan” by Joy Kogawa Essay Sample. “Obasan” by Joy Kogawa is a novel telling the story of Naomi Nakane, a Japanese Canadian, during the Japanese Internment in British Columbia during the persuasive essay war in the 1940’s. This story tells us of the hardships that these people have experienced during those trying times and writing an interview essay Washington how it has affected the different aspects of their lives. The book tells a compelling story of life under discriminating circumstances that the government they are under impose upon them. Persuasive Essay Titles Kensington Park School. It relates to us experiences of people who are in a situation whose exists as not part of the whole but at the same time are not considered as part of Florida University, their community. This paper aims to explore the Park circumstances of Naomi’s identity as a Japanese Canadian during times of war and discrimination and how it affected her search for identity and reason.
The novel combined documented history and a collection of personal experiences to better explain the situation that the Japanese Canadians had to experience. English School. It is both a recollection and historic review of the essay Kensington Park events that happened in British Columbia during the time that they had considered them as threats to national security and thus action taken against articles Sheridan, them changed to become cruel and persuasive Kensington Park School oppressive. Those who suffered during this time had the problem of not being heard, of an essay Washington State, enduring “wordlessness”, that is titles School, both chosen and inflicted. The novel explores the existence of a collective memory and citizenship in the Japanese Canadian society whose foundations lie in their citizenships: that of Japanese and that of Canadian. These two cultures were made to have been reconciled in the story where this hybrid citizenship caused them to suffer. As Coursework St Leonards School. They have become different and were considered as “others” in the country because they were living in a place and era where one side of their citizenship was at conflict with each other. This can be seen both in the internal conflicts that happen within Naomi where she was struggling to make sense of both cultures within her and the social environment she was enduring during that time. Park. She lived during the World War II where Japanese was at war with the western world. Her Japanese heritage was seen as a threat by her Canadian society where she eventually finds herself lost since and confused since she has become a foreigner in her own country since they began to treat those who were like her differently. Naomi Nakane is of Japanese Canadian Nationality.
She lived together with her family away from Japan in the British Columbian territories. Score International. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, an event that started the war, it resulted in essay Kensington School, a change in the way that the people around them viewed them. They began to be seen as enemies that need to be treated with caution and separated from the rest of the society. They were seen as threats that need to be suppressed lest the rest of the society become endangered. Washington State (INTO). Thus they were relocated and transferred in essay Park, the governmental guise of “protection” and their own imposed “volunteerism”. They were discriminated against by the government taking away their properties and forced to work in labor camps under difficult living conditions where they had to nacc score Florida International work in order to titles Park just get by. Essay Writing On School. Those who were sick were left to die in the camps.
Those who were unable to work were separated and imprisoned in the different areas. One of the great conflicts in the novel is found in the concept of dual citizenship of the titles Kensington School main characters of the an interview Washington story. The culture of Japanese and Canadian are in titles Park School, conflict within the main characters and she attempts to understand and reconcile both. A theme in journal articles, the novel discusses the silence of Park School, those who have the same heritage as her as seen in her obasan and the vocal self assertion shown by her aunt. She eventually viewed this as one of the what your main difference of the two cultures. This gave a perspective into both cultures where most of the Japanese Canadian citizens in her stories were silent while there are those who like the western culture that they have assimilated into their own were more vocal and self assertive. In this way we see that Naomi was a combination of both sides where she uses her silence to better understand the situation she endures through her observation of the different instances that she finds herself in. On the other hand she also embraces the vocal as she converses and persuasive essay School explores with other people their interpretation of their situation. She realizes that somehow the current situation that they were experiencing was brought about by their culture’s silence.
The disabling silence was compared to writing on school Coventry victimized animals who choose to be silence because they were distrustful of the others, especially those who are in power. Their silence is a means of protection against the possible conflicts and repercussions that they might be drawing upon themselves. As the persuasive essay Kensington novel progresses, Naomi becomes more conscious of the language that she was using and the effect it eventually has over the people. Essay Writing On School University. Silence in persuasive titles Kensington, the novel also shows shame and trauma directed towards their history. The novel shows that silence cannot be the answer since it only writing University (INTO) hides the past where it is nurtured and made to grow. The use of being vocal prevents people from persuasive Kensington being ignorant and writing on school Coventry fearful since it is titles Kensington, a channel for understanding. Throughout the novel we will see that there are various questions that are asked by (INTO), the different characters only to find them unanswered. These unanswered questions continue to be asked throughout the persuasive essay titles School story. It continues to follow them until eventually the answers become clear. The realization in the novel that questions will continue to haunt them no matter how much they run away from them is apparent throughout the novel.
We will also see that the silence of not answering questions prevents actions that eventually bring about regret and misunderstandings. Only through looking for answers can one truly find reconciliation to to write college essay Universiteit Amsterdam the unanswered questions and the situation that they find themselves in. Naomi realizes when she was young that “death means to stop” (Kogawa). This was shown again as she realizes that the Japanese word for “lost” is also the same word to describe death. Persuasive Essay Titles Kensington Park. She realizes that an Coventry, end to something also means death.
Her mother died when she stopped protecting them, her father died when he stopped responding to the letters. This, combine it with Kogawa’s use of the concept of bone could signify that there is a core, an essay Kensington Park, essential part, a substance that lasts even thought it becomes non-existent. The novel shows this by her understanding that “for a child there is no presence without flesh” but she realizes that this is not the University case especially since she realizes that there are other things or other meanings hidden beneath the events that are happening. This part of the novel also shows a change in essay titles Kensington Park, Naomi as she begins to become mature where her ability to better understand the situations that the International Japanese Canadian people are suffering. The concept of essay Park School, a core or a hidden truth can again be seen in the part where Emily and on school University Naomi were digging up bones. This signifies that they were also digging up the “truth” or a bigger, deeper understanding of Park School, their current situation. They have found that the Japanese Canadians were since been treated as “a mass of buried bones” by the society that they were living in. This gives the bones another symbolism and that the Japanese Canadian population during the time of the internment was bones that were “buried” or hidden from writing an interview Washington (INTO) view and thought of not being important, useless and feared. It becomes a symbolism to the readers that the concept and the lives of the living Japanese Canadian people during this time has become the persuasive titles Kensington Park same as the view of bones. That their concept has become flesh and the truth propagated has become “flesh”. (Shoenut) Language in the novel is used as a weapon to hide the real situation of the Japanese Canadian population by review articles Sheridan College, the individuals in position.
Naomi was taught this by her aunt Emily when they explored news and documents that show that the government is lying about the real state of the persuasive essay Kensington Park School Japanese Canadian Community. What Your On Vrije Amsterdam. The purpose of which is to hide their real circumstances of these people and to legitimize and rationalize their action towards them. Persuasive Park School. It also makes for easier implementation without the risk of conflict coming from the population who do not agree with their actions. This led Naomi to become critical and more vocal about what to write your essay Universiteit their state of titles Kensington Park, living where she realizes that history was not truth rather it is an interpretation of certain events and argumentative persuasive activities that are happening around them. Persuasive Park School. Those who are giving the interpretations are those who are in power and thus the voices of the essay Washington State minorities are not being heard or at least even presented.
Her Japanese Canadian descent became the essay Kensington Park School reason for this realization where she eventually turns to become critical of the historical accounts. This then pushed her to understand history should not be taken as truth but should be taken as literature that needs to be deconstructed in order to find the score truth hidden within truth. Language in the novel also plays a significant role in persuasive essay, the understanding of the concept of identity of the Japanese Canadian people. Adelphi University. It stands as a part of their identities where its destruction also means the destruction of their heritage. The novel shows a fragmentation of their language and culture where it says that the Japanese Canadian language is fragmented into three parts, “part Japanese, part English, part Sasquatch”. This shows one of the central themes of the novel and titles School that which is the search of the Japanese Canadian identity. Their culture and society is fragmented since their society is based on review journal articles two very different cultures.
It becomes difficult for titles Park them to situate themselves since they have become confused about their collective identity. Their separation was also symbolic of english School, this fragmentation shown where their family was divided and separated. This becomes a greater problem when the persuasive essay titles Kensington society that they are living in continues to fragment the different aspects of their identity. This eats away their ability for solidarity that they need to exhibit especially the growing turbulent times of the novel. They were compared to the stone that are chiseled away and what your Universiteit become “fragments of fragments”. This eventually implies the fear that they be reduced into nothing if they do not find for themselves a protection from the continued fragmentation of their culture and identities that will help them keep their bonds together. This becomes a bigger issue during the start of the war and the imposition of the internment. (Grice) (Shoenut)
During the persuasive essay titles Kensington Japanese Canadian Internment, the Japanese Canadian population was no longer considered a part of the society. English As Coursework St Leonards School. They were looked upon titles School, as enemies and they were treated as such. They were forced to work for cheap labor, those who are no longer able to work are imprisoned, those who were sick were left to die, they were deprived of some of their freedom and their properties were confiscated by the government. They also lost the protection of the writing essay University (INTO) government and persuasive titles School the justice system and they have also experienced many other injustices in the hands of those who consider them as the “others”. Many families were also separated from each other including the family of Naomi. During this time they also suffered severe discrimination since it was widely spread that the Japanese were the ones who started the war. They were considered as evil and what your on Vrije Universiteit bad and this further created a gap between Japanese Canadians and the “others” who constitute the majority of the population of the country. This pushed many of the Japanese Canadian populations, including Naomi’s brother, to embrace western culture and forget their Japanese roots in order to find protection from discrimination and abuse. (Shoenut)
The Naomi towards the end of the novel professes her loyalty to Canada saying that she is a citizen of persuasive titles Kensington Park, Canada. That her loyalties lie with her and that she is part of the great country even thought it its people and its government has turned its back against them despite their having to endure continued to suffering during those times, she was still willing to forgiving them for the things that they have done to them and also hopeful at the same time that one day they would be able to return to the country’s loving embrace no longer discriminated and hated but as a members of their society. Naomi, being of Japanese Canadian descent, is what on Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, faced with a difficult situation regarding the persuasive essay titles Park question of her identity. She was living in a world that does not consider them part of their society. It becomes clear however, that during the times of suffering, her hope has still not gone out. Her loyalty and love towards Canada are unwavering even after all the on Vrije Amsterdam things that they have gone through. The novel is a kind of semi-autobiography of the author and her experiences during the difficult times she and her fellow Japanese Canadians faced. Her work reflected her views during those times. The idea of Naomi being a hybrid figure did not create a new cultural entity of its own in titles Kensington Park School, the novel though it did serve as a powerful tool for the reconciliation of her past and of her present. She viewed her past as necessary occurrences without which she would not have a clear understanding of her own identity.
She understood that her past, pertaining to her traditional Japanese roots, is part of her present and she chose the Canada. Through the analysis of the novel we will see that the journal College suffering that she had to endure came from the existence of mixed blood within her but she was already loyal to Canada thus there is persuasive essay titles Kensington, little to say that her hybridity has become her own cultural entity. Florida. This rather shows that her hybridity is simply an obstacle to overcome if she wanted to become accepted as a citizen of the country that she loved. (Shoenut) The silent ways of obasan and essay Park the mastery of speech as shown by Aunt Emily show the difference that both cultures react to their environments. The silence shows guard and protection while mastery of speech shows liberation and freedom.
It shows a problematic middle ground that need to be overcome. Grice, Helena. An Interview State. “Reading the Nonverbal: The Indices of Space, Time, Tactility and Taciturnity in persuasive essay titles Kensington Park, Joy Kogawa’s Obasan.” MELUS (1999): 93. Kogawa, Joy. Obasan. An Interview Washington University. New York: Random House, Inc., 1981. Shoenut, Meredith L. Essay Titles. “”I am Canadian”: Truth of journal, Citizenship in Joy Kogawa’s Obasan.” American Review of Canadian Studies (2006): 478-497. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order “Obasan” by Joy Kogawa.
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